[Terms in BLUE were previously defined]
1. (1-3 Pg 80) VOLCANISM – two mountain building processes in which magma
(molten rock) either breaks through the surface (lava) = volcano,
OR pushes up the earth’s crust = doming
(a) volcanism is one of nature’s “constructive” forces
2. (3 Pg 80) GEOLOGY – the scientific study of the structure of the earth, its history,
and the forces that affect it, plus rocks and minerals
3. (3 Pg 80) EXTINCTION – the condition of having been removed from existence
(a) volcanoes = no longer active or having eruptions
(b) plants & animals = none of their species exist any longer or their
numbers are so small they cannot reproduce quickly
enough for their species to survive
4. (1-3 Pg 81) ORGANISM – any living thing, plant or animal (unicellular or multicellular)
(a) also an agent of mechanical and chemical weathering
(b) (e.g.) mechanical weathering: plant roots, burrowing animals
(e.g.) chemical weathering: lichen, moss
5. (1-3 Pg 81) BIOTIC – pertaining to life and living things
(a) synonym = organism; organic
(b) antonym = abiotic
(c) (e.g.) in soil  the decayed plant and animal remains
6. (3 Pg 81) FOSSIL – remains or impressions of plants or animal naturally preserved
mostly in sedimentary rocks
True Form  fossils of the actual plant/animal (e.g. bones, teeth)
Trace Fossil / Ichnofossil  indicates animal evidence (e.g. nests,
footprints, scat)
Mold Fossil  only the imprint of the organism remains after
Cast Fossil  a natural occurring “replica” of the actual organism
7. (3 Pg 81) SEDIMENTARY ROCK – rock formed from bits of rock, plant and animal
remains material (sediment) deposited in water
and then transported from one place to another
(a) usually appears layered
(b) type of rock that contains fossils
(c) (e.g.) limestone, shale, coal
(at Dana Point Harbor) sandstone, conglomerate and breccia
8. (3 Pg 81) INSECT – an invertebrate (no backbone) with 3 body segments (head,
thorax, and abdomen), 3 pairs of legs and usually wings once it
reaches adulthood
(a) the kind of organism whose life cycle consists of an egg, larva, pupa
and adult stages in complete metamorphosis OR egg, nymph and
adult stages in incomplete/simple metamorphosis
(b) insects are the most numerous animal on Earth
(c) insects/invertebrates are one of the largest groups of decomposers
9. (3 Pg 81) AMPHIBIAN – a cold-blooded, vertebrate without scales, feathers, fur
or hair which has gills in the early stages of development;
living partly in aquatic habitats and partly on dry land
(a) (e.g.) frog, salamander
10. (3 Pg 81) REPTILE – a cold-blooded (ectothermic), air breathing (has lungs)
vertebrate (with a backbone) covered with scales or boney
plates (reduces water loss)
(a) (e.g.) snakes, alligators, lizards, turtles, chameleons
11. (3 Pg 82) SCAVENGER – an organism which ingests (eats) dead (carrion / carcass)
(a) (e.g.) vulture, buzzard, condor, jackal, hyenas, catfish
12. (2/3 Pg 82) DECOMPOSER – a plant or animal which feeds on dead material causing
its breakdown into a simpler form
(a) F B I: (mnemonic device) for the 3 largest groups of decomposers:
F = fungus; B = bacteria; I = invertebrate/insects
13. (1-3 Pg 82) ROCK – a non-living (abiotic) material composed of one or more
(a) “3” types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic
14. (1/3 Pg 82) CONSUMER – an organism, that preys on and ingests (eats) other
(a) synonym = heterotroph
(b) antonym = producer; autotroph
(c) “4” types: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and insectivores
(d) (e.g.) rabbit, hawk, humans, spiders
(e) 1st level consumer = eats producers [(e.g.) mouse]
2nd level consumer = eats a 1st level consumer [(e.g.) hawk]
Tertiary consumer = eats a 2nd level consumer [(e.g.) mountain lion]
15. (1-3 Pg 82) MINERAL – an inorganic (non-living/abiotic) substance found in
nature (not human made) which forms rocks
(a) has a definite chemical composition and crystalline structure
16. (3 Pg 82) WOOD – the part of a tree that supports the tree and carries water and
nutrients from the roots to the leaves
(a) also known as “heartwood” - the “backbone” of the tree holding the
tree upright and supporting its mass
(b) phloem - the “living tissues” carrying sugars (glucose), produced
by photosynthesis, and nutrients to all parts of the plant
found in the inner most layer of the bark
(c) xylem – transports water and some nutrients from the roots to the
rest of the plant
17. (3 Pg 83) HABITAT – a region where a plant or animal naturally lives, which
includes food, water, shelter and space suitable to the
organism’s needs
18. (3 Pg 83) SCAT – animal droppings or feces
(a) Scatology is the study of animal diet through the examination of scat