Conservation measures and actions required

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Conservation Action Plan
Jacquemontia reclinata
Species Name: Jacquemontia reclinata House ex Small (1905)
Common Name(s): Beach jacquemontia, beach clustervine, fairy morning-glory
Synonym(s): J. havanensis (Roberty 1952)
Family: Convolvulaceae
Species/taxon description:
Root structure of perennial vine consists of fibrous root mass (10 x 15 cm) and numerous
lateral roots, which can extend up to 2m (Wright 2003). Numerous lateral stems radiate
from stout rootstock. Slender stems, woody at base, with many lateral branches,
spreading along the ground and reaching lengths of up to 2.5 m long. Stems may twine or
climb over other low vegetation, but generally do not ascend. Younger leaves and stems
may have enough soft down to appear whitish; older leaves and stems may appear
smooth. Leaves are entire, alternate, spirally arranged, and almost always have petioles.
Leaf blades are 2 – 4.5 cm long and 0.5 – 2.5 cm wide, and may be fleshy, elliptic to eggshaped, with the apex rounded or slightly notched. Light levels may significantly affect
the leaf size. Inflorescences are axillary, cymose or solitary. Flowers are white to light
pink with corollas shaped like broad funnels or nearly flat, 2.5 – 3 cm. in diameter, with
five broad lobes. Fruits are capsules, 4 – 6 mm long, opening by 8 valves, and light
brown when mature. Seeds are 2.5 – 3mm long and 0.1 – 0.2mm wide, and generally
occur 4 per capsule (Robertson 1971). Jacquemontia reclinata is closely related to J.
havanensis, J. curtissii and J. cayensis. The species only occurs on the coastal dune
community and can be distinguished from J. havanensis, J. curtissii and J. cayensis by
the presence of tiny hairs along the margins of the outer sepals, and broad, succulent
leaves (Austin 1979).
Legal Status: Florida endangered, federally endangered,
critically imperiled (FNAI, IRC)
Conservation Status: Native. Endemic.
Prepared by: Elena Pinto-Torres, Hannah Thornton, Samuel J. Wright and Cynthia
Lane, Conservation of South Florida Endangered and Threatened Flora (ETFLORA)
Project, Research Dept., Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden
Last Updated: April 2004 (Wright)
H. Thornton
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Background and Current Status
Range-wide distribution – past and present
Florida: (Confidential)
Population and reproductive biology/life history
Annual/Perennial: Perennial
Habit: Vine
Short/Long-lived: Suspected to be long-lived; lifespan unknown. Plant grown at FTG
nursery in large container lived to be over 10 years old (Thornton pers. comm.). Original
plants in the field tagged by Kernan are at least 7 years old. Original plants outplanted at
Site 6 are over 7 years old.
Pollinators: Believed to have a generalized pollination system. Twenty-two species of
insect pollinators were observed visiting flowers, mostly small bees and bee flies, some
flies, wasps, butterflies and ants (Pinto-Torres and Koptur 2003).
Flowering period: Flowers November to May (Robertson 1971). Flowers observed all
year (Austin 1991, Pinto-Torres and Koptur 2003), with increased flowering after rain
(Pinto-Torres, Thornton, and Wright pers. observation).
Fruiting: Fruits throughout flowering season, November to May (Robertson 1971).
Fruits all year (Austin 1991).
Annual variability in flowering: May flower more after fire or other disturbance. Fire
has been shown to stimulate flowering in congeneric species Jacquemontia curtisii (Spier
and Snyder 1998). Annual flowering variability may be affected by rainfall. Peak
flowering occurred in April and May, with spikes in flowering following rainy periods
(Pinto-Torres and Koptur 2003),
Growth period: Year-round
Dispersal: Seeds are released by capsular dehiscence. Lateral stems radiate 2-3m from
rootstock aiding in short distance dispersal. Water and/or insects, birds, small mammals,
crabs may carry seeds.
Seed maturation period: unknown
Seed production: 0 – 4 seeds per fruit, Pascarella (unpublished data) discovered that
fruits produce an average 3.47 seeds per fruit (n=30).
