Earth Systems 3209 Review Sheet – Unit 2 Understand the following terms: Law of Uniformitarianism Uniform Processes Catastrophism Catastrophes Mass Extinctions Relative Time Absolute Time Law of Superposition Principle of Cross-cutting Relations Principle of Inclusions Law of Original Horizontality Principle of Fossil Succession Index Fossil Unconformity Erosion Angular Unconformity Disconformity Nonconformity Glacial Varves Growth (Tree) Rings Radioactive Dating Strata Weathering Transportation Deposition Compaction Fault Intrusion of Magma Extrusion of Lava Buried Lava Flow Correlation (Rock and Fossil) Contact Metamorphism (Baking) Isotope Neutron Mass Number Radioactive Element Parent Isotope Daughter Isotope Radioactive Decay Half Life Isotope Pair Parent:Daughter Ratio Leaching Hydrothermal Fluids Metamorphism Percentage Fraction Radioactive Decay Curve Geologic Time Fossil Remain Trace Precambrian Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era Eon Era Period Epoch Rapid Burial Hard Body Parts Anoxic (Low Oxygen) Fine-grained Sediment Evolutionary Pathway Petrifaction Replacement Carbonization Mold and Cast Preserved Intact Coprolites Gastrolites Imprints Burrows Internal Structures External Structures Age of Invertebrates Age of Fishes Age of Amphibians Age of Reptiles Age of Mammals James Hutton Charles Lyell William Strata Smith Nicholas Steno Cambrian Period Quaternary Period Holocene Epoch Phanerozoic Proterozoic Hadean Archean Permian Period – Triassic Period Boundary Cretaceous Period – Tertiary Period Boundary Pangaea Understand the following topics/questions/concepts: 1. Define uniformitarianism. 2. Distinguish between uniformitarianism and catastrophism. 3. Use uniformitarianism to explain why certain events will occur again in the future. 4. Distinguish between relative time and absolute time. 5. Understand relative dating techniques/principals/laws, which include: Law of superposition; Principle of cross-cutting relations; Principle of inclusions; Law of original horizontality; Principle of fossil succession; index fossils; and unconformities (angular unconformity, disconformity, and nonconformity). 6. Be able to interpret the steps in the formation of geologic cross-sections using techniques/principals/laws (See Point Above). (Core Lab 1). 7. Know your cross-section symbols (i.e. rock symbols). 8. Understand buried lava flows versus magma intrusions. 9. Understand absolute dating techniques/processes/features, which include: glacial varves; growth rings; and radioactive dating. 10.Define half-life, isotope, parent elements, and daughter elements. 11.Know the isotope pairs (e.g. U-238 decays to Pb-206). 12.STSE 2 – “Labrador Zircons and their Link to Radiometric Dating and Absolute Dating”. (Geochronology, isotope pairs, limitations of radioactive dating, zircon, U-Pb system.) 13.Know how to do the different radioactive dating problems. (THERE ARE FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF PROBLEMS.) 14.Know the sources of error and limitations of radioactive dating. 15.Be able to use a radioactive decay curve. 16.What is the age of Earth? When did life on Earth explode? When did trilobites and other marine species go into extinction? When did dinosaurs and other reptiles go into extinction? 17.Understand the importance of fossils in determining the geologic time scale. (e.g., evolutions, extinctions.) 18.Why is Precambrian time considered to be a very uncertain time? 19.Know the importance of the following dates: 4.54 Ba; 545 Ma; 248 Ma; and 65 Ma. 20.Define fossil. 21.What three conditions are necessary for fossilization? 22.Describe the different types or methods of fossilization? 23.Core Lab 2 – “Estimating Dinosaur Size and Speed from Trackways”. (Trackway, gait, foot length, leg length, body length, stride length, relative stride, herbivore, carnivore, dimensionless speed, movement type.) Know how to calculate each! 24.Know the divisions of the geologic time scale. (i.e. eons, eras, periods, epochs.) 25.Why did the Precambrian have the least amount of life forms? 26.Recognize that the Phanerozoic eon represents the emergence of complex life forms. (Starts at 545 Ma.) 27.What are the three eras that comprise the Phanerozoic eon? 28.List the life forms that dominate each era. (“Since I Found Flying Angels Riding Brooms Forget Medicine”.) 29.Know the “Ages” as they relate to the different eras. 30. Know the two mass extinction events, which include: Permian Period – Triassic Period (248 Ma – Extinction of trilobites and other marine species); and Cretaceous Period – Tertiary Period (65 Ma – Extinction of dinosaurs).