AP Language and Composition Summer 2014 Ms. Bucaria

AP Language and Composition Summer 2014 Ms. Bucaria
Congratulations on your decision to take AP English Language and
Composition at Copper Hills High School!
This class will hone your skills in reading, writing, thinking and speaking at a
college level through the development of rhetorical analysis. Unlike other
Language Arts class, AP Language focuses on understanding, analyzing, and
writing non-fiction prose which includes essays, memoirs, biographies,
creative non-fiction, etc. and analyzing visual messages. We will read a mix
of politics, history, social sciences, science, current events and other nonfiction prose. Here is the link to AP authors that may be covered on the
https://docs.google.com/document/d/10qtf9-D7DNoDuu66jv4w6oz679qyf3Rpw2doRgQBFU/edit?usp=sharing. You are invited to begin reading these authors this
summer. If the link does not work, email me your email address and I will add you to the
Expect to have 30-45 minutes of homework a night during the school year; assignments will
include reading, analysis and frequent essays. The summer assignment allows you to create a
database of information you will use throughout the school year. Your summer reading
assignments are due on the first day back from summer vacation. Be prepared to take a quiz on
rhetorical elements on August 27(A) and August 28(B) and to discuss the book that you read
over the summer on August 29(A) and September 2(B).
This is a college level class that will require participation, commitment, and hard work.
Summer reading is required. This packet should give you a thorough explanation of your summer
reading assignment. If you have questions, please email me at [email protected] .
Before Beginning Your Summer Reading:
Before beginning any other reading for the summer, print and carefully read the following:
Interrogating Texts: 6 Reading Habits to Develop in Your First Year at Harvard
Critical Reading of An Essay’s Argument
Please annotate each of these readings according to the instructions in the Harvard guide and
bring annotated copies of these readings to class.
You’ll be expected to know and to be well-practiced at using the reading techniques described in
the links above.
Summer Reading Book: The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot
For this summer, you will read The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Rebecca Skloot. This book
will integrate scientific, ethical, legal, racial and other issues and provide a solid foundation for
the course.
It is important that you purchase the book, for you will write in your book! You may purchase
these either new or used. If you purchase a used book, make sure the description of the quality
indicates that there is no writing in the book. All writing in the book should be your own, not the
previous owner’s. Use notes and highlighters to annotate your text. This annotation will prepare
you for in class discussion, essays and your project. Each time you encounter a particularly
important, provocative, dramatic, surprising, or even disturbing passage, mark it with a post-it
Mark factual information. Question the text. Are there ideas that are disturbing? Do you believe
the author? Why or Why not? Does the author have an agenda? What is it? Do you agree with the
agenda? Why or why not? Does the perspective of the author change?
How do you know this?
Please do not read too quickly. There will be sentences, groups of sentences, paragraphs, and
entire sections of your book that you may want to read again because they are well-written and
show strength in thought and style. Enjoy these passages. Annotate them. Read them again. Use
them as the quotations on the left-hand column of your Double Entry or Dialectical Journal. (See
this assignment below.) Consider how you might model your own writing after the writing of the
Summer Reading Book Assignments
1. Use the techniques from the readings “Interrogating Texts: 6 Reading Habits to Develop in
Your First Year at Harvard” and “Critical Reading of An Essay’s Argument.” I expect to
see each of your books heavily annotated. I want you to write in these books!
2. You are to keep a Double Entry or Dialectical Journal during your reading of these books.
You must have a total of five entries. Each entry should include at least three quoted
selections from your book with your three corresponding responses. The length of your
responses is not as important as the depth of thought and expression in your responses.
Divide the page numbers by five and write an entry for each of the five sections.
3. Your Double Entry or Dialectical Journal should be kept in a composition book that is not
spiral-bound and should be handwritten. Fold the page down the middle and draw a line
down the fold to separate the left- and right-hand columns. At the top of each page, write
the date and the name of your book. One entry may take up more than one page. Do not
put more than one entry on one page. Put the page number of the quotation in parentheses
at the end of the quotation. Here is the format and suggestions for comments and
Comments and Questions
(Page Number)
1. What does this quotation mean?
2. Why is this important?
3. What is my personal response?
4. What rhetorical device is used?
5. What is the significance of the
author’s style?
1. Do you agree or disagree with the
issue? Why or Why not?
2. What are other examples of this
After reading your book:
You are to select one passage in your book of five to ten pages and complete a SOAPStone
analysis of that passage. You should respond to each of the elements of the analysis with one
or more complete paragraphs. Use transitions to connect the paragraphs into a coherent paper.