Seed viability: Greater than 70% germination of seeds in the greenhouse (USFWS
1995); preliminary studies have shown that seeds will not persist more than a few months
buried in the soil and long-term seed banks may not be a significant part of its life history
strategy (Pascarella 2003). Percent germination of fresh seed is variable at 20-82%
(Carrara 2001), but germination of >50% is common (Carrara and Garvue 2003). Seeds
stored for five years under ambient conditions remained viable with 19-42% germination
in four trials (Carrara and Garvue 2003).
Germination requirements: Greenhouse experiments showed germination rates are
higher in organic soils and shade (USFWS 1995), most likely due to higher degree of
moisture. Soaking of seeds prior to sowing did not affect rate or percentage of
germination, even though a yellow pigment was leached from the seeds (Fidelibus and
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Fisher 2003). Seeds do not need light to germinate (Fisher 2003). Soaking in seawater
does not affect germination (Griffin and Fisher 2003). J. reclinata requires arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungi under natural soil conditions or where phosphorus is limiting (Fisher
and Jayachandran 2002).
Seed storage requirements: Preliminary results from a current experiment indicate that
seeds are orthodox. Seeds in storage at -20°C for 3.5 years showed 10-50% germination,
higher than seeds stored in 12°C or 23°C. Percent seed moisture content (SMC) did not
seem to affect germination. Seeds dried to 5% SMC before storing germinated (Frances
unpublished).
Regularity of establishment: Transplants grow readily in the field (USFWS 1995,
Wright 2003). Wild plants flower, set fruit and disperse prolifically, but few seedlings or
young plants are found. J reclinata naturally colonize and stabilize disturbed areas on the
lee side of dunes, but usually the aggressive invasives colonize first.
Population size: Over 240 plants at largest population (Site 40), 177 plants at Site 39 and
144 plants at Site 23; other sites have less than 100 plants each (Kernan unpub. data). No
current census of population numbers for these sites has been conducted since Thornton
and LaPuma in 2000. During Fall 2003 site visits, Fairchild staff observed >50%
reduction at Sites 14 and 53 (Maschinski et al. 2003b).
Annual variation: unknown
Number and distribution of populations: (Confidential)
Habitat description and ecology
Type: COASTAL STRAND, BEACH DUNE. Occurs on coastal barrier islands in
disturbed or sunny, open areas within tropical maritime hammock or coastal strand
(USFWS 1999); Coastal dunes (Avery and Loope 1980); Endemic to coastal sand dunes
and hammocks along east shore of south Florida (Robertson 1971). Large plants are
typically found spreading over exposed microsites on dune faces; rootstocks are
sometimes found centered under a shading shrub. Plants also occur in mats or patches
sometimes amidst tall grass or sea oats (Uniola paniculata) with stout rootstocks located
throughout patch. In sunny sites, leaves may be fleshier and very pubescent; larger,
thinner leaves have been observed in shady micro sites. Stems may twine around and
over other vegetation, especially low shrubs. Woody rootstocks may persist under heavy
mats of St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), grass or other weedy species
(Kernan 1995).
Physical features
Soil: Soil texture analysis from two naturally occurring sites showed that plots
within J. reclinata habitat to contain 95% sand, 2 % silt, and 3% clay (Lane and
Wright 2003)
Elevation: From 1m to 9m above sea level (Lane and Wright 2003).
Aspect: Mostly on crest and lee side of coastal dunes (Austin 1979), can also on
the windward side of dunes.
Slope: unknown
Moisture: unknown
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Light: Full sun; partial shade may be necessary for establishment (USFWS 1994),
however a greenhouse study has demonstrated that plants grown in full sun were
able to develop 40-70% higher root mass than those grown in the shade (Fidelibus
and Wright 2003). This condition could favor survival in the wild.
