2013-2014 pre release

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Sociology Revision Booklet

Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Your name

Date and time of the MOCK exam

Target grade

The roots of education are bitter but the fruit is sweet

Aristotle

To the uneducated mind an ‘A’ is just three sticks

AA Milne

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Section 1: General advice

Revision timetable

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Plan your revision by filling in the topics you intend to revise and when you intend to revise them. Leave time near the exam to go through everything again.

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

What is the exam like?

The exam has two main sections. Q1-3 are based on your yellow booklet and will include questions about any of the six areas in that booklet. Question four is based upon the pre-release material (

Holden:

Children’s play in mixed communities’

). You will also need to use your Pink pack and Methods knowledge to answer this question.

It lasts one and a half hours.

There is no choice in the question, you have to answer all the questions on the paper

The question will consist of four sub questions which will be expressed in the following ways, and you should take the following amounts of time:

Q1 Def ine the concept of…… Illustrate you answer with examples (8 marks)

(5 mins)

This answer should be 6-8 sentences. Spend the first two or three sentences with a clear definition. Use other concepts to define and expand, perhaps show the difficulties with defining this concept. Then add two examples

– but only one or two sentences on each example which should be used to exemplify what the term means. You may use named studies.

Q2 Outline and explain two ways

….. (16 marks) (15 mins)

You should write two par agraphs, each focusing on one of the two ‘ways’ or whatever it is you are asked to identify. The paragraphs can start: The first way is …’ You will need to explain each way in

your own words

, using sociological concepts and/or research if appropriate. You must include two examples.Take about 15 minutes on it. Your two paragraphs should be as follows:

1.

A paragraph explaining the first ‘way’, using sociological concepts and research

2. evidence.

A paragraph explaining the second ‘way’, using sociological concepts and research evidence.

Q3

Outline and briefly evaluate..….. (24 marks) (25 mins)

This is a short essay which should start with an introduction (where you define key terms and identify if the proposition comes from a certain perspective), then spend

2/3rds of the body presenting the evidence to support the statement. The last 1/3 rd

of the essay should focus on evidence to evaluate this position. Typical evaluation points may be:

People may choose whether or not to accept the attempts to socialisation them

(Interactionist approach).

Society is multicultural and socialisation may vary in different cultures.

Identities are fluid in post-modern societies and it is difficult to generalise about patterns of socialisation.

Socialisation involves various agencies and one cannot be studied without considering the others.

…. But do link them to the issue you are asked about.

Q4 Using the pre release material and your wider sociological knowledge, explain and evaluate ………………. (54 marks) (45 mins)

This is the methods question. You need to write a full essay applying your knowledge of methods to the pre release material. The examiners are expecting you to write about 3 sides of average side writing.

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Tips for answering the exam questions

Use your knowledge of sociological perspectives (Marxism, functionalism, feminism, postmodernism, interactionism) where you can, especially if you are targeting A-B.

Learn at least five key studies for each of the Topics, particularly gender, age, ethnic and class identity.

For each of the topics identified above (gender, age, ethnic and class identity), know examples of how both primary and secondary socialisation into these identities occurs, with supporting evidence. Be prepared to weigh up the importance of different agents of socialisation.

For each of the topics identified above (gender, age, ethnic and class identity), know how these identities are typically expressed e.g. language, values, norms, customs, rituals, dress, food etc.

For each of the topics identified above (gender, age, ethnic and class identity), know how these identities are changing (and staying the same).

Know key concepts from early topics really well and be prepared to use them

(culture, norms, values etc.).

Time your answer sensibly so you leave enough time for the essay in (q4). Feel free to do that first if you want.

Good revision is the key to success. If you know some sociological concepts and evidence and answer exactly the question set, then you should hit your target grade.

If stuck for a conclusion in Q3, go for perspectives, particularly postmodernism:

Postmodernists argue that there are great variations in ………. identity and it is increasingly difficult for sociologists to generalise.

Ideas for revision

1. Make cards for key concepts and studies. Put the name of the writer or concept on the front and details on the back. Put them face down and try and remember what is on the back. Try this with the key concepts in Topic 1 and the key studies at the end of each Topic.

2. Test your knowledge with a friend by asking each other questions

– use the

Revision list.

3. Make a spider diagram or mind map for each different topic. Make it colourful and big (get some large A3 paper). Stick them up around your house where you will see them.

4. Practise exam questions which occur throughout the packs.

5. Tick off on the Revision list when you have learnt something.

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

6. Try to develop 10 mnemonics for learning different lists (that is, use the first letter of each name on the list to create a memorable phrase or sentence).

7. Break the pack down into the six topics, then break each topic down into three or four sections. Try to learn one section a day.

Answering question 1

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(8 marks)

Define the concept of…… Illustrate you answer with examples

Take about 5 minutes to answer this question

Give a really clear definition

Then provide at least two examples

It is best if the examples use studies or concepts from the course …

… but if this isn’t possible just use any example you can think

Concept

Norm

Value

Status

The concepts you need to know

Definition Example 1 Example 2

Ascribed status

Achieved status

Culture

Role

Identity

High culture

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BHASVIC Sociology Department

Popular culture

Subculture

Cultural diversity

Multiculturali sm

Consumer culture

Global culture

Nature/nurtur e

Primary socialisation

Secondary socialisation

Formal social control

Informal social control

Agents of socialisation

Family

Education

Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

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BHASVIC Sociology Department

Peer group

Workplace

Mass media

Gender identity

Femininity

Masculinity

Social class identities

Ethnic identities

Ethnic hybrids

Age identities

Old age

Middle age

Youth

Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Answering question 4

Using the pre-release material and your wider sociological knowledge, explain and evaluate ………………. (54 marks)

Take about 45 minutes for this question

You need to write a full essay applying your knowledge of methods to the prerelease material.

The examiners are expecting you to write about 3 sides of average side writing.

You can write whatever you like on the prerelease material you are given …

.. but you are not allowed to take it into the exam.

You will be given a fresh copy of the pre-release material in the exam which will include the questions you have to answer.

The main issues are likely to be:

Why did the researchers use the mixed methods to investigate changes to class identity?

And how can their methods be evaluated?

The key tools you have to evaluate the research are:

Generalisability

Representativeness

Objectivity/values

Validity

Ethical issues

Reliability

Theoretical position: interpretive/positivist

So you must know these concepts and be able to use them to evaluate the study

Things to know about research methods (the specification)

Stages and issues in the research process

Key concepts

: research questions, operationalisation, primary data collection methods, secondary data collection methods, sampling, access, ethics, pilot studies, interpretation of data

Key concepts in the research process

Key concepts

: validity, reliability, representativeness, generalisability

Exploring the use of quantitative data-collection methods and analysis in the

context of research

Quantitative data collection methods:

questionnaires, structured interviews, statistical data (official and non-official), content analysis

Key concepts

: patterns, trends, cause and effect, positivism, reliability, objectivity, value freedom, quantitative data analysis

Exploring the use of qualitative data-collection methods in the context of research

Qualitative data collection methods:

observation, unstructured interviews, semistructured interviews, personal documents, ethnography, focus groups

Key concepts:

meanings and experiences, interpretivism, Verstehen, validity, empathy, rapport, qualitative data analysis

Exploring the use of mixed methods in the context of research

Key concepts: triangulation, methodological pluralism, fitness for purpose

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Holden (2011) “Happily ever after? Children’s play in mixed communities

1. Complete this vocabulary matching exercise

2. Read the pre-release material,

3. Answer the True/ False.

4. Fill in the questions grid on pages 12-16 (use detail and technical terms)

5.

Complete a practice version of Q4

:”Using the pre-release material and your wider sociological knowledge, outline and explain the use of quantitative, nonparticipant observation when researching how children’s play can promote ethnic inte gration in the contemporary UK” (54 marks) This should be three sides in length.

Difficult vocabulary

– match each word with a definition.

1. Ethnically diverse

2. Segregation of different ethnic groups

3. Integrative play

4. Secondary research

5. The census

6. Early Years

7. Overt

8. Non-participant observation

9. Quantitative data

10. Structured observation schedule

11. Self-complete structured questionnaires

a) Data which tends to be numerical or statistical, perhaps set up using tallying rather than description. b) A pre set grid or list with items to be observed already listed. The opposite to an blank page where anything and everything could be observed c) A self complete questionnaire that is answered by every household in the UK once every 10 years. d) The name given to 0-4 year olds when designing government policy e) Many different ethnic groups

– British Asian, black Britons, Jewish, White British etc. f) A list of questions which are written down and the respondent answers the questions themselves by filling it in g) The separation of people from different ethnicities. h) Play that brings different ethnic groups together so that children intergrate i) Research based on material which the researcher gets from someone elses research, so it is ‘second hand’ j) Telling the participants of the observation that they are being watched k) Observing people but not joining in with their activities

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Holden, A (2011) "Happily ever after?" Children's play in mixed communities in

Sociology Review, Volume 20, Number 4

Issues of integration in ethnically diverse areas are often the subject of social and political debate. In this research, Andrew Holden focused on children's play in local park playgrounds and school playgrounds - spaces occupied by children from different ethnic groups. He wanted to examine the extent to which children's play at different ages and in different settings either reinforces or overcomes the segregation of different ethnic groups. He also studied the attitudes of parents towards integrative play - children from different ethnic groups playing together. He aimed to establish what the parents felt about integrative play and whether they thought it could have a positive effect on communities. Holden focused his research in Blackburn, Lancashire, an ethnically segregated town in northwest England.

