2012-2013 Calendar Proof BIOL BIOLOGY Students should note that in the Science Faculty the minimum acceptable grade in a course which is required by a particular program or is used to meet a prerequisite, is a "C". Any student who fails to attain a "C" or better in such a course must repeat the course (at the next regular session) until a grade of "C" or better is attained. Students will not be eligible for graduation until such deficiencies are removed. The only exception will be granted for a single course with a “D” grade that is a normal part of the final year of that program, and is being taken for the first time in the final year. Note: See Courses -> Saint John or Fredericton -> Standard Course Abbreviations in the online undergraduate calendar for an explanation of abbreviations, course numbers and coding. BIOL 1001 Biological Principles, Part I 3 ch (3C) Surveys principles of biology from the nuclear level to the cell. Topics include energy capture and use, metabolism, origins of life, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structures and functions, heredity and evolution. Note: This course is designed for science students or other students planning to major in Biology. Students intending to major in Biology must also take BIOL 1006. BIOL 1006 Applications in Biology, Part I 2 ch (3L) [W] Instruction and laboratory work dealing with applications of Biology at the level of biological molecules and the cell. Pre- or co-requisite: BIOL 1001. BIOL 1012 Biological Principles, Part II 3 ch (3C) Surveys the structure, function and evolution of selected plants and animals. Topics include ecosystems and ecological interactions. Note: Students intending to major in Biology must also take BIOL 1017. Prerequisite: BIOL 1001. BIOL 1017 Applications in Biology, Part II 2 ch (3L) [W] Instruction and laboratory work dealing with applications of Biology at the level of organisms and their ecological interactions. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006. Pre- or co-requisite: BIOL 1012. BIOL 1621 Topics in Biology I: Life on a Changing Planet 3 ch (3C) This course will introduce students to the biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of life on Earth through exploration of the ever-changing nature of Earth’s ecosystems. We will address topics such as major groups of plants and animals through the history of life; responses of individual organisms, populations, and species to changing environments; climate change in past, present and future; and human impacts on the biosphere. Note: This course is not equivalent to BIOL 1001 or 1012, and is restricted to students who have not received prior credit for Biology 1001 or 1012. BIOL 1622 Topics in Biology II: Life on Smaller Scales 3 ch (3C) This course will introduce students to biological concepts that apply to everyday life. Topics will be chosen to help students understand the molecular interactions that are essential for life, the cellular processes that are required for survival and reproduction, and the importance of these to human health, industry, and the environment. Note: This course is not equivalent to BIOL 1001 or 1012, and is restricted to students who have not received prior credit 2012-2013 Calendar Proof for Biology 1001 or 1012. BIOL 1711 Human Anatomy I 4 ch (3C 2L) (LE) This course is a general study of human anatomy which will include the following systems: integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous (including eye and ear), cardiovascular, lymphatic, urinary, digestive, respiratory, and reproductive. Limited enrollment, priority given to Kinesiology and Nursing students. Co-requisite: BIOL 1001 or permission of the instructor. BIOL 1782 Human Physiology I 4 ch (3C 2L) An introduction to the various systems that comprise the human body. Emphasis will be on integration of these systems for maintenance of homeostasis. Note: Limited enrollment, Nursing and Kinesiology students only. Prerequisite: BIOL 1711. BIOL 1846 Introduction to the Vascular Plants of New Brunswick 4 ch (C/L) An intensive seven day course, normally offered in the intersession or summer semester, exploring the floristic diversity of NB concentrating on the southern region. There will be an emphasis on plant identification and an introduction to botanical classification. The program for each day consists of morning lectures and lab work, afternoons in the field, and evenings with more lectures and lab work BIOL 2025 Research Foundations in Cellular Biology 4 ch (1C 3L) (LE) [W] Includes techniques and approaches to the study of life at the cellular level; topics in Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Genetics. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017; and CHEM 1012, 1017, or CHEM 1982, 1987. BIOL 2033 Biochemistry 3 ch (3C) An introduction to the molecular nature, chemical properties and activities of the major biological macromolecules: nucleic acids, amino acids, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates and lipids. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017; and CHEM 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017, or CHEM 1001, 1006, 1982, 1987. Pre- or Co-requisite: CHEM 2401 or CHEM 2421 or permission of the instructor. Chemistry (Majors and Honours) students and Chemical Engineering students are not required to have taken BIOL 1006 and BIOL 1017. BIOL 2043 Cell Biology 3 ch (3C) An introduction to the structure and function of cells. Topics include: structure and function of biological membranes, the endomembrane system, mitochondria and chloroplast structure/function and the cytoskeleton. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017; and CHEM 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017, or CHEM 1001, 1006, 1982, 1987; and BIOL 2033 or permission of the instructor. BIOL 2053 Genetics 3 ch (3C 1T) Basic concepts of classical genetics including Mendelian genetics, gene interactions, sex linkage, linkage mapping and recombination, complementation are introduced. These are integrated with current topics including gene and chromosome structure and function, mutation, gene expression, transposable elements, extra nuclear genetics, quantitative and population genetics. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 2073 Fundamentals of Microbiology 5 ch (3C 3L) (LE) [W] An introduction to the physiology, ecology and biotechnology of micro-organisms. Topics include bacterial structures and their function, metabolic diversity, interactions of bacteria with their environments including their impact on human health, and the exploitation of microbes by industry. Fundamental aspects of viral infection will be introduced with an emphasis on prokaryotic viruses. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 2083 Botany 5 ch (3C 3L) (LE) [W] Explores diversity in form, structure and function in major plant groups, and how these organisms live and 2012-2013 Calendar Proof reproduce in their particular environments. Probable homologies and evolutionary relationships are discussed. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 2093 Zoology 5 ch (3C 3L) (LE) [W] Classification, functional morphology, development and evolution of the major animal groups. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 2105 Research Foundations in Ecology/Populations 4 ch (1C 3L) (LE) [W] Techniques and approaches to the study of life at the populations level. Includes topics in Ecology, Population Biology and Evolution. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 2113 An Introduction to Ecology 3 ch (3C) Introduces concepts of ecology common to terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Major themes studied are adaptations by species and the ecology of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 2143 Evolution 3 ch (3C) An introduction to the development of a body of theory explaining biological diversity, from pre-Darwinian ideas to current issues in evolutionary biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 2251 Clinical Microbiology 3 ch (3C) Introduction to the fundamental concepts of infectious disease microbiology. Discusses bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, helminths and arthropods. (Available as an elective to Year III and IV Biology students.) BIOL 2422 Plant Propagation (O) 3 ch (4C/L) (LE) Provides knowledge and skills by direct involvement with the propagation of plants in greenhouses; also in laboratory using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Field trips provide an overview of commercial, research, and private operations that propagate plants on a large scale. Limited enrollment. BIOL 2469 Work Term Report I. Cr A written report on the scientific activities of the work term. Credit for the course is dependent in part on the employer's evaluation of the student's work. Student must be accepted into the Co-operative Work Experience Program in Biology in order to register for this course. BIOL 2501 Pathophysiology I 3 ch (3C) (LE) Introduces students to the study of the disruption of the normal balance of selected systems of the human body by disease and other perturbations. Note: Limited enrollment. Nursing students and BMLS students have first priority. Others may apply to the Chair of the Department of Biology. Prerequisite: BIOL 1782. BIOL 2513 Pathophysiology II 3 ch (3C) (LE) A continuation of BIOL 2501 with emphasis on perturbations to the normal functioning of organ systems. Note: Limited enrollment. Nursing students and BMLS students have first priority. Others may apply to the Chair of the Department of Biology. Prerequisite: BIOL 2501. BIOL 2721 Human Physiology II 4 ch (3C 2L) (LE) This course is a continuation of BIOL 1782 with emphasis on metabolism, muscle and bone physiology , immune responses and healing. Limited enrollment, Kinesiology students only. Prerequisite: BIOL 1782. BIOL 2753 Introduction to Human Anatomy 3ch (3C) This course examines human anatomy from a regional perspective. It will emphasize the musculoskeletal, nervous and cardiovascular systems. Note: Biology majors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective. 2012-2013 Calendar Proof Students cannot get credit for both this course and BIOL 2812. BIOL 2761 Human Physiology – Metabolism 3ch (3C) (LE) This is an introductory level course in human physiology. Selected topics covered include metabolism, muscle and bone physiology, the immune system, healing and homeostasis. Biology majors cannot count this course as a Biology credit but may use it as an elective. Students cannot get credit for both this course and BIOL 2721. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006. BIOL 2792 Human Physiology - Systems 3 ch (3C) This course will introduce students to the various systems that comprise the human body with emphasis on the integration of these systems for maintenance of homeostasis. The systems that will be covered in detail are the cardiovascular system, pulmonary system, renal system, endocrine system, gastro-intestinal system and the nervous system. Biology majors cannot count this course as a Biology Credit, only as an elective. Students cannot get credit for both this course and BIOL 1782. BIOL 2812 Human Anatomy II 4 ch (3C 2L) (LE) This course is a continuation of BIOL 1711 which will study human anatomy from a regional perspective, and will expand especially upon the musculoskeletal, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. Kinesiology students only. Limited Enrollment. Prerequisite: BIOL 1711. BIOL 3031 Cell Signaling 3 ch (3C) Examines the principles of gene expression and cellular regulation. The perception of extra- and intracellular signals, intracellular signal transduction pathways and the control of cell function will be examined while emphasizing experimental approaches. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2043, Recommended: BIOL 2053. BIOL 3058 Genetic Analysis Laboratory 4ch (5C/L/T) (LE) An exploration of gene inheritance, mutation, regulation of gene expression, and genetic interactions. The laboratories involve the use of model eukaryotic organisms to ask questions about physiology and development at the organismal, cellular and molecular levels. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 2025, 2053. BIOL 3073 Molecular Aspects of Gene Expression 3 ch (3C) The structures and functions of all biological entities are dependent upon gene expression. In this course, we will explore selected topics in gene expression from a molecular genetic and biochemical perspective. Topics may include: genome and gene structure, the processes of transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the structures and functions of RNA polymerase and the ribosome, the fine scale structures of gene promoters, and a detailed mechanistic examination of how gene expression is regulated. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2053, 2073. Recommended: BIOL 2025. BIOL 3102 Somatic Cytology and Histology (O) 4 ch (2C 3L) (LE) A study of cell structure using prepared slides. Normally offered in intersession or summer session. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 3113 Evolutionary Ecology 5 ch (3C 3L) This lecture and lab-based course explores key ideas about ecological causes of evolutionary change. Topics will include natural and sexual selection, life histories, phenotypic plasticity, mating systems, evolutionary conflict, and co-evolution. Prerequisites: BIOL 2113, 2143. BIOL 3133 Selected Topics in Biochemistry I (A) 3 ch (3C) Principles of intermediate metabolism with particular reference to physical exercise and selected biomedical topics. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2043. BIOL 3149 Independent Studies 3 ch (R) [W] 2012-2013 Calendar Proof Allows academically strong, highly motivated students to write a report on a subject of interest. The student should discuss the topic with the staff member best qualified to give approval of the subject matter and to give guidance during the year. Application is made to the Director of Undergraduate Studies (Biology Department). BIOL 3153 Selected Topics in Biochemistry II (A) 3 ch (3C) A medically oriented course which emphasizes molecular underpinnings of the healthy and diseased states with particular reference to topics in blood biochemistry. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2043. BIOL 3163 Selected Topics in Biochemistry III (A) 3 ch (3C) A medically oriented course which emphasizes molecular underpinnings of the healthy and diseased states with particular reference to topics in bone and joint biochemistry. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2043. BIOL 3173 Marine Biology Field Course 4 ch (C/L/T) (LE) Introduces the study of the seashore and coastal waters. Emphasizes nature and ecology of littoral flora and fauna and practical methods of study. Held at the Huntsman Marine Science Centre in St. Andrews, N.B. Twelve days in length, given immediately after spring examinations. A charge for accommodation is required. Enrollment limited, selection based on CGPA. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 3181 Embryology 4 ch (2C 3L) (LE) A laboratory investigation of the dynamics of embryonic development in animals. Students will observe and manipulate the development of living and fixed embryos representing a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate species, focusing on developing a conceptual understanding of the establishment of embryonic axes, origins of tissues and organs, the spatial and temporal relationships between structures, and the technological approaches to investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying developmental specification and morphogenesis. Advanced microscopy and image processing, micro-dissection, histochemical and molecular biological techniques will be applied. Students will be required to develop and demonstrate a novel laboratory investigation elucidating some aspect of animal development and/or develop a technique or teaching tool that can be applied to the investigation of embryonic development. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 2043, 2053. Strongly recommended: BIOL 2033, 2093. BIOL 3206 Advanced Microbiology Laboratory 4 ch (2C 3L) (LE) [W] Biochemical, molecular and genetic methods are applied to the study of bacteria and their viruses. Projects examine cell structure, function and physiological responses of bacteria, and the life cycle, genetics and assembly of bacteriophage T4. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 2025, 2033, 2043, 2053, 2073, or equivalents. Pre- or co-requisite: BIOL 3261. Recommended: BIOL 3493. BIOL 3242 Molecular Evolution 3 ch (3C) The course provides a synthesis of our understanding of evolution at the molecular level. It covers the dynamics of evolutionary change (i.e., rates and patterns), the driving forces behind the evolutionary process, the effects of various molecular mechanisms and processes on the structure and evolution of genes and genomes. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033 , 2053. Strongly recommended: BIOL 2143. BIOL 3261 Microbial Physiology 3 ch (3C) Principles of prokaryotic physiology including synthesis and function of cellular components, metabolism and growth, and regulation of cellular processes. Topics include the response of bacteria to environmental factors, the physiology of bacterial-host interactions, bacterial genetics, and molecular and genomic tools to study microbial physiology. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2043, 2053, 2073. BIOL 3279 Work Term Report II A written report on the scientific activities of the work term. Credit for the course is dependent in part on the employer's evaluation of the student's work. Student must be accepted into the Co-operative Work Experience Cr 2012-2013 Calendar Proof Program in Biology in order to register for this course. Prerequisite: BIOL 2469. BIOL 3289 Work Term Report III Cr A written report on the scientific activities of the work term. Credit for the course is dependent in part on the employer’s evaluation of the student’s work. Student must be accepted into the Co-operative Work Experience Program in Biology in order to register for this course. Prerequisite: BIOL 3279. BIOL 3293 Population Genetics 3ch (3C 1T) An introduction to the branch of evolutionary biology concerned with the genetic structure of populations and how it changes through space and time. Topics will include the main evolutionary forces and their effects on patterns of phenotypic and molecular variation within and among populations, molecular markers and their applications in evolutionary and conservation biology, and an introduction to unifying concepts such as the genetics of speciation, molecular evolution, and population genomics. Tutorials will emphasize the use of different computer packages for the analysis and interpretation of the data encountered in population genetics. Prerequisites: BIOL 2053, 2143; STAT 2264 or equivalent. Recommended: BIOL 2113. BIOL 3301 Taxonomy of the Flowering Plants (O) 5 ch (3C 3L) Why is it that the flowering plants are the most recently evolved of all the major plant groups yet they are by far the most diverse and abundant? The diversity of flowering plants and their identification, description and classification will be emphasized in relation to the flora of New Brunswick and major flowering plant families of the world. Prerequisite: BIOL 2083. BIOL 3311 Immunobiology 3 ch (3C) Production and function of the immunoglobulins, characteristics of immunogens, prevention of infectious disease, hypersensitivity and allergy, transplantation and autoimmune diseases. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2043 or permission of instructor. BIOL 3383 Research Foundations in Field Ecology 4 ch (C/L/T) (LE) Introduces field biology with emphasis on the organism, population and ecosystem levels of complexity. Based on direct observation, field techniques and analysis. Held just prior to the beginning of the academic year - 6 days in length. Further work must be completed during the Fall term. Enrollment is limited, based on CGPA. The location of this course may vary. Depending upon the location, accommodation will be required. Please refer to notices posted in the Biology Department. Prerequisite: BIOL 2113 or equivalent. BIOL 3423 Forest Tree Genetics and Genomics (A) 3 ch (3C) Principles of variation and inheritance in forest trees will be introduced. Then, various genetics, genomics, biotechnology and breeding concepts and principles and their applications in tree biology, tree improvement, silviculture, conservation of genetic resources and sustainable forest management, will be discussed. The topics will include: basic principles of quantitative, molecular, population and conservation genetics; genetic variation, differentiation and evolution of populations; reproductive biology; ecophysiological genetics of adaptation; tree improvement concepts, methods and programs; silvicultural practices and genetic resource conservation; discovery and functional analysis of genes; organization and mapping of genomes; marker-assisted selection and molecular breeding; and genetic engineering of forest trees. This course is cross-listed as FOR 3425; students cannot receive credit for both BIOL 3423 and FOR 3425. Prerequisite: BIOL 2053 or permission of instructor. 2012-2013 Calendar Proof BIOL 3441 Forest Ecology: Populations and Communities 4 ch (3C 3L) To understand and link processes acting on individuals, populations and communities in space and time. To predict the response of individuals, populations and communities to disturbance, and to understand the implications of such responses for management of populations, communities and ecosystems. This course is cross-listed as FOR 3445; students cannot receive credit for both BIOL 3441 and FOR 3445. Prerequisites: BIOL 2083, 2113, or FOR 2425, 2505. BIOL 3459 Economic Botany (O) 3 ch (3C) Discusses concepts and principles that can be derived from the biological, sociological and economic impact of the use of plants for food, shelter, landscaping and general well-being. Considers the different methods and reasons why various plants are cultivated and/or utilized by humans. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 3493 Introduction to Virology 3 ch (3C) This course covers the fundamental features of virology including the structure and classification of viruses. We will examine the processes of viral attachment, replication, expression and assembly, and discuss various virushost interactions including transmission, latency, evolution and disease. Modern advances in virology will also be addressed such as antivirals, vaccines, prion diseases and viral ecology. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2043, 2073. BIOL 3521 Plant Function: Physiology and Metabolism 5 ch (3C 3L) The course will focus on the mechanisms underlying the uptake, transport and use of carbon, water, and mineral nutrients to provide an introduction to how plants make a living. Photosynthesis, respiration, water and mineral relations are discussed at the biochemical, cellular, whole-leaf and whole-plant scales. The relationship between primary metabolism and global atmospheric climate change will be discussed. Additional topics include the effect of abiotic environmental stresses on plants, including herbivory, extreme temperature, drought, flooding, and pollution. Prerequisites: BIOL 2025, 2033. BIOL 3541 Plant Ecology (A) 5 ch (3C 3L) A course on the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of plants, how pattern and structure at the level of populations and communities can be described quantitatively, and how these arise from the interaction of abiotic (climate, fire, soil) and biotic (competition, herbivory) factors. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 3593 Basic Animal Histology (O) 4 ch (2C 3L) This introduction to the scientific study of animal tissues by light microscopy will examine, through lecture and laboratory, various tissues and organs from vertebrate animal species, as well as the cell types that make up these structures. Methods used in histology will also be reviewed. Normally offered in intersession or summer session. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 3602 Invertebrate Zoology (A) 5 ch (3C 3L) A study of the invertebrate phyla, emphasizing evolutionary origins, adaptive morphology and physiology, while covering anatomical ground plans and basic developmental patterns. Laboratory exercises include numerous dissections, and students doing an anatomical atlas of an invertebrate animal of their choice. Prerequisite: BIOL 2093. BIOL 3673 General Parasitology 3 ch (3C) The biology of parasites of humans, animals of veterinary significance, and wildlife species. This course serves to integrate parasite life history, epidemiology, molecular interactions at the host-parasite interface, mechanisms of infection, host immune responses, parasite immune evasion mechanisms, pathology, diagnostics, control strategies, and therapeutics. Prerequisite: BIOL 2033. Recommended: BIOL 2093. BIOL 3703 Vertebrate Zoology 5 ch (3C 3L) (LE) Stresses interrelationships between structure and function particularly as responses to a variable environment. 2012-2013 Calendar Proof Considers phylogeny and taxonomy of major groups. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: BIOL 2093. BIOL 3801 Animal Physiology 3 ch (3C) This course examines, at a fundamental level, the ways by which animals function, with an emphasis on physiological adaptations to the environment. Topics covered include respiration and circulation, metabolism and bioenergetics, thermal adaptation, ionic and osmotic regulation, and integrative neuromuscular, endocrine, and sensory physiology. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. Strongly recommended: BIOL 2033, 2043, 2093. BIOL 3873 Ethology (A) 3 ch (3C) Considers physiological foundations of behaviour and deals with topics of motivation, displacement behaviour, hormones, evolution and learning. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017. BIOL 3883 Entomology (O) 5 ch (3C 3L) Ecology, evolution, taxonomy, and diversity of insects, both terrestrial and aquatic. This course studies the most diverse group of animals on Earth: the Insecta. Topics include insect body plans, growth, and development; major evolutionary groups of insects; ecological and economic importance of insects; insect collection and identification. Students will make and curate insect collections (this will be accomplished most easily by students who begin the summer before taking the course; interested students should contact the instructor for more information). Prerequisite: BIOL 2093 or permission of instructor. BIOL 3908 Laboratory Studies in Vertebrate Physiology 3 ch (1C 3L) (LE) [W] A study of selected physiological concepts via laboratory experimentation, with emphasis on presentation and interpretation of data in relation to the literature. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: BIOL 2025; pre- or corequisite: BIOL 3801. BIOL 3943 Hypothesis Testing in Biology 3ch (3C 1T) This course provides an introduction to methods that Biologists use to address, develop and test hypotheses in biology. We will ask: How do students, researchers, and professionals in biology set up questions for their research and/or assess evidence? How do they design their experiments? What traps and pitfalls do they know to look out for? How do we know if a scientific study is flawed? This course focuses more on ideas about why we do statistics and how to interpret them, rather than the mathematical details of different tests. Examples will range from cell biology to community ecology. Students will be exposed to a range of computer software necessary to explore, interpret and understand data and test hypotheses. This course will be important for students taking upper-year lab or field courses and Honours by thesis. Prerequisite: Stat 2264 or equivalent. BIOL 4082 Advanced Genetics 3 ch (3C) Selected topics in genetics that include both classical and molecular approaches, such as genome organization, biochemical genetics, developmental genetics, behavioural genetics, and regulation of cell growth. The process of research, particularly experimental design and interpretation of results is emphasized. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2043, 2053, 2073, or equivalent. Recommended: Completion of the Year II Organismal component. BIOL 4090 Honours Thesis Project 6 ch [W] Biology and Biology-Chemistry Honours students who wish to undertake a thesis project are encouraged to make their wishes known to individual members of faculty. If a potential supervisor is found, the student will obtain an instruction sheet from the Undergraduate Biology office and make application to the Chair of Biology for admission into BIOL 4090 before preregistration at the end of the third year. This course involves preparation, design and execution of a research project under the direct supervision of a member of the Department as well as the preparation of a formal thesis and defense of the thesis in a seminar presentation. Note: Minimum CGPA for acceptance is 3.0. A student cannot receive credit for both BIOL 4090 and 4149. 2012-2013 Calendar Proof BIOL 4123 Selected Topics in Evolution 3 ch (3C) “Nothing makes sense except in the light of evolution” (Dobzhansky, 1964). This course discusses the most important developments in modern evolutionary biology, and includes topics such as the origin of life; the evolution of cells; the evolution of multicellularity, development and cancer; the evolution of individuality and complexity; the evolution of cooperation and altruism; the evolution of sex and death; the evolution of societies and languages. In addition, the course examines specific evolutionary mechanisms, forces and consequences, such as mutation and selection, symbiosis, life history traits, germ-soma separation and cell differentiation. Prerequisites: BIOL 2043, 2053, 2143. BIOL 4149 Senior Research Project 5 ch [W] Gives academically strong and highly motivated students in Year IV an opportunity to do a literature or research project on a subject of interest. The student should discuss the topic with the staff member best qualified to give approval of the subject matter and to give guidance during the year. Application is made to the Biology Director of Undergraduate Studies. A student cannot receive credit for both BIOL 4090 and 4149. BIOL 4162 Developmental Biology of Animals 3 ch (3C) In-depth discussion and analysis of animal development emphasizing biochemical and molecular aspects of the phenomena involved using selected examples. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2043, 2053. Recommended: BIOL 2093 and 3181. BIOL 4191 Wildlife Management (A) 3 ch (3C) Studies biological, economic, and human factors affecting wildlife populations. Prerequisites: BIOL 1001, 1006, 1012, 1017; and STAT 2253 or 2264 or equivalent. BIOL 4211 Marine Research Experience 2 ch (4 L) (LE) Students enrolled in the Marine Biology Concentration semester will be introduced to the research themes and practices in the laboratories of their professors. Groups of students will cycle through all of the marine research labs for hands on research experience throughout the semester. Students will be expected to compile short scientific-style reports outlining the results of their respective projects in each research laboratory experience. Limited enrollment. Normally taken in the same term as BIOL 4221, 4631, 4641, 4851, 4991 as part of the Marine Biology Concentration. BIOL 4221 Diversity, Evolution and Ecology of Marine Plants 4 ch (C/L/S) (LE) This course will survey the diversity of marine plants (seaweed and phytoplankton) relative to one another and the other key lineages of life; exploring their diverse anatomical, cytological, life history and ecological attributes. In the laboratory students will use microscopy to explore vegetative and reproductive features of the various marine plants in our area. A significant component of the laboratory portion of the course will derive from work in the field collecting specimens for personal herbaria and completing biodiversity assessments (a cost may be associated with this trip). Prerequisite: BIOL 2083 or permission of the instructor. Limited enrollment. Normally taken in the same term as BIOL 4211, 4631, 4641, 4851, 4991 as part of the Marine Biology Concentration. BIOL 4233 Conservation Biology 3 ch (3C/L) An overview of the theory and practice of maintaining biological diversity at genetic, species, and ecosystem levels. The course focuses on scientific principles and technical tools in conservation biology. Pre- or co-requisite: BIOL 2113 or permission of instructor. BIOL 4272 Biochemistry Seminar 3 ch (4S) (LE) [W] A project-oriented seminar course where students will examine all aspects of a selected topic. The theme will involve biochemistry but students are expected to explore the political, social, economic, and ethical aspects of the topic to fully examine the impact of biochemistry on society. Students are expected to give seminars, participate in discussion and write on the assigned topic. This course is designed for students in their last year of study and has limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 3031, 4082 or permission of instructor. 