Biotic features
Community: Disturbed, sunny areas in the coastal strand vegetation; typically
alongside herbaceous species such as Helianthus debilis (beach sunflower),
Cenchrus incertus (sand spur), Cnidoscolus stimulosus (stinging nettle), Cyperus
pedunculatus (beach star), and some larger shrubs and dwarfed trees such as
Coccoloba uvifera (sea grape), Metopium toxiferum (poisonwood), Trema
micranthum (Florida trema). (Lane et al. 2001)
Interactions:
Competition: Plants respond to release from competition with vigorous
growth (Kernan 1995, USFWS 1995)
Mutualism: Generalized pollinator guild, possible ant mutualism
Parasitism: n/a
Host: n/a
Other:
Animal use: Ant nests, several species, often at rootstock or nearby, with
ants traveling along stems.
Natural disturbance
Fire: May thrive after fire, e.g. Crandon population after 1996 wildfire (Kernan
1995; Lane et al. 2001).
Hurricane: Historically thrives after disturbance, such as a hurricanes (USFWS
1994). Strong winds of hurricanes and tropical storms could aid in dispersal of
seeds.
Slope movement: Can survive burial; although not common, stems with
adventitious roots may help stabilize dunes.
Small scale (i.e. animal digging): Grows well in gopher tortoise (Gopherus
polyphemus) habitat at Site 45. Small ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) holes
observed in sandy substrate next to plants at Site 6 (Wright pers. obs.)
Temperature: Seedlings may be temperature sensitive (Carrara pers. comm.).
Protection and management
Summary: Jacquemontia reclinata is a federally endangered species and therefore has
protection on all federal properties. All known wild populations are in conservation areas,
however none are on federal property. One conservation area has cleared sea grape
canopy for 15-years to maintain an opening for the population (Bass pers. comm.). Dune
crossovers have been built at most conservation sites to limit damage to the coastal dune
habitat. Additional management efforts have been directed toward removal of exotic
species, trash and trails through dune habitat. Several outplantings have augmented or
increased numbers of Jacquemontia reclinata. Techniques for greenhouse cultivation of
seeds and cuttings from wild plants have been developed and provide material for
outplanting efforts. Long-term seed storage techniques may supplement living ex-situ
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collections in maintaining the genetic diversity of the species. Mycorrhizal inoculation
and fertilization promotes establishment and persistence of outplanted individuals.
Availability of source for outplanting: (Confidential)
Availability of habitat for outplanting: (Confidential)
Threats/limiting factors
Natural
Herbivory: The size of individual plants at the 2001 outplanting site of Site 6 has
been significantly reduced by herbivory; marsh rabbits are suspected. We
observed larvae of the bagworm moth foraging on the seedlings of a seed
germination experiment at Site 102 (Wright per. obs.).
Disease: unknown
Predators: unknown
Succession: Late-successional species may provide favorable conditions for
germination, but may shade-out juveniles and adults
Weed invasion: Exotic species: Casuarina equisetifolia (Australian pine),
Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper), Cupianiopsis anacardoides
(carrotwood), Colubrina asiatica (latherleaf) (USFWS 1994), Bermuda grass
(Cynodon dactylon)(USFWS 1999), Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustine
grass)(Kernan 1995) and Dactyloctenium aegyptium (Durban crowfoot grass);
native species: Caesalpinia bonduc (knickerbean), Coccoloba uvifera (seagrape),
Dalbergia ecastophyllum (coinvine) and Cassytha filiformis (lovevine) are
invasive in coastal strand areas and can outcompete J. reclinata (Thornton and
Wright 2003).
Fire: May be killed by intense fire.
Genetic: The species shows low levels of genetic variation relative to other rare
endemic taxa; however, there is little evidence of differentiation between
populations due to genetic drift. Inbreeding depression may be a threat,
especially in the smaller populations. Given that most fragmentation of
populations has occurred within the last 50 years, genetic drift is likely to be a
threat in the future (Thornton 2003).
Other: Encroachment of hardwood hammock follows long periods of fire
suppression within the coastal strand (Austin and Coleman 1977, Richardson
1977, Wright 2003). Beach erosion can also seriously threaten this species
(Johnson et al. 1990, Pilkey et al. 1994).
Anthropogenic
Coastal erosion and hammock encroachment may be directly related to human
activities.
