Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 21 1. Identify the respiratory tubes and passageways in order, from the nose to the alveoli in the lungs. Distinguish the structures of the conducting zone from those of the respiratory zone. 2. Identify a landmark separation point between the upper and lower respiratory structures. 3. Describe/review the bony framework of the nasal cavity. Refer to Chapter 7 if needed. 4. Distinguish between mucous cells and serous cells, explaining their locations and the significance of their secretions to the respiratory system. 5. List and describe several protective mechanisms of the respiratory system; describe the physical requirements of the respiratory system. 6. Describe the structure and functions of the larynx; include innervation. 7. Explain how the walls of the upper respiratory passages differ histologically from those in the lower parts of the respiratory tree; explain the transport of respiratory gases. 8. Describe the structure of a lung alveolus and of the respiratory membrane. 9. Describe the gross structure of the lungs and the pleurae. 10. Explain the relative roles of the respiratory muscles and lung elasticity in the act of ventilation. 11. Define surfactant, and explain its function in ventilation. 12. Explain how the brain and peripheral chemoreceptors control the ventilation rate. 13. Consider the respiration causes and consequences of asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, pneumonia, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, and nosebleeds. Chapter 22 1. Define alimentary canal (also called gastrointestinal tract), naming its organs and distinguishing it from the accessory digestive organs. 2. Present a schematic summary and discussion of the six essential foodprocessing activities that occur during digestion: ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation. 3. Define and distinguish between peristalsis and segmentation. 4. Draw the major subdivisions of the anterior abdominal wall and locate the abdominopelvic organs with reference to anterior abdominal wall regions and quadrants. 5. Relate the digestive organs in the abdominopelvic cavity to the peritoneum and peritoneal cavity, including a general review of serous membranes and a description of the location and function of the peritoneum. 6. Distinguish between the visceral peritoneum and parietal peritoneum. 7. Define and describe mesentery, including functions. 8. Distinguish between retroperitoneal organs and intraperitoneal organs, giving examples of both. 9. Describe the basic arrangement of the layers of the alimentary canal wall: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa (visceral peritoneum), or adventitia. 10. Describe the histological, structural, and functional features of the layers of the alimentary canal wall. 11. Identify nerve plexuses, describe innervation of the alimentary canal (including its enteric system), and compare the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. 12. Describe the location, histology, gross anatomy, and functions of the mouth, tongue, salivary glands, and teeth. 13. Describe the location, gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, and functions of the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. 14. Describe the location, gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, and functions of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. 15. Trace the flow of bile through the system of ducts ultimately into the duodenum, explaining the role bile plays in the digestive process. 16. List and describe the mesenteries associated with the abdominal digestive organs; explain why the greater omentum is aptly referred to as a “fatty apron.” Chapter 23 1. Describe the location of the kidneys and other organs of the urinary system, and summarize the basic functions of the urinary system. 2. Describe the gross external anatomy of the kidneys, including their retroperitoneal position, relationship to the vertebral column, and all of their supportive and protective layers. 3. Describe the internal gross anatomy of the kidney, identifying structures of the renal cortex and renal medulla. 4. Explain the difference between the renal hilus, renal pelvis, and renal sinus. 5. Discuss the gross vasculature of the kidney, emphasizing the rich blood supply and the difference between the terms interlobar and interlobular. 6. Describe the nerve supply to the kidney. 7. Define and describe the main structural and functional unit of the kidney, the uriniferous tubule, noting its two major parts: the nephron and the collecting duct (tubule). 8. Compare and contrast filtrate and urine. 9. Trace the path of the filtrate throughout the long tubular section of the nephron, naming each section and continuing into the collecting tubules. 10. Explain and define the three major interacting mechanisms of urine formation: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion, using a single, generalized uriniferous tubule. 11. Explain in detail the microscopic anatomy and function of the renal corpuscle of the nephron. 12. Distinguish between cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons. 13. Explain the critical role of the collecting tubule in conservation of body fluids, and identify the role of antidiuretic hormone. 14. Diagram a flowchart representation of the path taken by the filtrate (urine) from the glomerulus to the renal pelvis of the ureter, naming all microscopic and gross tube structures urine passes through. 15. Explain the microscopic blood vessels associated with uriniferous tubules, and provide a complete summary of the microscopic and gross vessels. 16. Describe the location, gross anatomy, and microscopic anatomy of the ureters. Chapter 24 1. Describe basic functions of the male and female reproductive systems. 2. Define genitalia, gonads, and gametes. 3. Describe the gross anatomy of the scrotum, distinguishing between the dartos muscle and the cremaster muscles. 4. Describe the location, gross anatomy, and function of the testes, and include the descent of the testes at this time. 5. Describe the histology of the testes and describe the events of spermatogenesis, distinguishing between formation of the spermatocytes, meiosis, and spermiogenesis. 6. Compare and contrast the location, structure, and function of the epididymis, ductus deferens, spermatic cord, and urethra. 7. Trace the route traveled by sperm cells from the testis to the external urethral orifice, stressing passage through the anterior body wall via the inguinal canal. 8. Identify the location, structure, and functions of the accessory glands involved in semen production: the seminal vesicles, the prostrate, and the bulbourethral glands. 9. Describe the location, structure, and function of the ovaries, including various mesenteries and ligaments of support. 10. Define menstrual cycle. 11. Discuss the three phases of the ovarian cycle and identify the major characteristics of each phase. 12. Explain stages of oogenesis, stressing the female gamete maturity time frame (years, as opposed to weeks for male gamete development). 13. Describe the location, structure, and function of the uterine tubes, including how an ovulated oocyte enters the tube, as well as how it is propelled along the tube. 14. Describe the location, gross anatomy, and function of the uterus, including supports of the uterus, and the anatomy of the uterine wall. 15. Describe changes to the endometrium that occur during the uterine life cycle. 16. Describe the location, gross anatomy, and functions of the vagina. Chapter 25 1. Describe an overview of the function of the endocrine system; list major endocrine organs and identify their locations. 2. Define hormone; describe how hormones are classed chemically. 3. List organs that function purely as endocrine glands; list other organs that combine endocrine function with other activities. 4. Describe the basic interaction between hormones and their target cells. 5. Describe three mechanisms that control hormone secretion: humoral stimuli, neural stimuli, and hormonal stimuli. 6. Describe the location and basic divisions of the pituitary gland (hypophysis), including its major vessels. 7. List the cell types in the adenohypophysis, the hormones secreted by each cell type, and the basic functions of each hormone. 8. Explain the structural and functional relationships between the adenohypophysis and the hypothalamus. 9. Define releasing hormones, and trace their path through the pituitary gland 10. Describe the structure of the neurohypophysis and the functions of the two hormones it releases. 11. Describe the location and structure of the thyroid gland, listing its secreted hormones and their functions. 12. Describe the location and structure of the parathyroid glands, listing their secreted hormone and its function. 13. Describe the location and structure of the adrenal (suprarenal) glands, distinguishing between the outer cortex and inner medulla, and list the secreted hormones by each part and their functions. 14. Describe the ultrastructure of a cell that secretes steroid hormones. 15. Describe the location, anatomical features, and endocrine functions of the pineal gland. 16. Describe the location and endocrine functions of the pancreas, thymus, and the gonads. 17. Briefly explain the endocrine function of several other organs of the body, including the heart, GI tract, placenta, kidneys, and skin. List the respective hormones produced and their functions. 18. Discuss disorders of the endocrine system, describing the effects of excessive or inadequate hormonal secretion by the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.