Works Cited Abramiuk, Marc A., and William P. Meurer. "A Preliminary Geoarchaeological Investigation of Ground Stone Tools in and around the Maya Mountains, Toledo District, Belize." Latin American Antiquity 17.3 (2006): 335. Web. Abrams, Elliot M., John Parhamovich, Jared A. Butcher, and Bruce Mccord. "Chemical Composition of Architectural Plaster at the Classic Maya Kingdom of Piedras Negras, Guatemala." Journal of Archaeological Science 39.5 (2012): 1648-654. Web. This article looks at the chemical composition of plaster in the structures found at Piedras Negras. This chemical analysis was done by an XRF machine. This study helps me understand what I’m looking at when I do chemical analyses. It gives me an idea for what the Maya were using for their limestone sources both thought time and on a regional scale. Barba, L., J. Blancas, L. R. Manzanilla, A. Ortiz, D. Barca, G. M. Crisci, D. Miriello, and A. Pecci. "Provenance Of The Limestone Used In Teotihuacan (Mexico): A Methodological Approach." Archaeometry 51.4 (2009): 525-45. Onlinelibrary.wiley.com. Wiley Online Library. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.14754754.2008.00430.x/full#ss7>. This article is about the selection of limestone by the Maya of Teotihuacan. It looks at the different quarries that were selected and gives potential reasons for why the different sources were selected. This is useful for me since it gives a list of the different quarries used thought the site as well as thought the times of occupation of the site. This is good for my research since it provides an example of change over time in the selection of limestone and provides me with examples of quarrying methods used by these local Maya. Bartlett, Mary Lee, Hector Neff, and Patricia A. Mcanany. "Differentiation of Clay Resources on a Limestone Plain: The Analysis of Clay Utilization during the Maya Formative at K'axob Belize." Geoarchaeology 15.2 (2000): 95-133. Web. This article is about the use of geochemistry in sourcing clay deposits within northern Belize in an attempt to track ideal deposits used by the Ancient Maya. In this particular article, they go about using EMS methods of chemical identification in order to obtain a chemical signature on the different clay deposits and later use this accrued information to see where the clay for the ceramic was coming from, and to see if any given deposit was favored over any others. In addition to this, the researchers look to see if there might have been a change in deposit use indicating a potential shift in resource controls. Brennan, Michael L., Eleanor M. King, Leslie C. Shaw, Stanley L. Walling, and Fred Valdez. "Preliminary Geochemical Assessment of Limestone Resources and Stone Use at Maya Sites in the Three Rivers Region, Belize." Journal of Archaeological Science 40.8 (2013): 3178-192. Web. This article is basically about what I want to do. This past summer I got the chance to work with Dr. Brennan and as such, I got a first hand learning experience in this kind of research. This particular article of his looks to see if it is even possible to accurately geochemically source a carbonate rock to its originating source. The answer to this is kind of. Dr. Brennan found that the sources show a 92% geochemical similarity within 5 feet of another. What you have to do then is look for the most common minerals and test how much they resemble a given previously identified quarry. Chu, Vikki, Lior Regev, Steve Weiner, and Elisabetta Boaretto. "Differentiating between Anthropogenic Calcite in Plaster, Ash and Natural Calcite Using Infrared Spectroscopy: Implications in Archaeology." Journal of Archaeological Science 35.4 (2008): 905-11. Web. This article was very beneficial to my understanding of geochemical analyses. This particular article talks about how researchers in Europe can use different methods in order to distinguish a modified carbonate in plaster samples. What this means is that it is something that I need to keep in mind when I attempt to do geochemical analysis for myself. My goals in Archaeology are to do geochemical analyses and sourcing of construction materials, particularly within the Maya region, this article will help me make my research as accurate as possible. Cook, Duncan E., Brigitte Kovacevich, Timothy Beach, and Ronald Bishop. "Deciphering the Inorganic Chemical Record of Ancient Human Activity Using ICP-MS: A Reconnaissance Study of Late Classic Soil Floors at Cancuén, Guatemala." Journal of Archaeological Science 33.5 (2006): 628-40. Web. This article is relent to my future studies in that involves the chemical testing of soil which has developed over former living structures. This study of the anthropogenic soils helps point to just how the people who lived here lived. Ideally, as Archaeologists, we would like to find a site that was abandoned moments before we had shown up. Since we can’t do that, any little thing that we can use to recreate the moment of abandonment is greatly beneficial. This study provides a way for us to see just what kind of stuff the ancient Maya in this region were leaving behind on their floor. Environmental Archaeology: Interpreting Practices-in-the-landscape through Geoarchaeology This article looks at the role of Geoarch and how it is necessary if we are to create the most accurate of pictures of what ancient life was once like. It mainly explains how the environmental conditions of the people who once lived in the site must be addressed. In order to do that, wee need to examine how the geology affected the decisions, lifestyle and culture of the now gone people. This is relevant to my studies in that it is an argument for why what I want to do is needed. Espinosa, L., M. Ceron, and Y. A. Sulub. "Limestone Rocks of the Yucatan Peninsula. Description of the Lithology and Physical Properties Based on the Results of Exploration, Investigation and Laboratory Tests." International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 35, No. 4 (1998): 410-411. This article talks about the development of the geology of the Yucatan. In addition to this, it goes on to explain how the geology is unique, how just because the region is made up of Limestone, it is not identical to all other kinds of limestone everywhere. It looks into the geologic past of the region and explains how that formed the landmass that we see today. This is valuable to my studies in that I am unable to conduct any geologic studies in the Yucatan if I know nothing about the already established geologic deposits. Folan, William J. "Mining and Quarrying Techniques of the Lowland Maya in Mining and Mining Techniques in Ancient Mesoamerica." Anthropology Stony Brook, NY 6, No. 1-2 (1982): 149-174. This article is straightforward. It looks at the different quarrying habits of the Ancient Maya and provides examples of both tools used for quarrying as well as selection processes. Different practices occurred in different regions, and these different regions also developed thought time. This article is beneficial to my future studies in that it provides me with a list of things to look at in regard to quarrying. Folk, Robert L. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. 2nd Ed. Austin, TX: Hemphill's, 1968. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <ftp://ftp.itb.ac.id/pub/download/ebooks/Buku.Geologi/Boggs%202009%20 %20Petrology%20of%20Sedimentary%20Rocks.pdf>. This book provides detailed descriptions on the formation, composition, and makeup of all sedentary rocks. I particularly would like to use the section on this book for the Carbonate rocks. By looking at the carbonate section I can better my understanding of the geologic aspect of Geo-archaeology. By doing this, my results will be come better and my research methods will become more refined. Ginell, William S., Rakesh Kumar, and Eric Doehne. "Conservation Studies on Limestone from the Maya Site at Xunantunich, Belize." MRS Proceedings 352 (1995): n. pag. Web. This article looks as to how the limestone used to construct structurs and monuments has faired since it was quarried and how different preservation means are affecting the rate of decay. It also looks for additional ways to increase the longevity of the given limestone. This is important to me for two reasons. One, because it looks at how decay has occurred to the rocks that I would someday like to study. Second, It provides a way for me to look at different ways to preserve the discoveries that I might make later on in m y career. Hayes, Katherine. "Parameters in the Use of PXRF for Archaeological Site Prospection: A Case Study at the Reaume Fort Site, Central Minnesota." Journal of Archaeological Science 40.8 (2013): 3193-211. Web. This article is great for my own personal studies because it outlines the use of advanced equipment that I would someday like to use myself. This particular piece of advanced equipment is called an XRF and it can provide the exact chemical composition of any given sample in that it will tell us how much of any given element is available in the sample. This particular article will help with utilizing one in the field, as apposed to taking samples back to the lab for processing later. Jones, Lea D. "Tempering Trends In Lowland Maya Pottery." Recent Developments In Ceramic Petrology (1991): 165-183. Anthropology Plus. Web. 8 Febuary. 2014. This publication gives me a source to look at when examining Maya pottery. In it, it goes about describing the way in which the Maya made pottery, how they acquired resources for it, how the shaped it and how they finally produced it. This article becomes important to me in that it describes to me how the Maya selected the clay materials to be later used in pottery. Preferred clay sources could potentially need to be geochemically sourced. This is what interests me, and this article provides me with place to look for potential sources. Kelly, Mary E. A Computerized Model for Mayan Hieroglyphic Analsys Using The Lintels of Yaxchilan. Thesis. University of Minnesoda, 1986. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1986. Print. This article is beneficial to my future studies in that it looks at how the environment of the Yucatan has altered the different Hieroglyphs which are found within the ancient Maya ruins. All of the information within the article looks as to how the different factors of preservation have played out in different circumstances thought the different Maya sites, particularly Yaxchilan . This is beneficial to me as it provides ways of looking at different kinds of preservation methods and potential ways of doing non invasive analyses on the different monuments as to not further damage them. Killion, Thomas W. "Tools: Patterns of Stone Tool Discard near Prehistoric Maya Residences Bordering Pulltrouser Swamp, Belize." Gardens of Prehistory: The Archaeology of Settlement Agriculture in Greater Mesoamerica. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama, 1992. N. pag. Print. King, D. T., Kevin O. Pope, and Lucille W. Petuny. "Online Journal for E&P Geoscientists." Abstract: Stratigraphy of Belize, North of the 17th Parallel, by D.T. King, Jr., Kevin O. Pope, and Lucille W. Petruny; #90032 (2004). GCAGS, n.d. Web. 08 Feb. 2014. This research is about physically mapping Belize in a vertical, rather than horizontal sense. In it, the authors go about describing the order of stratigraphic succession found within Belize and how it got to look the way it did. This article is useful to me in that it tells me exactly what kinds of rocks I can expect to find when I am out doing field work. This will help me by potentially providing me with fewer surprises and hopefully narrow down the possible places where I would like to search. King, Eleanor M. King, and Leslie C. Shaw. "A Heterarchical Approach to Site Variability." Heterarchy, Political Economy, and the Ancient Maya: The Three Rivers Region of the East-central Yucatan Peninsula, Edited by VL Scarborough, F. Valdez, Jr. and NP Dunning (2003): 64-76. This article provides me a resource and a look into the ecology of the three rivers region. This helps to show the proposed diversion of social statues within the region and points to arias of resource monopolies. By understanding the social stratification that develops within the local society, we can better understand the daily life of the people who once lived at this site. This article is important to me in that it took place where I have spent a lot of time researching, and will probably spend a lot more time. Expanding my knowledge of the region is better for my future academic career. King Jr, David T., Lucille W. Petruny, and Kevin O. Pope. "Shallow-Marine Facies of the Orange Walk Group, Miocene-Pliocene, Northern Belize (Central America)." (2003): 384-397. This publication provides me with examples of the geology of the region within Belize where I have worked and where I would like to continue later on. In it, they go about describing the different kinds of strata visible in an attempt to understand the geologic history of the region. This becomes beneficial to me in that it provides me with a map of different kinds of geologic resources made available. This gives me regional demographics to look at and hopefully apply for when I am attempting to source construction material. Kosednar-Legenstein, B., M. Dietzel, A. Leis, and K. Stingl. "Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Investigation in Historical Lime Mortar and Plaster – Results from Field and Experimental Study." Applied Geochemistry 23.8 (2008): 2425-437. Web. This article looked at lime plaster used in Roman and Medivial European structures. In particular, this study made sure to look at just how the eviornment can affect the chemical signature of the given carbonate material. Understanding just how the environment can affect Carbonates once they have been quarried is really important to me since I want to eventually geochemically source these deposits. Knowing how to check for environmental alterations will be Important to insuring I obtain accurate results. McAnany, Patricia A. Agricultural Tasks And Tools: Patterns Of Stone Tool Discard Near Prehistoric Maya Residences Bordering Pulltrouser Swamp, Belize. N.p.: 1992. Anthropology Plus. Web. 8 Apr. 2014. What this specific article looks for is any pattern for discarding lithic materials. These patterns could be because of a variety of reasons; such as if a certain production of a given resource occurred here. This becomes beneficial to my future studies because it gives me an example to reference when I see similar debetage resulting from similar discarding practices, hopefully indicating a specific kind of production. Millhauser, John K., Enrique Rodríguez-Alegría, and Michael D. Glascock. "Testing the Accuracy of Portable X-ray Fluorescence to Study Aztec and Colonial Obsidian Supply at Xaltocan, Mexico." Journal of Archaeological Science 38, No. 11 (2011): 3141-3152. This article looks at how the researchers attempted to geochemically source the obsidian found within the site. The importance of sourcing materials lies in the need to understand region trading networks in an attempt to understand the economy of ancient civilizations and thus the balance of power that once resigned within it. This particular article is beneficial to me in that it gives me a method for sourcing obsidian. It provides guidelines and methods and justification as to why this method should be used and not others Mitchum, Beverly Peard. Lithic Artifacts from Cerros Belize: Production, Consumption, and Trade. N.p.: n.p., 1994. Web. This book outlines the different kinds of lithic materials found within the site of Cerros. It is important to my further studies because in order to study the lithic and rock use of the Maya, I first need to know what other people have discovered on the subject. I need to know what things I should be generally looking for and how the already known usage and context of the given material could be applied to my future studies. Muhs, Daniel R., Robert R. Kautz, and J.jefferson Mackinnon. "Soils and the Location of Cacao Orchards at a Maya Site in Western Belize." Journal of Archaeological Science 12.2 (1985): 121-37. Web. This article is about seeing weather or not it is possible to determine if Cacao was farmed intensively in a specific soil space. This is very important seeing as how highly the Maya regarded Cacao, learning just who had access to the different oarcherds shows us exactly who was in control within a region, and possibly where the most important centers were. This is beneficial to me in that I plan to do multiple studies involving chemical analsys of sils and carbonate rocks within the Maya region, and this paper provides a method of doing so. Reeder, P., J.E. Brady, and J. Webster. "Geoarchaeological Investigations on the Northern Vaca Plateau, Belize." Academia.edu. N.p., Apr. 1998. Web. <http://www.academia.edu/2531983/Geoarchaeological_Investigations_on_the_Northern _Vaca_Plateau_Belize_by_P._Reeder_J.E._Brady_and_J._Webster>. The point of this article is to elaborate on the geological methods needed to successfully identify different strata within a karstic landscape. This article proves that this is nearly an impossible task and that attempting to accurately identify any specific stratigraphy should precede cautiously and be wary of the potential difficulties. This becomes beneficial to me in that it provides guidelines for things I should not do in geoarcheaology. I’ll use this example to make sure I don’t get over ambitious with my work. Reeder, Philip. "Geoarchaeology and Karst: A New Perspective." In Karst Management, Pp. 169-200. Springer Netherlands, 2011. This article is about the geo-archaeology of karstic landscapes. In outlines how different researchers need to look at the developing field of Geo-archaeology and how people form both the geologic world and the archaeological need to work together to further develop the science. The biggest difficulty in this expanding field is examining geologic structures and differentiating them from naturally occurring structures as apposed to the ones that have been modified by humans. This helps me in that it increases my knowledge of the debates behind the development of the field in which I would like to specialize. Reeder, Philip, Robert Brinkmann, and Edward Alt. "Karstification on the Northern Vaca Plateau, Belize." JOURNAL OF CAVES AND KARST STUDIES 58 (1996): 121-130. This article provides me with the geologic history of Northern Belize. It explains how the landscape formed as best as the evidence can tell. By reading this publication, I can have a better understanding of the rocks that I would be looking at when I do geochemical analyses in northern Belize. It tells me what was going on at certain time periods in that region, which I can use in dating the age of the rock in addition to sourcing the deposit from which it came. Riquelme, Francisco, Jesús Alvarado-Ortega, Martha Cuevas-García, José Luis Ruvalcaba-Sil, and Carlos Linares-López. "Calcareous Fossil Inclusions and Rock-source of Maya Lime Plaster from the Temple of the Inscriptions, Palenque, Mexico." Journal of Archaeological Science (2011): N. Pag. Sciencedirect.com. ScienceDirect. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. This article looks at possibly identifying different kinds of shells found within plaster in the ancient Maya site of Palenque. Here the researchers are looking to se if there is a possibility of sourcing the plaster based on the type fossils potentially found within the plaster samples. They also look to distinguish if it is possible that modern shells were added to the deposit in order to chance the chemical composition of the plaster in order to work for specific effects. I will be able to use this paper since they decided to analyze the plaster with an XRF in order to establish its chemical signature. I will also be able to utilize the methods that they used in order to potentially identify the shelly material that was added to the plaster. Tawny. "The Geological Society of America 2013 GSA Annual Meeting in Denver: 125th Anniversary of GSA (27-30 October 2013) Denver, Colorado, USA." Abstract: SOURCING GRANITIC GROUND STONE TOOLS FROM BELIZE USING PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (2013 GSA Annual Meeting in Denver: 125th Anniversary of GSA (27-30 October 2013)). Geological Society of America, n.d. Web. This poster was about the potential use of an XRF in geochemically sourcing granitic tools to the geologic deposits. The advantage of using an XRF make it so EMS is not necessary which saves money and also provides a non-destructive way of sourcing the materials. This is beneficial to my studies in that it helps me understand the possible ways to do geochemical sourcing. In addition, it helps me by providing me with additional methods to utilize during my own field experiences. Villaseñor, Isabel, and Clifford A. Price. "Technology and Decay of Magnesian Lime Plasters: The Sculptures of the Funerary Crypt of Palenque, Mexico." Journal of Archaeological Science 35.4 (2008): 1030-039. Sciencedirect.com. ScienceDirect. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440307001513>. This Article looks as to how the chemical composition of different lime plasters can affect the longevity of the given sample, mainly in regard the Mg composition of the sample. The study found that over time, the man made calcite recrystallizes and as such makes the structure stronger over time as the crystalline structure has the chance to grow. This article is beneficial to my studies in that it provides me with an opportunity to examine why the Maya chose to make their plasters the way that they did. Wernecke, Daniel Clark, and Fred Valdez. A Stone Canvas Interpreting Maya Building Materials and Construction Technology. Thesis. University of Texas at Austin, 2005. N.p.: N.p., N.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. <http://www.lib.utexas.edu/etd/d/2005/wernecked06413/wernecked06413.pdf>. This article is all about how the Maya looked for desirable Limestone to quarry and how they went about collecting it. The majority of the paper also talks about how they used the limestone had how they made plaster form it in addition to the many different possibly ways that they ended up using these different types of plasters. This is beneficial to me in that it gives me examples to look at for when I try to look for quarries around different Maya sites.