On site: Coastal dune habitat is vulnerable to urbanization (Austin 1979),
manicured landscaping, shade from exotic trees like Australian pine (USFWS 1994,
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USFWS 1995), bulldozing and raking of natural beach sand dunes, use of herbicides and
pesticides (may negatively affect natural pollinators), and trampling.
Off site: Urbanization, pollution, encroachment and sea-level rise (USFWS 1994,
Robertson 1971).
Collaborators
Greg Atkinson, Palm Beach County, Rob Barron, Coastal Growers Inc.
Steve Bass, City of Boca Raton,
Susan Carrara, FTBG
Santiago Corrada, City of Miami,
Paul Davis, Palm Beach County
Janice Duquesnel, State of Florida Juan Fernandez, City of Miami
Anne Frances, FTBG
Dr. Jack Fisher, FTBG
Dr. Javier Francisco-Ortega, FTBG, Florida International University (FIU)
Raul Garcia, City of Miami
Jim Gibson, State of Florida
Liz Golden, State of Florida
Frank Griffiths, Palm Beach County
Jim Higgins, State of Florida
Dr. K. Jayachandran, FIU
Jim King, Miami-Dade County
Dr. Suzanne Koptur, FIU
Ernie Lynk, Miami-Dade County
Linda MacDonald, Miami-Dade County
Joe Maguire, Miami-Dade County Carol Morgenstern, Broward County
Dr. John Pascarella, Valdosta State University
Ginny Powell, Palm Beach County Renate Skinner, State of Florida
Sonya Thompson, Miami-Dade County
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Conservation measures and actions required
Research history:
Kenneth Robertson completed a morphological study of the genus Jacquemontia
in which he treated Jacquemontia reclinata as a distinct species (Robertson 1971).
Carol Lippincott completed surveys and some outplantings at Site 23 in 1990. She
took notes and recorded the locations of naturally occurring individuals, and outplanted
17 individuals at three sites within the park. Naturally occurring individuals were
relocated and mapped by Kernan and Garvue in 1995 using GPS. Kernan and Garvue
were unable to relocate individuals at two of Lippincott’s reintroduction sites, but four
plants were believed to have survived at the third site. (Kernan 1995)
Dena Garvue worked to establish an ex situ collection of J. reclinata at Fairchild
Tropical Botanic Garden, and completed research on techniques for efficient horticultural
propagation. The resulting collection of plants included individuals raised from cuttings
and seeds from six naturally occurring J. reclinata populations. Garvue successfully
propagated plants from cuttings 15 – 20 cm long. Cuttings were treated with rooting
hormone and misted frequently on flats of beach sand for two weeks. Seedlings were then
transferred to individual pots. She also showed increased rooting success after treating
cuttings with concentrated hormone solution. Garvue also propagated plants from seed
and her results suggest that seed germination success decreases with increased burial
depth. (Kernan 1995)
Christopher Kernan conducted experimental outplantings at Site 23 to determine
expected survival rates of outplanted propagules derived from both seeds and cuttings in
different microhabitat conditions. Survival of outplanted cuttings was greater in partial
shade than in full sun, and Kernan’s results suggested that dune topography did not affect
the survival rate of outplanted cuttings. Kernan found that outplanted seedlings did not
survive as well as cuttings, but this may have been due to the small size of seedlings used
in experiments. (Kernan 1995)
Kernan also completed research to test the effects of two different outplanting site
preparation techniques: treatment with herbicide and removal of competing vegetation.
Application of herbicide without removal of the resulting mat of dead vegetation reduced
the survival rate of outplanted J. reclinata cuttings. Kernan concluded that outplanted
propagules would survive best in open sites hand-cleared of competing vegetation.
(Kernan 1995)
Kernan and Garvue surveyed and mapped J. reclinata populations at Sites 40, 39
and 23 using GPS with sub-meter accuracy.