2012-2013 Calendar Proof BIOL 4289 Work Term Report IV Cr A written report on the scientific activities of the work term. Credit for the course is dependent in part on the employer’s evaluation of the student’s work. Student must be accepted into the Co-operative Work Experience Program in Biology in order to register for this course. Prerequisite: BIOL 3289. BIOL 4352 Climate Change and Environmental Response 3 ch (3C) Examines theories and patterns of climate change since the last Ice Age. A variety of paleoecological techniques applied to a number of fossil organisms will be discussed in relation to the information they yield about past environments. Prerequisite: Introductory course in anthropology, biology, or geology. May only be taken by students who have completed two years of their program. BIOL 4413 Environmental Plant Physiology (O) 3 ch (3C/S) An advanced seminar-style course emphasizing the responses of photosynthesis and other key aspects of plant metabolism to short - and long - term environmental variation. Among the topics that may be considered are the effect of changing atmospheric CO2, the acclimation to elevated temperatures, the physiological adaptations that influence plant energy balance, and the regulation of photosynthesis. Prerequisite: BIOL 3521 or permission of the instructor. BIOL 4423 Resource Conservation Genetics (A) 3 ch (3C) This class will examine the application of genetic principles, concepts and biotechnologies in conservation, sustainable management and restoration of natural and managed resources. The topics will include: concepts of genetic resources, genetic biodiversity and other population genetic parameters, demography, conservation, sustainable management, ecological restoration, and minimum viable population size; indicators for population viability; exploration, evaluation, utilization, and conservation of genetic resources; genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation, resource management practices, domestication, climate change, and natural disturbance; and challenges, opportunities and strategies for conservation and sustainable management of genetic resources. This course is cross-listed as FOR 4425; students cannot receive credit for both BIOL 4423 and FOR 4425. Prerequisite: BIOL 2053 or 2143, or permission of the instructor. BIOL 4443 International Ecology Field Course (A) 4 ch (C/L/T) (LE) This course allows students an on-site exposure and understanding of ecological interactions of soil, climate, plants and animals in a region outside of the Maritimes. A 10-14 day field trip to the region is required. Weekly seminars will be held in the period before the field trip. Students will be charged for travel and costs associated with the course. Limited enrollment. Open to biology and forestry students, or with permission of the instructor. BIOL 4533 Bioinformatics: Computational Analysis of Genes and Genomes 4ch (2C 4L) (LE) Explores computational methods used in sequence analysis of genomes, genes, RNAs, and proteins. Topics include sequence alignment, genome database searching, gene prediction, RNA and protein structure, DNA and protein sequence comparison, and phylogenetic analysis. These topics will be integrated into the context of research in genetics and molecular biology. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 2033, 2043, 2053, 2025. BIOL 4563 Mathematical Biology (A) 3 ch (3C) Overview of the field of mathematical biology. Development, simulation and analysis of simple mathematical models describing biological systems. Equal emphasis is placed on developing simple models and case studies of successful models. The principal mathematical tools are differential and difference equations, finite mathematics, probability and statistics. This course is intended for students in their third or fourth year having an interest in biological research. Prerequisites: a course in statistics, MATH 2003, 2013 or equivalent, or permission of the instructor. This course is cross-listed as MATH 4563. Credit may not be obtained for both MATH 4563 and BIOL 4563. BIOL 4631 Biological Oceanography 4 ch (C/L/S) (LE) This course considers how oceans, which cover more than 70% of the earth’s surface, act as a dominant environmental force. It examines the processes regulating the abundance, diversity, distribution and production of 2012-2013 Calendar Proof microbes, phytoplankton, zooplankton and higher trophic levels. By exploring the influences of physical factors (i.e. tides, waves, upwelling, light), we will see how temporal and spatial scales are critical for understanding the living ocean. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 2025, 2033, 2105, 2113, 2143; and two of BIOL 2073, 2083 or 2093. Normally taken in the same term as BIOL 4211, 4221, 4641, 4851, 4991 as part of the Marine Biology Concentration. BIOL 4641 Coastal Marine Ecology 4 ch (C/L/S) (LE) This course examines the ecology of shorelines, with a focus on the Atlantic coast. Topics include the setting (continental drift, sea level, species origins, water movement), primary and secondary production, reproduction and recruitment, patterns (zonation) and processes (competition, mutualism, predation, disturbance), and main habitats (rocky shores, mudflats, salt marshes) There may be an additional charge for one-day field trips. Limited enrollment. Prerequisites: BIOL 2093, 2105, 2113. Normally taken in the same term as BIOL 4211, 4221, 4631, 4851, 4991 as part of the Marine Biology Concentration. BIOL 4688 Applied Studies in Parasitology 4 ch (C/L/S) (LE) [W] Designed as a follow up to a general lecture-based course in Parasitology, and to be offered during intersession or summer session. This course emphasizes the hands-on study of animal parasites and will incorporate both field investigations and laboratory work. Students will receive training in postmortem examination, microscopy, histology, diagnostics (morphological, molecular, and immunological), experimental design, scientific writing and data presentation. There may be an additional charge for field trips (e.g. to aquaculture sites, domestic livestock farms). Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: BIOL 3673 or permission of instructor. BIOL 4723 Ornithology 5 ch (3C 3L) [W] Studies birds; natural selection, morphological adaptations, migration, behaviour, and reproduction, in an ecological way. Prerequisite: BIOL 2093 or permission of instructor. BIOL 4732 Mammalogy 5 ch (3C 3L) Studies mammals, covering taxonomy, adaptations, reproduction, populations, physiology, behaviour and ecology. Pre- or co-requisite: BIOL 2093. BIOL 4741 Fish Biology 2 ch (2C) A comprehensive study of fishes from the Agnatha to specialized teleosts. Topics covered include functional morphology, phylogeny, reproduction, predator-prey relations, behaviour, populations and communities, aquatic ecosystems, and conservation biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 2093, 2105, 2113, 2143. BIOL 4746 Advanced Studies in Ichthyology 3 ch (5L) (LE) [W] An intensive course that stresses laboratory and field investigations of aspects of ichthyology covered in BIOL4741. Field trips to freshwater and marine sites will focus on assessing population size, species diversity and environmental impacts. Laboratory exercises will include ageing, fish taxonomy, and comparative functional morphology. Work will incorporate both group study and individual projects with an emphasis on scientific analysis and interpretation of data including a formal seminar presentation. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: BIOL 2093. Co-requisite: BIOL 4741 or permission of the instructor. BIOL 4773 River and Lake Ecosystems (A) 3 ch (3C) Provides a foundation of understanding of ecosystem processes in streams, lakes, and wetlands. Physical and biological components of such systems will be presented, and concepts and theories defining freshwater ecology will be discussed. Prerequisite: BIOL 2113. BIOL 4851 Ecology of Marine Birds 4 ch (C/L/S) (LE) This course treats seabirds as important components of marine food-webs. Fundamental adaptations (structure, function, physiology, life-history) of seabirds will be linked to the ecological processes driving them. The influence of major oceanographic patterns (bathymetry, currents, upwellings) on seabird distribution and numbers will be explored. Through exploration of the role of seabirds as predators of other marine biota, and in nutrient transfer 2012-2013 Calendar Proof between marine and terrestrial systems, students will gain a thorough understanding of the roles played by seabirds in marine and coastal systems. Course includes an overnight field trip to Grand Manan Island, for which there may be an extra cost. Examples will be drawn from current seabird research especially in Atlantic Canada. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: BIOL 2093 or permission of instructor. Normally taken in the same term as BIOL 4211, 4221, 4631, 4641, 4991 as part of the Marine Biology Concentration. BIOL 4863 Environmental Biology (A) 4 ch (5C/L/S) (LE) [W] Examines the effects of human activity upon the environment, both locally and globally. There may be an additional charge for field trips. Limited enrollment. Pre- or co-requisite: BIOL 2113 or equivalent. BIOL 4899 Population Analyses (O) 3 ch (5C/L/S) An evaluation of basic sampling and statistical issues for the design, analysis, and interpretation of animal and plant population research. Topics include sampling allocation, sampling sizes, P and Type errors, power and univariate vs multivariate tests; density dependence; assumptions and models; survival and natality rate analyses. Examples are based on contemporary research and literature. Prerequisites: introductory ecology and statistics courses, or permission of the instructor. BIOL 4991 Aquaculture in Canada 4 ch (C/L/S) (LE) Aquaculture is the aquatic equivalent to terrestrial agriculture. We are in the midst of a global transition from hunting and gathering wild aquatic organisms to farming them. This course examines the biological principles and constraints of commercial and pilot-scale aquaculture in Canada, with emphasis on the Atlantic region. Although the focus of the course is on fish culture, consideration is also given to bivalve and seaweed culture. Topics covered include controlled reproduction, genetics and biotechnology, nutrition and feeding, stress and disease, and sustainability. Includes an overnight field trip to the Bay of Fundy to visit commercial and research facilities (a cost may be associated with this trip). Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: BIOL 2093 or permission of the instructor. Normally taken in the same term as BIOL 4211, 4221, 4631, 4641, 4851 as part of the Marine Biology Concentration. BIOL 5473 Experimental Design and Data Analysis in Biology and Forestry 3 ch (3C) Introduces students who have previously taken a formal class in statistics to the practice and pitfalls of experimental design and data analysis in biology and forestry. It is intended for both graduate students and final year undergraduates (enrolled in an honours or senior research project). It will be jointly taught by faculty members from the Departments of Mathematics/Statistics, Biology and/or Forestry. Topics will be selected from sampling designs, experimental designs, parametric and non-parametric analysis, power analysis, and regression. The course will include discussion of examples in the literature. Students will also be analysing and interpreting data sets arising from their field of research. Prerequisite: STAT 2264 or equivalent. BIOL 6000 Series courses: (Graduate courses offered by the Department of Biology) Graduate courses are open to undergraduates who can show that a course is of special value to them in their area of specialization. For details of courses offered consult the Calendar of the School of Graduate Studies and Research.