Induc.LessonBio10-10

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QED Inductive Lesson Plan Template – Biology Example
Preliminary Preparation
Topic
Principle with
Related Concepts
Objective
(See phase 5 below.)
Phase 1:
Introduction
Focus of lesson is
established.
Phase 2:
Open-Ended
When presented with
differentiated
examples, students
make observations
& comparisons used
for further analysis
Phase 3:
Convergent
Lesson moves
toward a single
concept or principle.
Defense Against Infectious Disease: Blood Groups
Principle: Safe blood donation depends on
Related Concepts: blood groups, antigens,
the absence of specific antigens so that
antibodies, immune system, donor, receiver,
antibodies of the donor will not attack the
red blood cells, plasma
recipient’s antigen.
When given a hypothetical organ donation scenario with one donor and 5 possible recipients
(with all blood groups listed), students will select the recipients who will need anti-rejection
medication and give reasons for their selection.
Lesson Phases with Students
Remind students that this lesson continues the study of the body’s defense systems.
Tell students that new topic for today’s lesson will be blood groups.
Ask students to briefly share blood donation experiences.
Tell students that at the end of the lesson they will act as members of a hospital transplant
committee and will be using their knowledge of blood groups to determine potential organ
recipients’ need for anti-rejection medication.
Engagement stimulus:
Matrix containing blood groups and their associated antigens and antibodies. Students
attempt to predict and record all safe donor/recipient combinations based on the information
provided.
Open-ended questions (Q) and tasks (T) focused on the stimulus:
 Q: Ask students what they notice about each blood group in the top chart: A, B, AB, O.
 Q: Ask students what they notice about the example in the bottom chart.
 T: Ask students in pairs to fill in the blank cells in the bottom chart in order to predict all
safe donor/recipient combinations based on the information provided.
Guiding questions* and explanations that focus on the following content:
1. How are the blood groups determined? (Students cannot answer this question from the engagement
stimulus chart so instructor needs to provide additional content information)


Humans belong to one of four basic blood groups A, B, AB, and O.
Blood type is genetically determined by the presence or absence of specific
substances that act as antigens and which are found on the surface of the red blood
cells.
2. What do the letters of the blood groups represent? (Students can answer this question from
engagement stimulus chart).

The letters A &
3.
B are used to refer to the specific type of antigen on the surface of
the red blood cell.
What are blood group antigens? (Students cannot answer this question from the engagement stimulus
chart so instructor needs to provide additional content information about antigens).




These antigens are either sugars or proteins, and are attached to various components
in the red blood cell membrane.
Antigens of the ABO blood group are sugars. They are produced by a series of
reactions in which enzymes catalyze the transfer of sugar units.
A person's DNA determines the type of enzymes they have, and, therefore, the type
of sugar antigens that end up on their red blood cells.
In contrast, the antigens of the Rh blood group are proteins.
4. What are the functions of antigens? (Even though Students can answer this question from engagement
stimulus chart, instructor may need to provide more explanation for the second bullet item).

They provoke the production of antibodies against foreign substances that may harm
the body.
 They provide a chemical signature that allows the immune system to recognize the
body’s own cells.
 Antigens of a particular group induce the production of antibodies against other
groups. (Ex: Antigen A induces the production of antibodies against antigen B in the
plasma).
5. What are antibodies and where in the blood are they found? (Students can answer this question
from engagement stimulus chart however, instructor needs to explain the roles of antibodies in providing immunity
to the body).

Antibodies are substances produced by the immune system to fight and protect the
body from foreign invasion. They are found in the plasma of the blood.
6. What roles do blood antigens play in blood donation? (Students can answer this question from
engagement stimulus chart, however instructor needs to provide additional information to explain the result of blood
group incompatibility).

For a safe blood donation, blood group antigens of both donor and recipient must be
compatible otherwise the red blood cells of the donated blood will clump together
(agglutinate), break apart, and block capillaries.
7. Why are people with blood group O able to donate blood to all blood groups? (Students can
answer this question from engagement stimulus chart).

Blood group O contains neither antigen A nor B. It only contains antibodies A and B
so matches with blood groups A and B with antigens A and B.
 People with Blood group O are referred to as “Universal Donors” because they can
donate to all blood groups.
8. Why would some one with blood group AB receive blood from all blood groups? (Students
can answer this question from engagement stimulus chart).

People with group AB referred to as “Universal Receivers” can receive blood from
all blood groups.
 This because they neither have anti-A nor anti-B antibodies to attack the antigens A
and B present in blood groups A and B.
9. What is the effect of mixing blood groups that do not match? (Students cannot answer this
question from the engagement stimulus chart so instructor needs to provide additional content information).


There is a small margin of safety in certain blood group mixing, because the volume
of donated blood is usually relatively small and the donor’s antibodies are quickly
diluted in the plasma.
In most cases, mixing blood groups that do not match can result in death.
(*Instructor may ask more Specific questions based on students’ observations & responses. The focus questions
above should drive the class discussion as well as guide the instructor in providing additional content information
that is not evident on the engagement chart).
Phase 4: Closure
Student
understanding is
summarized and
linked to previous
understanding.
Phase 5:
Application
Students apply their
understanding in a
new context.
Materials
Summary of understanding:
Students are asked to work in pairs in order to
 Revise their blood group chart
 Explain to each other why it is important to do a blood type test before giving a person a
blood transfusion (must use the terms antigen and antibodies in their explanation).
 Explain how the blood plays a part in the body’s defense (must use the terms red blood
cells, plasma, antigens, antibodies and immune system in their explanation.
Objective activity:
Hypothetical organ donation case study with one donor and 5 possible recipients. Partners
select the recipients who will need anti-rejection medication and tell each other reasons for
their selection.
6 copies of Blood Group Chart Worksheet and Organ Donation Scenario Worksheet
Possible set up to show electronic simulation as technology option:
http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/landsteiner/
Rev. 9-20-06
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