Kernan established and sampled vegetation plots at Site 23 to determine the
preferred microhabitat of J. reclinata within the coastal plant community. Twenty-one
plots, either 5 m x 5 m or 1 m x 1 m in size, were established along four transects running
east to west from strand edge to coastal hammock. Kernan subjectively chose plot
locations in order to represent changes in vegetation along the transect. Principal
Component Analysis indicted that J. reclinata prefers partial shade. (Kernan 1995)
Christopher Kernan conducted preliminary demographic studies on individual
plants at Sites 40, 39, and 23 measuring both the diameter of the basal stem and length
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and number of lateral stems. The study at Site 23 was interrupted by a wildfire (May
1996) that burned over the J. reclinata population for several days. Monitoring soon after
the fire indicated over 70% of the plants was lost; however, in subsequent monitoring in
1999, Hannah Thornton and David La Puma were able to relocate many of these plants.
Kernan also found that the fire drastically altered the habitat at Crandon Park,
significantly decreasing the amount of St. Augustine grass, a major competitor before the
fire. (Kernan 1995)
Palm Beach nursery grower and landscaper Rob Barron outplanted J. reclinata in
numerous Palm Beach privately owned properties. Seed from sites 125,133, and a nearby
private site produced the majority of his original stock. Plants planted at Village of Key
Biscayne are originated from Site 23 stock (Barron pers. comm.)
In 1997, Janice Duquesnel and Liz Golden of the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection outplanted J. reclinata was at Site 6. Fairchild donated the
plants. Only seven of the original 93 plants have survived 6.5 years after planting.
Reasons for low survival rate may be herbivory, storm surge, and/or poor initial health.
At the time of planting the health of some of the plants appeared to be declining. It is
assumed that most of the plants died due to poor initial health rather than as a result of the
outplanting.
In 2003, Hannah Thornton completed her study of the genetic structure of the
remnant populations at the molecular and morphological levels. (Thornton 2003)
In 2004, Elena Pinto-Torres completed her study of the breeding system and
pollination biology. (Pinto-Torres 2004)
Jack Fisher and K. Jayachandran studied the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on
growth and survival, especially in outplanting. Found that under natural soil conditions J.
reclinata requires Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), but is independent of AMF
when Phosphorus is not limiting. (Fisher and Jayachandran 2002)
John Pascarella is researching demography, including population growth rate,
demographic performance, and temporal and spatial demographic variation.
Cynthia Lane and Samuel J. Wright have completed studies describing associated
vegetation, microhabitat, soil characteristics, sand accretion, and salt spray across the
habitat gradient of J. reclinata. (Maschinski et al. 2003a)
Wright identified a ranked list of potential restoration sites for J. reclinata and
prepared restoration plans for the highest priority sites. (Maschinski et al. 2003a)
Matthew Fidelibus and Wright studied the effect of shade treatment on shoot and
root dry mass. Plants grown in full sun developed 40-70% higher root mass than those
grown in the shade. (Wright and Fidelibus 2004). A paper was published in Native Plants
Journal in Spring 2004 (Wright and Fidelibus 2004)
Thornton compiled the history of J. reclinata conservation by searching written
records, examining historical photographs and conducting interview with J. reclinata
related land managers and naturalists.
Thornton and Wright developed site-specific recommendations for management
of population and distributed to land managers. (Maschinski et al. 2003a)
Wright and Maschinski are currently conducting research of the seed germination
rates and seedling survival of J. reclinata.
Susan Carrara and Dena Garvue summarized optimal methods and conditions for
J. reclinata propagation and seed storage, and evaluated the most effective protocols for
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outplanting (Carrara 2001, Carrara and Garvue 2003). Frances is currently conducting
seed germination trials to test the effects of different storage treatments (temperature,
seed moisture content) on seed viability. Preliminary results indicate that J. reclinata
seeds can withstand desiccation to 5% seed moisture content and freezing to –20°C
indicating that seeds have orthodox seed storage behavior. Based on this information, an
ex-situ collection of seeds will be stored long-term at the National Seed Storage
Laboratory in Ft. Collins, CO.
