Body Language - Civic Education Project

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Dr Jan F. Jacko,
Jagiellonian University
Email: [email protected]
Tel. 0048 (50) 39 43 871
Box 53, Krakow 1
Poland
Lecture/Seminar (30 hours)
Body Language
A. Elements of theory
1. Definitions of “body language”
2. From the history of the notion of body language
3. The historical survey of the scientific investigations of body language
4. Crucial “sub-codes” of body language
5. Cultural and sub-cultural dimension of body language, justification of the distinction
6. Procsemics
7. Kinesis
8. Postures and their meanings
9. Analysis of the meaning of hand expression
10. Mimicry – analysis of the meaning and functions
11. The role of body language for the interpersonal communication
12. Interpretation and over-interpretation of the meaning of body language
B. Practice: Examples and exercises
1.
The skills of empathy
a. Hints that help to interpret
- attitudes
- mimicry
- dynamics of the movement
- directions of the body (the chest, feet)
- coherence of movements
- eyes movements
b. Hints that help to detect illusions and “lies”
c. How to avoid wrong generalisations (the individuality and the concrete situation)
d. How to avoid an over-interpretation
e. Exercises of watching – theatrical examples and discussion
2.
Expression skills
a. Exercises of intonation
b. Exercises of attitudes
c. Exercises of hands
3.
Body language and concrete situations
a. Conflicts
b. Dialogue
c. Group
- Public speech
- Integration of a group
- Group hierarchy
d. Body language in advertisement (TV, newspapers, etc.)
4.
Using some means of expression
a. The space
b. Hands
5.
Pantomime – examples and exercise of some techniques of theatrical expression (professional mime-actors
will be invited)
Readings
Burgoon, J. K., Buller, D. B., Woodall, W. G. (1989). Nonverbal Communication. The Unspoken Dialogue. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, INC.
Corbalis, M. C. (). The Gestural Origins of Language. American Scientist, March-April, vol.87. no. 2.
Ekman, P., Friesen, W. F. (1981). The repertoire of nonverbal behavior: categories, origins, usage, and coding.
Semiotica, numer 1, s. 49-98.
Furnham, A. (1999) Body language. Warszawa: Petit.
Hickson, M., L., Stacks, D., W. (1993). NVC nonverbal communication. Studies and applications. Third edition.
Wm. C. Brown Communications, Inc.
Ekman, P. (1975). Unmasking the face. A guide to recognizing emotions from facial clues. Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Malandro, L., A., Barker, L., Barker, D., A. (1989). Non verbal communication. Second edition. McGraw-Hill.
Mehrabian, A. (1970). Tactics of social influence. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Secondary readings
BIRDWHISTELL, Ray L.
(1952) Introduction to Kinetics: An Annotation System for Analysis of Body Motion and Gesture.
Washington.
(1963) The kinetic level in the investigation of the emotions. In: Expression of the emotions in Man. P. H.
Knapp /ed/. New York: International Universities Press.
(1966) Some body motion elements accompanying spoken American English. In: Communication and
Culture. G. H. Smith /ed/. New York.
(1970) Kinetics and Context: Essays in Body Motion Communication. Philadelphia.
BOUISSAC, Paul; HERZFELD, Michael; POSNER, Roland /eds/ (1986) Iconicity. Essays on the Nature of
Culture. Festschrift for Thomas A. Sebeok on his 65th Birthday. Tübingen: Stauffenburg-Verlag.
DARWIN, C. (1872) The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. London.
ECO, Umberto
(1972) Introduction to semiotics of iconic signs. "Versus" 2:1-16.
(1986) Mirrors. In: BOUISSAC, Paul; HERZFELD, Michael; POSNER, Roland /eds/ (1986) 215-37.
EKMAN, Paul
(1965) Differential communication of affect by head and body cues. "Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology" 2: 726-35
(1972) Universals and cultural differences in facial expression of emotion. In: Nebraska Symposium on
Motivation 1971. J. Cole /ed/, Lincoln: 207-83.
(1973) Darwin and Cross-Cultural Studies of Facial Expression. In: P. Ekman /ed/ Darwin and Facial
Expressions: A Century of Research and Review. New York Academic Press: 1969-222.
(1977) Biological and Cultural Contributions to Body and Facial Movements. In: The Anthropology of the
Body. J. Blacking /ed/. London, New York.
(1980) About brows: Emotional and conversational signals. In: Human Ethology: Claims and Limits of a
New Discipline. Ed. M. von Cranach. Cambridge.
EKMAN, P.; ELLSWORTH, P.; FRIESEN, W.
(1971) Emotion in the Human Face: Guidelines for Research and an Integration of Findings. New York.
(1972) Emotion in Human Face. New York.
EKMAN, Paul; FRIESEN, Wallace
(1969) The repertoire of non-verbal behavior: Cathegories, origins, usage and coding. "Semiotica" 1(1):
49-98.
(1971) Constants across cultures in face and emotion. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
17: 124-9.
(1974) Detecting deception from the body or face. "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" 29:
288-98.
(1975) Unmasking the Face. Englewood Cliffs, New York.
(1978) Facial Action Coding System. Palo Alto.
EKMAN, P.; SORENSON, R.; FRIESEN, W. (1969) Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotion.
"Science" 164: 86-8.
FELDMAN, R. S.; RIMÉ, B. /eds./ (1990) Fundamentals of Non-verbal Behavior. Cambridge.
FREUD, Sigmunt
(1952) Studien über Hysterie. In: Gesammelte Werke. Vol. I, London: 75-312
(1973) Das Ich und das Es. In: Gesammelte Werke. Vol XII, Frankfurt am Main: 237-89.
JACKO, Jan F.
(1997) Da Vinci's Discovery of Body-Language in 'Treatise on Painting'. In: Fourth International
Conference on Persons. Cambridge. Forthcoming.
(1998) Antropologia muta del sorriso della 'Gioconda' di Leonardo da Vinci. Un contributo alla
fenomenologia del volto. "Prospettiva Persona" December, forthcoming.
WILSON, Edward O. (1978) On Human Nature. Cambridge-Massachusetts-London: Harvard University Press.
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