Holden used a variety of methods to carry out his research. In the first three months of the study, he carried out secondary research to build up a detailed background knowledge. A substantial amount of information was collected from published documents such as the census, the local council's play strategy, Early Years publications, and website material.

Three months into the study, during the spring and summer months, Holden carried out a series of overt non-participant observations which gathered mainly quantitative data. A total of 21 observations were conducted in public parks and school playgrounds - spaces occupied by children from Blackburn's two main ethnic groups (white and Asian), where one might expect to see some integrative play taking place. The parks chosen were Blackburn's three largest parks, two of which were situated in heavily Asian-populated areas and one which was in a mixed community. The schools selected for the observations included three primary schools and three secondary schools. These six schools were chosen on the basis of their ethnic and cultural diversity and none of the schools had less than a 25% white or Asian population. The schools were located in or around the town centre.

Observations took place at lunch-times in school playgrounds where free play could be readily observed.

The observational data was recorded on a structured schedule, the purpose of which was to identify the nature and extent of children's play in Blackburn and to establish whether play was integrated or segregated. Shortly after the observations had taken place, a parental attitudes survey was carried out in the form of a selfcompletion structured questionnaire. The aim of the survey was to establish what parents thought about integrative play and to consider how this could be best facilitated. Using opportunity sampling, the researchers gained access to the parents of children from each ethnic group in a variety of public settings including schools, colleges, community centres and workplaces. Of the 516 questionnaires that were distributed, 303 were returned and recorded. Computer software was then used to analyse the data.

The results of the park observations showed that although there was plenty of free play happening, there was very little integrative play between different ethnic groups. White and Asian children played in close proximity with each other, but there were few signs of conversation between different ethnic groups and no real evidence of mixing. In contrast, the primary school observations revealed that during their playtime, the children engaged positively with members of different ethnic groups. Play was lively and spontaneous, and consisted of groups of children who enjoyed playing together and for whom ethnic membership seemed insignificant. The secondary school observations produced very different findings.

There was very little 'play' because lunchtime was seen more as a time for relaxation. The majority of secondary school students rarely mixed with members of other ethnic groups.

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

The parental attitudes survey showed plenty of support for integrative play. Over

85% of white and 97% of Asian parents stated that it was either very important or fairly important for children from different ethnic groups to play together.

In conclusion, Holden's research findings both support and refute the suggestion that children's play can promote integration. Although integrative play was more common in schools than parks, there were also variations in play between the different educational sectors. Most encouraging of all was the high level of support for integrative play among parents.

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

True or false?

Holden was seeking qualitative data

Holden used 9 schools, all primary schools

Holden did 21 observations in total

Holden was most interested in how well different genders mixed when playing

The response rate for the parents questionnaires was 500/516 were returned.

Holden used only primary research techniques

Holden found the most integrative play occurred in the parks

Holden used three parks to observe in

Holden found high levels of integrative play in the secondary schools

Holden found that over 67% of Asian parents and 85%of white parents stated that it was very or fairly important for children from different ethnic groups to play together

Holden used a mixed methods approach

Holden came to a compromise conclusion

True or false?

Detail

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Understanding the methods of the study

Observation

Why use observation instead of a questionnaire when the sample is children?

Why observe, rather than ask questions in an interview?

Why structure the observation? What kind of data was he seeking? How does this link to

Positivism?

How does a structured schedule improve reliability?

Why might Interpretivists have preferred a non-structured observation?

Which is more objective

– a structured or non-structured observation?

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Do you think he got highly valid data from his observations? In what ways might it have been low in validity? In what ways might it have been high in validity?

What ethical issues might there have been with his observation of children?

Are 21 observations in summer a reasonably representative sample to use?

Was his choice of parks and schools reasonably representative? Which ethnic groups does it exclude? Does this matter?

Parents survey

Do you think the response rate is reasonable? Which types of parents are more likely to have answered?

Which parents are likely to be underrepresented and how might this effect the data?

Do you think the parents survey reflect s what the parents really think?

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Which method might Interpretivists have preferred to find out parents feelings about ethnic integration?

Secondary data

Why was secondary data used? Where did it come from?

Mixed methods

List 7 benefits of mixing methods

Ethics:

How were ethical guidelines maintained?

How far do you think the results can be generalised?

Possible Q4:

Using the pre-release material and your wider sociological knowledge, outline and explain the use of quantitative, non-participant observation when researching how children’s play can promote ethnic integration in the contemporary UK (54 marks)

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BHASVIC Sociology Department Exploring Socialisation, Culture and Identity

Christmas work:

i. Complete all the work from p9 onwards

– read and get to know the pre-release material ii. Make revision cards / return to revision cards for G671 iii. Try the possible Q4 on p15 iv. Complete the concepts revision task on p5-7

STUDENTS WHO COMPLETE ALL

THESE TASKS

WILL BE

MORE

SUCCESSFUL THAN THOSE WHO

DON’T.

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