(Summary of Research in Progress/Completed)
Genetics (Thornton, Francisco-Ortega)
Seedling Demography (Pascarella)
Germination (Garvue, Carrara, Griffin, Frances)
Habitat Requirements (Kernan, Lane, Wright, Fidelibus)
Life History/Pollination Ecology (Pinto-Torres, Koptur, Pascarella)
Mapping (Kernan, Garvue, LaPuma, Thornton, Wright, Possley)
Outplanting (Lippincott, Kernan, Lane, Wright, Fisher, Jayachandran)
Relationship with mycorrhizae (Fisher, Jayachandran)
Seed germination/biology (Wright, Maschinski)
Seed Storage (Garvue, Carrara, Frances)
Site history surveys (Thornton)
Significance/potential for anthropogenic use: Focal species for conservation education;
dune stabilization; horticultural/ ornamental use.
Recovery objectives and criteria:
Protection of populations: Establish new populations in protected parks with
appropriate habitat within former natural range (Austin 1979, USFWS 1995).
Sites must be adequately protected from further habitat loss, degradation, and
fragmentation; managed to maintain the coastal strand to support Jacquemontia
reclinata; and monitored to demonstrate that populations of J. reclinata on these
sites support the appropriate numbers of self-sustaining populations, and that
those populations are stable throughout the historic range of the species.
Management options:
No intervention
The species is in decline and is seriously threatened by coastal development
pressures. Taking no action may not increase the rate of extinction if the populations
already protected on public parks can be sustained. However, given the lack of observed
seedling recruitment at any of the sites and the threat of extirpation of one or several of
these populations due to intense fire, hurricane storm surge, or genetic drift, this species
most likely requires some type of intervention to ensure its survival over the next decade.
Controlled burning
There are significant trade-offs to consider when thinking about controlled
burning as a management option. A controlled burn can help keep habitat open and may
be used to simulate a natural fire disturbance regime. Fire may be an appropriate
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management tool for the perpetuation of the open coastal scrub habitat required by beach
Jacquemontia (Lippincott 1990) As a management technique, controlled burning is also
relatively low in cost. However, a controlled burn may kill individuals, and permits may
be unattainable for some sites near buildings or private homes due to zoning ordinances
and fire codes. The effects of fire in J. reclinata need to be tested.
Outplanting
Outplantings may provide corridors for gene flow via pollinators, and may also
increase the numbers of populations and individuals. After the initial period of
establishment, outplantings may have low maintenance requirements and may be very
low in cost. Although genetic problems due to inbreeding depression may be mitigated in
this way, outbreeding depression may present a new problem. Care must be taken to
ensure compatibility of all introduced genetic stocks with the surrounding populations. If
suitable public or private lands can be found where there is a commitment to
maintenance, outplanting can be a very viable management option.
Mowing and/or trimming vegetation
Removal or trimming of native vegetation can reduce shading and competition
with other plant species, and may be less controversial than some other techniques.
Removal of vegetation, especially invasive, exotic species
At some sites, invasion by exotic and weedy native vegetation is severe. Removal
of invasive species can reduce competition, provide open habitat, and help other native
species.
Dune habitat restoration or augmentation
In areas where suitable habitat already exists but could be expanded, or in places
where there is an opportunity to restore a site, doing so may significantly increase the
amount of habitat available for outplanting.
Trail management
At some sites, plants are apparently thriving alongside heavily traveled footpaths,
possibly due to the decreased competition and light availability. However, plants near
trails, especially seedlings and juveniles, may have difficulty surviving trampling and
other disturbance. Keeping trails away from sensitive areas may serve to protect new
transplants; while routing trails near older plants may provide an opportunity to increase
public awareness of the species.
Next steps:
Exchange of information and collaboration among researchers and land managers
Continue to correspond with land managers to maintain open coastal strand habitat
Increasing public awareness through educational materials
Continue seed germination and seedling survival experiment
Conduct outplanting experiment at Sites 145 and 102
Study effect of fire on J. reclinata
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References
Austin, D.F. 1979. Endangered beach jacquemontia. In D.B. Ward, ed. Rare and
Endangered Biota of Florida, Volume 5 Plants. University Presses of Florida. 175 pages.
Austin, D.F., Bass, S., Honychurch, P.N. Coastal dune Plants. Gumbo Limbo Nature
Center of South Palm Beach County, Inc. Boca Raton. 1991.
Austin, D.F., and K. Coleman. 1977. Vegetation of southeastern Florida-II Boca
Hammock. Florida Scientist. 40:331-361.
Avery, G.N., and L.L. Loope. 1980. Endemic taxa in the flora of south Florida. United
States National Park Service, South Florida Research Center. Everglades National Park.
Report T – 558.
Carrara, S. Species specific seed germination methods, storage condition trials, and
cultivation notes. In: Fellows, M., J. Possley, and C. Lane. (ed.). 2001. Final Report to
the Endangered Plant Advisory Council, Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services, FDACS Contract # 005619. Appendix C9.
Carrara, S., and D. Garvue. Determine the response of J. reclinata to standard seed
storage conditions. In Maschinski, J., S. J. Wright, and H. Thornton (ed.). 2003.
Restoration of Jacquemontia reclinata to the South Florida ecosystem. Final report to the
United States Fish and Wildlife Service for grant agreement 1448-40181-99-G-173.
Coile, N.C. 2000. Notes on Florida’s endangered and threatened plants. Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Botany Section. Contribution No.
38.
Fidelibus, M., and J. Fisher. Effect of soaking seed in fresh water and removing seed
coat pigment upon germination. In Maschinski, J., S. J. Wright, and H. Thornton (ed.).
2003. Restoration of Jacquemontia reclinata to the South Florida ecosystem. Final
report to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service for grant agreement 1448-40181-99G-173.
Fidelibus, M. and S.J. Wright. Influence of light on experimental Jacquemontia reclinata
seedling growth. In Maschinski, J., S. J. Wright, and H. Thornton (ed.). 2003.
Restoration of Jacquemontia reclinata to the South Florida ecosystem. Final report to the
United States Fish and Wildlife Service for grant agreement 1448-40181-99-G-173
Fisher, J.B. and K. Jayachandran. 2002. Arbuscual mycorrhizal fungi enhance seedling
growth in two endangered plant species from South Florida. International Journal of
Plant Science. 163(4): 559-566.
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Fisher, J. Effect of light and dark on seed germination. In Maschinski, J., S. J. Wright,
and H. Thornton (ed.). 2003. Restoration of Jacquemontia reclinata to the South Florida
ecosystem. Final report to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service for grant
agreement 1448-40181-99-G-173.
Griffin, K., and J. Fisher. Effects of salt water on seed germination. In Maschinski, J., S.
J. Wright, and H. Thornton (ed.). 2003. Restoration of Jacquemontia reclinata to the
South Florida ecosystem. Final report to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service for
grant agreement 1448-40181-99-G-173.
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remaining coastal upland natural communities: southeast Florida. Report to Natural Areas
Inventory, Tallahassee.
Kernan, C. 1995. Final Report to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Project
title: Jacquemontia reclinata recovery. Fairchild Tropical Garden, Coral Gables, FL.
Lakela, O. and F.C. Craighead. 1965. Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of
Collier, Dade, and Monroe counties, Florida. Fairchild Tropical Garden and the
University of Miami Press, Botanical Laboratories of South Florida. Coral Gables, FL.
Lane, C., La Puma, D., Pinto-Torres, E., Thornton, H. E. B. Final Year One Report:
Restoration of Jacquemontia reclinata to the south Florida ecosystem. United States Fish
and Wildlife Service. Grant Agreement 1448-40181-99-G-173. 2001.
Lane, C. and S.J. Wright. Collection of vegetation and abiotic data. In Maschinski, J., S.
J. Wright, and H. Thornton (ed.). 2003. Restoration of Jacquemontia reclinata to the
South Florida Ecosystem. Final Report to the US Fish and Wildlife Service for Grant
Agreement 1448-40181-99-G-173.
Lippincott C. 1990. Status Report on Jacquemontia reclinata at Hugh Taylor Birch State
Recreational Area. Report to Florida Natural Areas Inventory. Fairchild Tropical Garden,
Coral Gables, FL.
Long, R.W. and Lakela, O. 1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press.
Coral Gables, FL.
Maschinski, J., S. J. Wright, H. Thornton, J. Fisher, J. B. Pascarella, C. Lane, E. PintoTorres, and S. Carrara. 2003a. Restoration of Jacquemontia reclinata to the South
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