KINGDOM PROTISTA •Conglomerate of organisms which do not fit into other 4 Kingdoms •Moneran (bacteria), Animalia, Plantae, Fungi •Much more complicated than Monerans •They represent the intermediate step in the evolution of the other three kingdoms •Protozoan is the Greek word for “first animal” •Contains about 65,000 species 1 KINGDOM PROTISTA •Made up of a complex eukaryotic cell (unicellular) or cells (multicellular) •Eukaryotes have cellular organelles, and prokaryotes (bacteria) do not • Prefix uni One (single) • Prefix multi More than one (many) •Kingdom has organisms that demonstrate both animal and plant-like characteristics •Some members make their own food (________) autotrophs heterotrophs •Some ingest food from outside (____________) 2 KINGDOM PROTISTA •Organisms separated based on feeding behaviors Autotrophs Heterotrophs green algae brown algae red algae diatoms dinoflagellates euglenoids amoeboids ciliates zooflagellates sporozoans plasmodial slime molds cellular slime molds water molds 3 •All Protozoa can reproduce asexually •One “parent” for reproduction •Called binary fission •During binary fission, one protozoan cell divides into two identical individuals. 4 KINGDOM PROTISTA •Inhabit aquatic (______) water areas and terrestrial (_____) land areas •Protists are classified into 12 Phyla which can be placed into 3 main groups plant-like 5 Kingdom Protista 6 Animal-like protists •All heterotrophs •classified by the 4 ways they move: 1) Cilia - tiny beating hair-like structures •Coordinated movement between individual cilia 2) Flagellum(a) - whip-like tail(s) •Back and forth wave motion 7 Animal-like protists •classified by the 4 ways they move: 3) Pseudopodia - projection of cytoplasm that sticks out like a foot (“false foot”) 4) Sessile - No locomotion (_________) movement 8 Animal-like protists - Examples 1. Amoeba just visible to the naked eye comes from the Greek word amoibe which means “change” unicellular moves by pseudopodia which give appearance of cell changing size and shape aquatic - lives in ponds, ditches or slowly moving streams can cause disease – amoebic dysentery ingests small organisms like bacteria and 9 other protozoans Animal-like protists - Examples 1. Amoeba feeding sequence psuedopodia surround and engulf food particle process called phagocytosis 10 Animal-like protists - Examples 2. Paramecium •Unicellular, slipper-shaped •move by coordinated beating of many cilia •aquatic - mostly found in ponds and streams •usually do not cause diseases in humans 11 Animal-like protists - Examples 2. Paramecium - continued •Feeding occurs in the funnel-shaped gullet (buccal cavity) where food is drawn in by external and internal cilia to form food vacuole •ingests organic detritus and other small organisms like bacteria and other 12 protozoans Animal-like protists - Examples 2. Paramecium - continued •Food to waste pathway 13 Animal-like protists - Examples 2. Paramecium - continued •Reproduction 1. Binary fission (________) asexual N = nucleus F = Fission plane 14 Animal-like protists - Examples 2. Paramecium - continued •Reproduction 2. Conjugation (________) sexual •Form structure called conjugation tube to exchange genetic material 15 Animal-like protists: The Sporozoan Characteristics of Sporozoans (Animal-like) •Sporozoa do not move on their own •mostly common in tropical areas •protist that reproduce by forming spores •they are usually parasitic •sporozoans named Plasmodium causes malaria •its caused by female mosquitos •humans get malaria when bitten by an infected mosquito 16 17 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST •Have chlorophyll •Make their own food •They can live in 4 main environments: •soil •freshwater •tree bark •salt water •they produce large amounts of oxygen which are used by other living organisms •they are grouped according to color & stucture •into 5 main groups: 2) diatoms 3) dinoflagelletes 1) euglena 4) red dinoflagellates 5) algae 18 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d •they are grouped according to color & stucture A) Euglena D) Red Dinoflagellates B) Diatom E) Green Algae C) Dinoflagellates 19 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d A) Euglena•one celled alga that moves with one flagellum •lives in fresh water •reproduces asexually •red eyespot near front end to find light…Why? •have chlorophyll and can make their own food ( autotroph) 20 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d A) Euglena Continued- contains disk-shaped chloroplasts •organelle is the site of photosynthesis and gets its name from the presence of the green pigments (the chlorophylls) 21 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d B) Diatom •beautiful one celled protists •come in many shapes •EX: boats, rods, disks, triangles •important food source for water dwelling animals •cell covering is made up of 2 overlapping parts •Think of a box with a lid •made of the same material as glass •cell coverings do not decay (when dead) •used for toothpaste, scouring powders, & filters 22 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d C) Dinoflagellates •Algae that is usually found in oceans •Usually brown or red in color •Have hidden chlorophyll due to dark pigments •Move by two flagella •Read & Highlight hand-out on Dinoflagellates 23 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d •produce large numbers which turns the ocean red •responsible for “red tides” •produce chemicals that kill thousands of fish •humans can become ill if they eat shell fish that have absorbed these chemicals •common off the coast of Florida or other warmer areas 24 Red Tide 25 Red Tide Kills Fish Absorbed red dinoflagellates After encountering and absorbing a red tide..a stingray becomes disoriented. They have the appearance of not being able to see or control what they are doing. Eventually the ray will stay at the surface lying horizontally and die.26 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d E) Green Algae •Come in many different forms •can be unicellular or multicellular •they produce O2 in H2O spirogyra •serve as food for fish, snails, and crayfish •usually found in “colonies” •Colony – a group of cells that live together chlorella desmids 27 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d Algae Examples •EX: volvox colony •Arranged in a single layer with flagella facing outward •The flagella beat and the colony spins through the water •EX: Kelp (brown algae) …aka….“sea weed” •used by humans for food •also used to thicken food 28 such as ice cream and jelly 29 FUNGUS-LIKE PROTIST Slime Molds: •fungus-like protists that are consumers •live in cool, damp places EX: forest floor •feed on bacteria growing on rotting logs and decaying leaves •some are parasites (very few) 30 FUNGUS-LIKE PROTIST Life Cycle of Slime Molds: Step 1 – slimy mass that moves like an amoeba •beautiful colors of red, yellow, or violet Step 2 – stops growing and moving •produces spores inside a structure on a stalk Step 3 – spores develop into little cells w/ flagella •then each cell loses its flagella and grows 31 into a slimy mass again 1 3 2 32 Directions: Write out & highlight the following questions 1) List the three main (groups) types of protists? 2) Give two examples of animal-like protists. 3) What are sporozoans? Give one example. 4) List the 3 structures protozoan use for locomotion. 5) List 5 plant-like protists? 6) Why are algae important? 7) Explain why red tides occur and what causes 33 them.