Four Types of Beef Breeds: British Continental American/Improved Exotic Beef Cattle Operations: Backgrounding: Taking an animal and feeding it pasture to increase its weight and frame size to then put on concentrated feed (into a feedlot) Birth – 85-110 lbs Weaning – 350-400 lbs Background to 800 lbs. Finish at 1350 lbs Cow - Calf Operators – Cows have babies, keep or sell babies - #1 in VA Backgrounder – Buy weaned calves and feed to feedlot weight Finishing Operation – Buy steers/heifers and feed to finish Estrus Cycle – 21 days Heat – Body prepares for ovulation Ovulation – 2 days (30hrs) after start of heat Quality Grades: Amount of intramuscular fat (marbling) 1. Utility 2. Standard 3. Select 4. Choice 5. Prime Bos indicus vs. Bos taurus B. taurus – Common Beef cattle B. indicus – Zebu cattle – From India Angus Angus Brahman ½A½B ¾A¼B F3 ½A½B 5/8 A 3/8B Brangus Pedigree – Record or chart of parentage or lineage Sheep Niche – Special Market Ex. Ethnic food for Jewish, Muslim people in the Northeast U.S. 125lb lamb by mid-March Born in October F1 F2 F4 Seasonal Breeders – Breed in spring, give birth in fall when it’s cool. Wool – No market in U.S. Maybe 5 cents per pound Swine Industry Vertical Integration – One company owns and controls all inputs from farm all the way to the store Most swine are raised in a confinement facility – Barn with concrete floor, never go outside. Manure removal – Slats in floor, manure is washed through, collected in a lagoon. White Breeds are good mothers Dressing Percentage – Amount of usable product in lbs after an animal is slaughtered. Sheep: 50% Cattle: 60% Hogs: 70% Live wt – 1000 lb steer Carcass wt – 600 lb usable beef 1000 x 60% = 600 300 lb hog What is the amount of meat after slaughter? 300 x 70% = 210 lbs BSE – Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy – “Mad Cow Disease” Prion – Protein in the nervous tissues Irradiation – Using radiation to sterilize food and make it safe to eat. 1. Gamma Rays 2. Microwaves 3. X-rays Bottom Line on BSE: Do not eat nervous tissue and you’re safe. Only 1 case of BSE in the U.S. has been detected in BEEF cattle. (Alabama) All of the others have been dairy cattle, which we don’t usually eat. USDA implemented laws that required no animal over 30 months of age could be slaughtered for human consumption. BSE – does not show symptoms until about 3-5 years of age Much beef is imported from Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Canada. 1997 – USDA law that no animals for food consumption may be fed byproducts of other animals This has recently been revised to allow for poultry litter.