Sedimentology: Process and Product.

Leeder, M.R. (1982). Sedimentology: Process and Product.
Part One: The origin of sediment grains
1. The origin of terriginous clastic grains. Introduction. The role of water in rock weathering.
Oxidation, reduction and Eh-pH diagrams. Rock-forming minerals during weathering.
Breakdown products and new-formed minerals. Physical weathering. Sediment yields.
Clastic grains and source identification. Sourcelands, differentiation and plate tectonics.
The origin of calcium carbonate grains. Introduction. Recent marine carbonated
sediments. The composition of fresh water and sea water. The major carbonate minerals.
Primary carbonated precipitation. Carbonate grains of biological origin. A skeletal origin for
aragonite muds? Micrite envelopes and intraclasts. Pellets and peloids. Oöliths. Grapestones.
Polygenetic origin of carbonate grains. Shallow temperate-water carbonates. CaCo3
dissolution in the deep ocean. Summary.
Evaporites, biogenic silica and phosphates. Evaporites. Biogenic silica. Phosphates.
Grain properties. Definition and range of grain size. Grain size distributions.
Characteristics of grain populations. Size parameters and distributions. Grain abrasion and
breakage. Grain shape and form. Bulk properties of grain aggregates. A note on grain fabric.
Part Two: Fluid flow and sediment transport
5. Fluid properties and fluid motion. Introduction. Physical properties. Streamlines and flow
visualization. Friction, pressure changes and the energy budget. The Reynolds number.
Froude number. Laminar flows. Introduction to turbulent flows. The structure of turbulent
shear flows. Flow separation and secondary currents. Summary.
Transport of sediments grains. Introduction. Grains in stationary fluids. Initiation of
particle motion. Paths of grain motion. Solid transmitted stresses. Sediment transport theory.
Sediment gravity flows. Introduction. Grain flows. Debris flows. Liquefied flows. Turbidity
flows. Deposits of sediment gravity flows. Summary.
Part Three: Bedforms and sedimentary structures
8. Bedforms and structures in granular sediments. Bedforms and structures formed by
unidirectional water flows. Further notes on bedform phase diagrams. Bedforms and
structures formed by water waves. Coarse/fine laminations and graded bedding. Bedforms
and structures formed by air flows. Bedform ‘lag’ effects. Summary.
Bedforms caused by erosion of cohesive sediment. Water erosion of cohesive beds erosion
by ‘tools’. Summary.
10. Biogenic and organo-sedimentary structures. Stromatolites. Trace fossils and deposition
rates. Summary.
11. Soft sediment deformation structures. Reduction of sediment strength. Liquefaction and
water escape structures. Liquefaction and differential loading structures. Slides, growth
faults and slumps. Desiccation and syneresis shrinkage structures. Summary.
Part Four: Environmental and facies analysis
12. Environmental and facies analysis. Scope and philosophy. Depositional systems and
facies. Succession, preservation and analysis. Subsidence, uplift and deposition.
Transgression, regression and diachronism. Palaeocurrents. The Holocene. Basin analysis
and plate tectonics. Summary.
Part Five: Continental environments and facie analysis
13. Deserts. Introduction. Physical processes and erg formation. Modern desert facies. Ancient
desert facies. Summary.
14. Alluvial fans. Introduction. Physical processes. Modern facies. Ancient alluvial fan facies.
15. River plains. Introduction. Physical processes. Modern river plain facies. Ancient river
plain facies. Summary.
16. Lakes. Introduction. Physical and chemical processes. Modern lake facies. Ancient lake
facies. Summary.
17. Glacial environments. Introduction. Physical processes. Pleistocene and modern glacial
facies. Ancient glacial facies. Summary.
Part Six: Coastal and shelf environments and facies analysis
18. Physical processes of coast and shelf. Introduction. Wind-generated waves. Tides and tidal
waves. Summary.
19. Deltas. Introduction. Physical processes. Modern deltaic facies. Ancient deltaic facies.
20. Estuaries. Introduction. Estuarine dynamics. Modern estuarine facies. Ancient estuarine
facies. Summary.
21. ‘Linear’ clastic shorelines. Introduction. Physical processes. Recent facies of linear clastic
shorelines. Ancient clastic shoreline facies. Summary.
22. Clastic shelves. Introduction. Shelf dynamis. Recent shelf facies. Ancient clastic shelf
facies. Summary.
23. Carbonate-evaporite shorelines, shelves and basins. Introduction. Arid tidal flats and
sabkhas. Humid tidal flats and marshes. Lagoons and bays. Tidal delta and spillover oölite
sands. Open carbonate shelves. Platform margin reefs and buildups. Platform margin slopes
and basins. Sub-aqueous evaporites. Summary.
Part Seven: Oceanic environments and facies analysis
24. Oceanic processes. Introduction. Physical processes. Chemical and biochemical processes.
Surface currents and circulation. Structure, deep currents and circulation. Slumps, debris
flow and turbidity currents. Palaeo-oceanography. Summary.
25. Clastic oceanic environments. Introduction. Continental slopes and rises of passive
margins. Submarine fans and cones. Abyssal plains. Trenches and fore-arc basins of active
margins. Summary.
26. Pelagic oceanic sediments. Sediment types. Oceanic facies successions. Anoxic oceans and
oceanic events. Hypersaline oceans. Continental outcrops of ancient facies. Summary.
Part Eight: Diagenesis: sediment into rock
27. Diagenesis: general considerations. Definitions. Subsurface pressure and temperature.
Petrography in diagenetic studies. Stable isotopes in diagenetic studies. Eh-pH phase
diagrams in diagenetic studies. Compaction and fluid migration. Pressure solution.
Diagenetic realms. Summary.
28. Terrigenous clastic sediments. Introduction. Marine mud diagenesis. Non-marine mud
diagenesis. Classification of mudrocks. Near-surface sand diagenesis. Secondary porosity
and sandstone diagenesis. Classification.
29. Carbonate sediments. Introduction. Early meteoric diagenesis. Early marine diagenesis.
Subsurface diagenesis by formation waters. Summary of limestone diagenesis. Models for
dolomitisation. Classification. Summary.
30. Evaporites, silica, iron and manganese. Evaporites. Silica diagenesis. Iron minerals.
Manganese. Summary.
31. Hydrocarbons. Introduction. Coal composition and rank. Coal-forming environments. Oil
and gas-organic matter, source rock and diagenesis. Oil and gas migration. Oil and gas traps
and reservoir studies. Tar sands. Oil shales. Summary.