Deviant Behavior Midterm Study Questions 1. What is sociology? What methods do sociologists use to study deviance? What are the three elements of the sociological imagination? Describe the following schools in sociology: functionalism, symbolic interactionism and conflict theory. 2. What are 3 different uses of the concept of deviance or deviants in sociology? 3. Contrast a psychological or law/order explanation of the origin of violent gangs with a sociological explanation. How are they different? What evidence supports the sociological explanation? What are possible solutions to gang delinquency that would follow from a sociological analysis? 4. Contrast sociological with psychological explanations of police brutality. What light does Reiss's study shed upon the problem? How does Reiss’s study help us understand the beating of Rodney King? Which explanation, the psychological or sociological explains more about police brutality and why? What solutions to the problems of police brutality would follow from a sociological perspective? *5. (a) What problem was Milgram concerned with explaining? (b) Describe his experiment and how it would answer his question. (c) What were the results of his experiment? (d) What conclusions did Milgram reach with respect to understanding the causes of mass murder? (e) What is the significance of his study? (f) How does Milgram’s study relate to current disclosures of torture by the military and the CIA? 6. (a) Describe the problem that led Zimbardo to undertake his study The Stanford Prison Experiment. (b) Describe his study and the hypotheses he was testing. (c) What were the results of the experiment? (d) What was the significance of his study with respect to understanding prison violence? What solutions might you propose? 7. (a) What overall conclusion can be reached with respect to the causes of violence from our analysis of violent gangs, police brutality, mass murders, and prison violence? (b) How do these patterns of violence demonstrate they are a property of the social system? 8. Describe the “Social Disorganization” theory of deviance. (a) What is “social disorganization, (b) What are some causes of disorganization, an (c) What are consequences of social disorganization? (d) What were Mills’ critiques of disorganization theory? *9. (a) What type of theory is Sutherland's D.A. theory? (b) Describe the main elements of his theory. (c) What is the most important determinant of crime? (d) Who will become a criminal? (e) At what point does a person become a criminal according to Sutherland? (f) According to DA theory what are some solutions to crime in society? *10. Critically evaluate Sutherland’s theory. Cite relevant research studies which both support and challenge his theory. 11. (a) Describe Sykes and Matza's theory of the Techniques of Neutralization. (b) What are the different techniques of neutralization? (c) How does it relate to Sutherland's DAT theory? (d) What role do the techniques play in deviant behavior according to Sykes and Matza? *12. According to Merton's theory of Anomie: (a) what is anomie, (b) what causes anomie, and (c) what are some consequences of anomie? (d) Why do societies differ in rates of deviance according to Merton? Why do some groups (eg. Lower-class) have higher rates of deviance according to Merton? (e) What is the major hypothesis of his theory of Anomie? (f) What would be solutions to deviance according to Merton? 13. (a) Describe Cohen's theory of Gang Delinquency. (b) According to Cohen, why do delinquent subcultures emerge, that is what is their function? (c) Why do they have the norms they do? (d) Why are they found in certain sectors of the city? 14. (a) Describe Cloward and Ohlin's theory of Delinquency and Opportunity. (b) Why do delinquent gangs occur at all? (c) Why do different types of gangs develop in different areas in the community? (d) How does their theory relate to Merton's theory of anomie? 15. (a) Describe Hirschi’s Control theory. (b) What are the various bonds he points out? (c) What is the major hypothesis of his theory. (d) How does it differ from DA theory or Anomie theory? 16. Describe Durkheim's theory of the Normal and Pathological. 17. Describe Davis’s theory of Prostitution. 18. What are Erickson’s main points on the sociology of deviance? 19. Describe Durkheim’s theory of suicide. What justifications did he set forth for believing that suicide was socially caused? What were the four types of suicide and what caused these suicides. How were suicides a property of the social system? 20. Describe Faris and Dunham’s study of mental illness. What were their findings? How did they explain those results? What were two problems with their study? 21. Describe Hollingshead and Redlich’s study of Social Class and Mental Illness. What were three of their findings? How did they explain those results? What were some problems in their study? 22. Why do sociologists believe deviance is socially caused? What facts about deviance have forced us to take a sociological perspective in order to understand the causes of crime? Bonus Question: *23. There have been numerous incidents reported by the press of Americans torturing prisoners in Afghanistan, Iraq, Guantanamo, and rendering them to a third country known to torture prisoners. Numerous deaths and disappearances, electrical torture, use of attack dogs, water submersion, sexual perversions and desecrations of religious symbols, etc., have all been reported. Use a “sociological perspective” to explain these atrocities by American soldiers and intelligence officers. Employ specific sociological studies and theories that would explain these atrocities by a sociological analysis. When you have completed your analysis try to connect all the dots in order to get to the root causes of the atrocities.