This must be typed. All components of this approach MUST be supported from the text and
MUST be backed up by the words from the text(Use your annotations(writing) and post-it
note comments to provide this support.) Using the Soapstone strategy below will help your
analysis of your reading:
Who is the speaker who produced this piece? What is the speaker’s background and why are they
making the points they are making? Is there a bias in what was written? You must be able to cite
evidence from the text that supports your answer. No independent research is allowed on the
speaker. You must “prove” your answer based on the text. Remember a text can have multiple
What is the Occasion? In other words, this is the time and place of the piece. What promoted the
author to write this piece? How do you know from the text? What event led to its publication or
development? It is particularly important that students understand the context that encouraged the
writing to happen.
Who is the Audience? This refers to the group of readers to whom this piece is directed. The
audience may be one person, a small group or a large group; it may be a certain person or a
certain people. What assumptions can you make about the audience? Is it mixed racial/sex group?
What social class? What political party? Who was the document created for and how do you
know? Are there any words or phrases that are unusual or different? Does the speaker use
language the specific for a unique audience? Does the speaker evoke God? Nation? Liberty?
History? Hell? How do you know? Why is the speaker using this type of language?
What is the purpose or the reason behind the text? In what ways does she convey this message?
How would you perceive the speaker giving this speech? What is the document saying? What is
the emotional state of the speaker? How is the speaker trying to spark a reaction in the audience?
What words or phrases show the speaker’s tone? How is the document supposed to make you
feel? This helps you examine the argument or its logic.
What is the subject of the document? The general topic, content, and ideas contained in the text.
How do you know this? How has the subject been selected and presented? And presented by the
What is the attitude of the speaker based on the text? What is the attitude a writer takes toward
this subject or character: is it serious, humorous, sarcastic, ironic, satirical, tongue-in-cheek,
solemn, objective. How do you know? Where in the text does it support your answer?
For further help see:
2) Rhetorical Devices/Strategies FLASHCARDS Due the first day of class on August 25(A)
and August 25(B), 2014.
Make flashcards for the following rhetorical strategies and or stylistic devices. Write the term
neatly on the front of a 3" x 5" index card in large lettering. Write the definition on the back. On
the back of fifteen of the cards, provide an example from your summer reading to illustrate your
understanding of the term. IF YOU CANNOT FIND AN EXAMPLE in the assigned book or
articles, then you will have to improvise by reading other materials until you see one. Be sure to
cite ALL of your examples! (copying my examples will not yield credit.)
NOTE: Do Not Type Your Flashcards! Write them out. Do NOT Attempt to Cut and
Paste the definitions from this handout onto your cards because such a ploy would defeat the
purpose of you learning the vernacular (see list below if you don't know what that means!)
Absolute—a word free from limitations or qualifications (“best,” “all”, “unique,” “perfect”)
Ad hominem argument—an argument attacking an individual’s character rather than his or her
position on an issue
Allusion—a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical that the author assumes
the reader will recognize
Analogy—a comparison of two different things that are similar in some way
Anaphora—repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses
(Richard D. Bury: “In books I find the dead as if they were alive; in books I foresee things to
come; in books warlike affairs are set forth; from books come forth the laws of peace.”)
Anecdote—a brief narrative that focuses on a particular incident or event
Antecedent—the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers
Antithesis—a statement in which two opposing ideas are balanced
Aphorism—a concise, statement that expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using
rhyme or balance
Asyndeton—a construction in which elements are presented in a series without conjunctions
(“They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, understanding.”)
Balanced sentence—a sentence in which words, phrases, or clauses are set off against each other
to emphasize a contrast (George Orwell: “If thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt
Chiasmus—a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally
reversed (“Susan walked in, and out rushed Mary.”)
Cliché—an expression that has been overused to the extent that its freshness has worn off (“the
time of my life”, “at the droop of a hat”, etc.)
Climax—generally, the arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of increasing
importance, often in parallel structure (“The concerto was applauded at the house of Baron von
Schnooty, it was praised highly at court, it was voted best concerto of the year by the Academy, it
was considered by Mozart the highlight of his career, and it has become known today as the best
concerto in the world.”)
Colloquialism—informal words or expressions not usually acceptable in formal writing
Complex sentence—a sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause
Compound sentence—a sentence with two or more coordinate independent clauses, often joined
by one or more conjunctions
Compound-complex sentence—a sentence with two or more principal clauses and one or more
subordinate clauses
Concrete details—details that relate to or describe actual, specific things or events
Connotation—the implied or associative meaning of a word (slender vs. skinny; cheap vs.
Cumulative sentence (loose sentence)—a sentence in which the main independent clause is
elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases (Jonathan
Swift, A Modest Proposal: “I have been assured by a very knowing American friend of my
acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious,
nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked or boiled; and I make no doubt
that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout.”)
Declarative sentence—a sentence that makes a statement or declaration
Deductive reasoning—reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle
and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun
will rise on Tuesday morning.)
Denotation—the literal meaning of a word
Dialect—a variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar or pronunciation, often
associated with a particular geographical region
(“Y’all” = Southern dialect)
Diction—the word choices made by a writer (diction can be described as: formal, semiformal,
ornate, informal, technical, etc.)
