Applying QFD Principles for Technique Selection for Optimum

1st National QFD Symposium in Turkey
Application of QFD for Optimum Environmental Performance Evaluation of Techniques
in Primary Aluminium Production
Anthony Halog
Institute for Industrial Production (IIP), University of Karlsruhe (TH), Hertzstrasse 16, 76187
Karlsruhe, Germany
Tel. No: (+49-721) 608-4406
Fax No: (+49-721) 758-909
The research tackles how a technique can be environmentally improved at a given budget
constraint. The application of QFD for improvement analysis of “Best Available Techniques” is
explored. House of Ecology together with linear mathematical model was developed and applied
in primary aluminium production. Critical emissions and degree of necessary environmental
performance improvement are reported.
Extended Summary
The research project tackles how a given process or technique can be improved to qualify as an
environmentally conscious one at a given budget constraint. The application of quality function
deployment (QFD) principles for the improvement analysis of selected “Best Available
Techniques” is explored and discussed. Best available techniques (BAT), as defined by
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) directive, is the most effective and advanced
stage in the development of activities and their methods of operation which indicate the practical
suitability of particular technique for providing, in principle, the basis for emission limit values
designed to prevent and, where that is not practicable, generally to reduce emissions and the
impact on the environment as a whole. A modified version of House of Quality (HOQ) or the
planning matrix phase of QFD, which is called in this research as House of Ecology (HOE), is
developed and applied to determine the environmental emissions which need to be analysed
further or possibly deployed for environmental performance improvement of process or
technique. The modifications that are introduced in the House of Quality are as follows:
1. The stakeholder requirements are defined as impact categories that become popular in Life
Cycle Analysis (LCA). Impact categories compile the potential impacts on the environment
caused by the individual emissions and consumptions and reflect environmental problems.
2. The design requirements of a particular technique are expressed in terms of substances that
the process emitted which need to be reduced.
3. Instead of using the commonly used 1-3-9 equivalent of (weak-medium-strong) rating scale
for evaluating the relationship of design requirements and stakeholder requirements, the
impact potential matrix (relationship matrix) is described as the degree of contribution of a
certain substance to a certain impact category. For example, in what degree is the impact of
sulphur dioxide to the acidification requirement of the environment? The impact potential
(IP) of this substance was used as measure of the degree of satisfying the requirement of less
Anthony Halog
Institute for Industrial Production
1st National QFD Symposium in Turkey
4. The weights of impact categories are based on environmental experts’ opinions.
5. The triangular top portion of HOQ is described here as technical correlations of the emitted
substances, which might give us hint on possible cost savings from simultaneous
implementation of reduction measures between two emitted substances.
6. The target specifications are the results of the environmental benchmarking of emission
values for the considered techniques in primary aluminium production but alternatively,
emission limits for water, air, and land as provided by environmental agencies could also be
used if available.
7. The design cost is defined here as the cost of implementing the necessary emission reduction
for a particular substance to meet the current environmental benchmarks or latest limit. This
cost can be attributed to new installations or equipments within the process, changing of raw
materials and changing operating conditions or parameters.
8. Lastly, the ranking of the emitted substances is based on both cost and environmental impact
potential considerations. Cost budget is allocated first to the one that had the greatest impact
potential to the environment. The cost budget allocation is demonstrated by a mathematical
model for emission reduction planning.
The critical emitted substances with consideration given to environmental impact potential and
cost budget and the degree of necessary environmental process improvement over budget
constraint are reported. Primary aluminium production is used as case study to apply the
proposed House of Ecology together with a linear mathematical model. Thus, QFD could be
applied to the continuous environmental improvement of any process or technique with some
Anthony Halog
Institute for Industrial Production