Didactic—having the primary purpose of teaching or instructing
Ellipsis—the omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced
from the context (“Some people prefer cats; others, dogs.”)
Epigram—a brief, pithy, and often paradoxical saying
Ethos—the persuasive appeal of one’s character, or credibility
Euphemism—an indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
Exclamatory sentence—a sentence expressing strong feeling, usually punctuated with an
exclamation mark
Figurative language—language employing one or more figures of speech (simile, metaphor,
imagery, etc.)
Hyperbole—intentional exaggeration to create an effect
Idiom—an expression in a given language that cannot be understood from the literal meaning of
the words in the expression; or, a regional speech or dialect (“fly on the
wall”, “cut to the chase”, etc.)
Imagery—the use of figures of speech to create vivid images that appeal to one of the senses
Imperative sentence—a sentence that gives a command
Implication—a suggestion an author or speaker makes (implies) without stating it directly.
NOTE: the author/speaker implies; the reader/audience infers.
Inductive reasoning—deriving general principles from particular facts or instances
(“Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals.)
Inference—a conclusion based on premises or evidence
Interrogative sentence—a sentence that asks a question
Invective—an intensely vehement, highly emotional verbal attack
Inverted syntax—a sentence constructed so that the predicate comes before the subject (ex: In
the woods I am walking.)
Irony—the use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning; or, incongruity between
what is expected and what actually occurs (situational, verbal, dramatic)
Jargon—the specialized language or vocabulary of a particular group or profession
Juxtaposition—placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast
Litotes—a type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite
(describing a particularly horrific scene by saying, “It was not a pretty picture.”)
Logos—appeal to reason or logic
Malapropism—the mistaken substitution of one word for another word that sounds similar (“The
doctor wrote a subscription.”)
Maxim—a concise statement, often offering advice; an adage
Metaphor—a direct comparison of two different things
Metonymy—substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it
(“The pen [writing] is mightier than the sword [war/fighting].)
Mood—the emotional atmosphere of a work
Motif—a standard theme, element, or dramatic situation that recurs in various works
Non sequitur—an inference that does not follow logically from the premises (literally, “does not
Paradox—an apparently contradictory statement that actually contains some truth
(“Whoever loses his life, shall find it.”)
Parallelism—the use of corresponding grammatical or syntactical forms
Parody—a humorous imitation of a serious work (Weird Al Yankovich’s songs, and the
Scary Movie series are examples)
Parenthetical—a comment that interrupts the immediate subject, often to quality or explain
Pathos—the quality in a work that prompts the reader to feel pity
Pedantic—characterized by an excessive display of learning or scholarship
Personification—endowing non-human objects or creatures with human qualities or
Philippic—a strong verbal denunciation. The term comes from the orations of Demosthenes
against Philip of Macedonia in the fourth century.
Polysyndeton—the use, for rhetorical effect, of more conjunctions than is necessary or natural
(John Henry Newman: “And to set forth the right standard, and to train according to it, and to
help forward all students towards it according to their various capacities, this I conceive to be the
business of a University.”)
Rhetoric—the art of presenting ideas in a clear, effective, and persuasive manner
Rhetorical question—a question asked merely for rhetorical effect and not requiring an answer
Rhetorical devices—literary techniques used to heighten the effectiveness of expression
Sarcasm—harsh, cutting language or tone intended to ridicule
Satire—the use of humor to emphasize human weaknesses or imperfections in social institutions
(Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, The Simpsons, etc.)
Scheme—an artful deviation from the ordinary arrangement of words (anaphora, anastrophe,
antithesis are some examples of schemes)
Simile—a comparison of two things using “like,” “as,” or other specifically comparative words
Simple sentence—a sentence consisting of one independent clause and no dependent clause
Solecism—non standard grammatical usage; a violation of grammatical rules
(ex: unflammable; they was)
Structure—the arrangement or framework of a sentence, paragraph, or entire work
Style—the choices a writer makes; the combination of distinctive features of a literary work
(when analyzing style, one may consider diction, figurative language, sentence structure, etc.)
Syllepsis—a construction in which one word is used in two different senses (“After he
threw the ball, he threw a fit.”)
Syllogism—a three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise
and a minor premise (“All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.”)
Synecdoche—using one part of an object to represent the entire object (for example, referring to
a car simply as “wheels”)
Synesthesia (or synaesthesia)—describing one kind of sensation in terms of another (“a loud
color,” “a sweet sound”)
Syntax—the manner in which words are arranged into sentences
Theme—a central idea of a work
Thesis—the primary position taken by a writer or speaker
Tone—the attitude of a writer, usually implied, toward the subject or audience
Trope—an artful deviation from the ordinary or principal signification of a word (hyperbole,
metaphor, and personification are some examples of tropes)
Understatement—the deliberate representation of something as lesser in magnitude than it
Vernacular—the everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard