ILLUSTRATED MANUSCRIPTS ANALYSIS/DATA

advertisement
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
NAME: _____________________________________________
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
DUE DATES:
Architecture ___________________________
Sculpture ___________________________
Painting:
Part I – Northern Europe ___________________________
Part II – Italy ___________________________
CHAPTER 17
EARLY RENAISSANCE ART
ANALYSIS PACKET
DIRECTIONS: Use attached worksheets to record information from reading homework
assignments. On the reading due date, turn in each assigned analysis worksheet to Mrs.
Lawson for a Reading-check grade. Add information from class discussion to the returned
worksheets. Upon completion of chapter, place analysis packet into the turn-in drawer for
a completed-packet grade.
Architecture
Sculpture-in-the-Round
Architectural & Relief Sculpture
Painting
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
Directions: Read assigned pages. Collect data on the artworks listed below. Note: Check the beginning of the chapter for historical & cultural information.
ARCHITECTUR
E ANALYSIS
WORKSHEET
Page 1
CRITERIA: Title-
Architect
Dome of Florence
Cathedral, pgs 643-647
Palazzo Rucellai,
pgs 643-647
Sant’ Andrea, pgs 662-666
Church of Santa Maria delle
Carceri, pgs 664-666
(if Known)
Artistic Time Period /
Date / Location /
Relationship to site
(geography, climate,
geology, etc.)
Medium/Materials /
Construction /
Building Techniques
/ Terms
Function / Purpose /
Patron / Context:
Social
Political
Economic
Power & Authority
Relationship to
cultural belief system
(Religious)
Ritual
Symbolism /
Iconography
Exterior-Form /
Sculptural Decoration /
Principles & Elements
of DesignScale/Size/Proportion
Space / Light
Axis / Interior
Organization / Plan
Artistic Style /
CharacteristicsCommonalities /
Influences / Key
Concepts
Other relevant
structures and/or
criteria
Bartolommeo,
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, 1444
Laurana,
Courtyard Ducal Palace,
Urbino 1466-79
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
SCULPTURE
ANALYSIS
WORKSHEET
Page 2
CRITERIA: Title
Artist (if Known)
Di Banco, Four Crowned
Martyrs, pgs 647-653
Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise
(East Doors), pg 647-653
Donatello, David, pg 650-653
Del Verrocchio, Equestrian
monument of Bartolommeo
Colleoni, pg 652-653
Artistic Time
Period / Date /
Orig. Location /
Relationship to site
Medium /
Materials
Type / Method /
Technique /
Process
Patron / Function /
Purpose /
Audience
Context:
Social
Political
Economic
Power & Authority
Cultural belief
system (Religious)
Subject / Content /
Meaning /
Symbolism /
Iconography /
Narrative
Pictorial Space /
Composition /
Principles &
Elements -Scale /
Size / Proportion /
movement-gesture /
positive-negative
space
Expressive
Qualities / Figural
Representation /
stance-presentation /
anatomical detail /
correctness /
expression /
Formorganic/geometric
Artistic Style /
CharacteristicsCommonalities /
Influences / Key
Concepts
Other relevant
artworks & criteria
Jacob & Esau,
Mary Magdalen
Montefeltro, Studiolo
Gattamelata
Feast of Herod
Pollaiuolo, Hercules
& Antaeus
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
PAINTING
ANALYSIS
WORKSHEET
Page 3
CRITERIA:
Title
Artist (If known)
Artistic Time
Period / Date /
Orig. Location /
Giotto, Arena Chapel
Limbourg, Tres riches Heures, pgs
Frescos, pgs 613-615
621-622
Proto-Renaissance
French
Fouquet, Melun Diptych, Virgin &
Child, pgs 640-642
French
615-625
Flemish
Relationship to site
Medium /
Materials / Type/
Method /
Techniques /
Process
Patron / Function
Audience /
Purpose
Context:
Social
Political
Economic
(Power/Authority)
Cultural belief
system (Religious)
Subject / Content /
Meaning /
Symbolism /
Iconography /
Narrative
Pictorial SpaceComposition /
Organization /
Principles &
Elements / figureground / depth / color
/ movement / line –
shape / balance /
unity / view point /
proportion- size/scale
Expressive
Qualities / Figural
Representation
Artistic / Stylistic
Characteristics /
Changes /
Influences / Key
Concepts
Other relevant
criteria
Chevalier & St
Stephen
Campin, Merode Altarpiece, pgs
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
PAINTING
ANALYSIS
WORKSHEET
Page 4
CRITERIA:
Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece,
pgs 625-628
Title
Artist (If known)
Artistic Time
Period / Date /
Orig. Location /
Flemish
Jan van Eyck, Portrait of
Giovanni Arnolfini & Wife, pg 625629
Flemish
Van der Weyden, Deposition,
Van der Goes, Portinari
pg 629-630
Altarpiece, pg 634-636
Flemish
Relationship to site
Medium /
Materials / Type/
Method /
Techniques /
Process
Patron / Function
Audience /
Purpose
Context:
Social
Political
Economic
(Power/Authority)
Cultural belief
system (Religious)
Subject / Content /
Meaning /
Symbolism /
Iconography /
Narrative
Pictorial SpaceComposition /
Organization /
Principles &
Elements / figureground / depth / color
/ movement / line –
shape / balance /
unity / view point /
proportion- size/scale
Expressive
Qualities / Figural
Representation
Artistic / Stylistic
Characteristics /
Changes /
Influences / Key
Concepts
Other relevant
criteria
Van der Weyden,
Portrait of a Lady
Flemish
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
PAINTING
ANALYSIS
WORKSHEET
Page 5
CRITERIA: Title
Artist (If known)
Artistic Time Period
/ Date / Orig.
Location /
Fabriano, Adoration of the
Magi, pgs 653-654
Florence
Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin,
St. John the Evangelist, & Donors,
pg 654-657
Florence
Fra Angelico, Annunciation, pgs
657-658
Florence
Ghirlandaio, A Man with His
Grandchild, 659-660
Florence
Relationship to site
Medium / Materials
/ Type/ Method /
Techniques /
Process
Patron / Function
Audience / Purpose
Context:
Social
Political
Economic
(Power/Authority)
Cultural belief
system (Religious)
Subject / Content /
Meaning /
Symbolism /
Iconography /
Narrative
Pictorial SpaceComposition /
Organization /
Principles & Elements
/ figure-ground / depth
/ color / movement /
line – shape / balance /
unity / view point /
proportion- size/scale
Expressive Qualities
/ Figural
Representation
Artistic / Stylistic
Characteristics /
Changes /
Influences / Key
Concepts
Other relevant
criteria
Tribute Money
Giovanna
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
PAINTING
ANALYSIS
WORKSHEET
Page 6
CRITERIA:
Title
Artist (If known)
Artistic Time
Period / Date /
Orig. Location /
Botticelli, The Birth of Venus, pg.
660-662
Francesca, Discovery & Testing of
the True Cross, pg 666-667
Perugino, Delivery of the Keys to
St. Peter, pg 669-670
Florence
Urbino
Rome
Primavera
Batista Sforza & Federico da
Montefeltro
Mantegna
Camera Picta Frescos
Relationship to site
Medium /
Materials / Type/
Method /
Techniques /
Process
Patron / Function
Audience /
Purpose
Context:
Social
Political
Economic
(Power/Authority)
Cultural belief
system (Religious)
Subject / Content /
Meaning /
Symbolism /
Iconography /
Narrative
Pictorial SpaceComposition /
Organization /
Principles &
Elements / figureground / depth / color
/ movement / line –
shape / balance /
unity / view point /
proportion- size/scale
Expressive
Qualities / Figural
Representation
Artistic / Stylistic
Characteristics /
Changes /
Influences / Key
Concepts
Other relevant
criteria
Schongauer, Temptation of St.
Anthony, pgs 674-677
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
AP Exam Strategy
Art historians traditionally divide the Italian Renaissance into two phases: The first, the Early Renaissance, began in Florence and lasted
most of the 15th century; the second, the High Renaissance, began in Rome in the early 1500s and spread to Venice.
The Early Renaissance is an important topic on the AP Art History exam. Because the Early Renaissance made pivotal
contributions in all three areas (architecture, sculpture, & painting) it has generated a large number of exam questions. Most AP Art History
exams have four to six multiple-choice questions on the Early Renaissance. Since 1984, there have been 12 slide-based multiple-choice
questions and 12 short essay questions. Early Renaissance works of art can also be used as illustrative examples in your long essays. The
Early Renaissance is clearly an essential building block in constructing a coalition of points for your “drive for a 5.”
The AP Art History test writers include the Northern Renaissance as part of the art of the fourteenth –sixteenth centuries, which
accounts for 12-17 percent of the total exam points. Typically, a test contains two to four multiple-choice questions that refer to the hallmark
features of Northern Renaissance painting or include a slide-based short essay question asking students to compare & contrast Northern
Renaissance art to another style, most often Italian Renaissance.
The AP Exam also reflects the importance of the High Renaissance. Most exams have 3 to 4 multiple-choice questions on the
period. Since 1983, 8 slide-based multiple-choice questions and 11 short essay questions have appeared in exams. Four of the slide-based
multiple-choice and five of the short essay questions have focused on the works of Michelangelo. High Renaissance works of art can also
frequently be used as illustrative examples in long essays.
The Early Renaissance
GOTHIC
1140 CE
LATE GOTHIC- International Style – Europe
1300 CE
PROTO RENAISSANCE - Italy
1300 CE
EARLY RENAISSANCE ______________
1400 CE – 1500 CE
RENAISSANCE = Rebirth - Named by Jules Michelet, French writer, historian in the 1800’s / Quattrocento = 15th century (1400's) / break
with feudal medieval past & renewed interest in antiquities
The Emergence of the Italian Renaissance = different times in various regions
History/Geography = 1348 – Black Death ravaging Europe
1378 – Great Schism between rival Popes (to 1417)
1414 – Medici family becomes the official bankers to the papacy
1418 – England captures Rouen, Normandy
1431 – Joan of Arc burned at the stake
1406 – Pope Julius II lays the foundation stone for St. Peter’s Basilica
1446 – Gutenberg invents printing with movable type
1492 – Medici family remove in Florence, art center shifts to Rome
Context:
Political/Social = conflict between wealthy city-states / economic growth of prosperous middle class = wealth not limited to nobility /
commerce becomes very important / business or political leaders can become powerful middle class / move toward humanism - move away
from pomp & spender / cities grow in independence=people move from the country side / number of city states grow powerful-south=Naples,
Rome, north=Milan, Venice & Florence / Political/Social concerns = middle class movement toward humanism / move away from pomp &
spender/ rediscovery of art & literature of Greece & Rome
Florence-becomes a banking center-trading center / ruled by guilds (7 major=controlled by bankers/lawyers/exporters=run the government
(power & authority) / in mid-14th centurycity prided itself on “representative” government & status as a republic / still a division
of the church-Holy Roman Emperor (old nobility=Chibellines / papacy=Guelphs) / by 15th century the city needed a leader to stop
the feuding--EnterThe Medici Family / Florentines, inspired by ancient classical civilizations, called their city “The New
Athens” By the beginning of the 15th century, Florence had become one of the most prosperous cities in Europe. It was also the
most historically self-conscious. Led by intellectuals know as humanists, the Florentines devalued their medieval past and looked
instead to the ancient Greeks & Romans for inspirations and knowledge. During the 15 th century, or Quattrocento, Florence became
the center of the Renaissance—the rebirth that “man is the measure of all things.” They believed that contact with the classical past
would enrich their own culture by promoting civic responsibility, encouraging artistic creativity, and rewarding individual
excellence.
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
Scientific study of the body & the natural world led to the intent to reproduce forms of nature realistically / study of anatomy = changed
portraiture, landscape, mythological and religious paintings / exploration of new continents / increased man’s belief in himself /
Protestant Reformation decreased the power of the church = study of God became study of the human being / religious subject
matter begins to decline / 1st of century still mostly religious in subject matter / 2nd part of century=portraits / end=allegorical &
mythological / (except for personal enjoyment)-moved toward greater precision in rendering the illusion of physical reality-done in
an analytical way-correct anatomy/but idealized figures (perfect generic types)-set in rationally defined space
Humanism=new culture supported scholarship, literature, arts / rediscovery of art & literature of Greece & Rome- renewed interest in
classical arts, interest in the natural world / new philosophy of humanism- man not God is the center of reference / invention of
printing resulted in the publication of the first architectural theories or treatise (Alberti), De Re Aedificatoria (1485) / Protestant
Reformation decreased the power of the church = study of God became study of the human being
Patronage – Church no longer the only patron of the arts / art becomes an important public activity / associated with political power / draws
heavily on its Medieval past / goal to restore Italy as the center of civilization==a prestige not enjoyed since the fall of Rome /
Florence Merchant, Giovanni Rucelli stated he supported the arts because- “they served the Glory of god, the honor of the city, and
the commemoration of myself”
The Medici’s Florence (MED-uh-chee)-led Florence to position as cultural center / began by lending money made from income from two
wool workshops / multiplied fortune by setting up banks in major Italian cities and financial allegiances with the papacy in Rome
(switching the balance of power to secular) / Cosimo==lead family to wealth & power= built public library/Plato &
Aristotle==every major Italian artist was in his employ at some point==founded an academy for the study of the classics-began Neo
Platonism / Lorenzo “the Magnificent” (grandson) head of the family liked to spend (gems)=spent all the money-financial trouble
by 1492=bank was in trouble
Art was the means to explore all facets of life on earth / Artistic concerns = portrayal of believable human emotion / show action in turned
figure / show depth of space - turned figure - overlap -linear perspective / giving weight & depth to form / the use of light & shadow (no
longer simply drawing lines) / pyramidal composition in painting
Artists/Arts = change in artist status =gradually see the artist as more than a laborer=best works are achievements of a higher order / the artist
is motivated by the idea of progress / the artist was like a scientist, he experimented with finding solutions to problems / art became
the means to explore all facets of life on earth
Architecture - in the past artist & architects were craftsmen closely linked to the process / change  design of a building seen as
distinct from its construction / architects begin to have new creative status / intellectual respectability / wanted to reflect
the patrons’ interest in antiquity=look to classical antiquity for inspiration / architects apply abstract, mathematically
derived design principles / Palaces for wealthy families (Medici, Pitti, Pazzi, Ruccelai) – masonry block, divided into
three stories, regularly spaced arched double windows, open courtyard & heavy overhanging roof / Brunelleschi (13771446) Sculptor-Architect / Alberti – wrote about the theories of art – & designed buildings
Sculpture- increasing naturalism & Idealism based on Classical models / relief sculptors develop a rational system of linear
perspective (Brunelleschi) = the illusion of continuously receding space / Ghiberti, Donatello
Painting – becomes an important art form -partially because of the lack of fund due to warring city-states, & -shift in trends => art
for private patrons becomes a way to identify with the Medici’s of Florence / wealthy patrons generally commissioned murals & large altarpieces for their local churches -Smaller panel paintings for their private chapels (home decoration was
not common until the later part of the 15th century) / early subjects= artworks most in demand were devotional images of
the Holy Family, Adam & Eve, assorted saints, and scenes from the Bible / later subjects included mythological & social
subjects / artists experienced in fresco were in great demand and traveled to patrons / Italian panel painters used tempera
paint / Northern used oil –until the later part of the century when Venetians began to use oil medium for major panel
paintings / the new Renaissance Style in painting did not take over immediately / Renaissance Characteristics: volumetric
forms - perspectively defined spaces-reference to classical antiquity (in all art forms) / note: The International Gothic
Style was the most popular with the wealthy patrons (Simone Martini) in the early Renaissance / International Elements:steeply rising ground plane-graceful figure poses (from gothic S curve)-brightly colored costumes & textile patternsglinting gold accents-naturalistic rendering of details in the setting/ artistic concerns = portrayal of believable human form
& emotion -show action in turned figure / show depth of space / overlap -linear perspective / Technical innovations =
change of tempera on wood panels and fresco on plaster walls to Oil on stretched canvas = oil medium gave the painter /
greater range of rich colors / begins in the north then Italy / able to create smooth gradations of tone / able to represent
textures and simulate 3-D quality of human form / Perspective = method for creating the illusion of depth on a flat
surface (becomes the foundation of European painting)-linear perspective created the optical effect of objects receding in
the distance through lines that appear to converge at a single point in the picture known as the vanishing point (usually a
composition’s - focal point)-reduced the size of objects to show distance-atmospheric perspective - muted colors or
blurred detail as objects get farther away / The use of light & shadow = Chiaroscuro (key arrow SKEWR o) means light
& dark in Italian / technique for modeling forms in painting / the lighter parts seemed to emerge from the darker areas /
produces the illusion of rounded, sculpted forms on a flat surface/ gives weight & depth to form / no longer simply
drawing lines / Pyramid Configuration in composition = triangular / wide base = stability /on point = tension / change
from ridged profile portraits / change from figures grouped on an horizontal grid / Giotto, Masaccio,
The Medici
Florentine artist depended on churches, guilds, and wealthy families for commissions. The Medici family dominated Florence’s
economic, political, & artistic life fro much of the 15th century. The Medici earned their wealth as bankers and spent much of it as humanists.
Led by Cosimo (1389-1464), Piero (1416-1464), and Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492), the Medici financed libraries, built churches,
sponsored the Platonic Academy of Philosophy, and commissioned hundreds of artworks. The Medici understood how the power of imagery
could be used to extend their fame & influence.
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
Ghiberti & the Baptistery Competition = 1401- new set of doors / subject- Genesis 22:2-13, Abraham’s sacrifice of Isaac / competitors
spent 1 year translating story into a bronze panel / between Filippo Brunelleschi & Lorenzo Ghiberti / Ghiberti’s combination of Gothic S
curve & classical style won. He received a commission for a second set of doors based on the Old Testament / began in 1425- completed 27
years later / used 2 techniques to create the illusion of depth = 1. principles of linear perspective (Brunelleschi) and 2. varied relief of his
figures = high relief in foreground- low in background.
Brunelleschi & the Renaissance Style of Architecture
Dome of the Florence Cathedral – Brunelleschi = angrily left Florence & traveled to Rome / measured ancient ruins- rediscovered
the exact measurements of the Doric, Ionic, & Corinthian orders & studied Pantheon & its dome / 1417, Florentine officials announced a
competition to design & construct a dome for the Florence Cathedral / submitted a winning plan & began work in 1420 / combined Roman
engineering principles with innovative building techniques to construct a 100-foot-high dome without any visible means of support / weight
borne by 8 white marble ribs, supplemented by 16 concealed ribs radiating from the center.
In addition to establishing the principles of Renaissance architecture, Brunelleschi is credited with the invention of linear
perspective. Linear or one-point perspective is a geometric method of creating the illusion of depth on a flat two-dimensional space. Based
on 2 ways the eye sees an object: 1. parallel line receding from view seems to converge at one point on the horizon (vanishing point). 2.
figures or objects that are farther away from the eye appear smaller than those that are closer (diminution). Proved that diminution in the size
of objects is in direct proportion to their distance from us and that space is measurable. Renaissance artists quickly incorporated linear
perspective into their work. The theory dominated art for the next 5 hundred years.
Masaccio -Created the illusion of depth so successfully that viewers called the fresco painting named the Holy Trinity, “the hole in the wall”
= used pyramid or triangular composition = becomes hallmark of Renaissance art / Brancacci Chapel of the Church of the Santa Maria del
Carmine in Florence= Tribute Money – continuous narration , contrapposto, constant light source (chiaroscuro), real people in real space.
ARCHITECTURE
Building Types: Churches & Secular
Northern Europe = remained Gothic in style
Italian =
Church = human in scale / derived style from Roman Antiquity (& subsequent periods) studied
by architect-sculptor, Filippo Brunelleschi
Purpose:
Church no longer sole patron of architecture / secular building became increasingly important & paid for by wealthy families & guilds, &
taxes imposed on the general public
Media & Techniques:
1. Stone & brick used for foundations & walls
2. Marble used for wall facings & decoration
3. Plaster covered interior walls
4. Glass (stained or clear) used for windows / smaller in Italy than north because of heat
5. Tile roofing
6. Post-&-lintel construction in combination with arches & domes
Design: Brunelleschi concerned with a clarity of design achieved through logical, mathematical organization of elements / uncluttered church
interiors / other artists continued style / “Man is the measure of all things” (from Golden Age of Greece) / individual is significant
(not overwhelmed by the majesty of religion)
1. Roman architectural elements:
-Round arches
-Classically proportioned columns
-Classical capitals (Corinthian)
-Some flat ceilings / some barrel-vaulted interiors
-Coffered ceilings
-The triumphal arch motif for facades
-The temple front motif for facades
-Domes
-Central plans for some churches
2. Early Christian elements:
-Arches from columns
-Two-part nave elevations
-Flat entablatures broken by arches
-Latin cross (basilican) plans
3. Byzantine elements:
-Domes on pendentives
-Impost blocks above capitals
4. Romanesque elements:
-Modular construction based on bays
-Flat patterned facades
5. Gothic elements:
-Brunelleschi’s solution to dome construction (Florence Cathedral)
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
Secular (hospitals, palaces, etc.) = same / private homes more massive & fortress-like / interiors lavishly decorated / exteriors austere &
forbidding
Media & Techniques:
1. Stone used for palace exteriors / heavily rusticated (especially bottom, less upper stories) / rustication = beveling of the edges of
stone blocks to emphasize the joints between them
2. Marble used for decoration of interiors
3. Tile used for roofing (red)
4. Lavish interior decoration reserved for upper floors / ground floor used as office, storage, servants’ quarters, etc. -not as family
dwelling
Design: Many elements taken from earlier styles:
1. The cortile- built around central courtyard (from Roman insulae)
2. Arcades – supported upper stories & composed of round arches spring from columns
3. String courses – Facades divided into three horizontal bands with string stone ridges between them (from Roman)
4. Cornices – Projecting, ornamental moldings crowned the tops of buildings
SCULPTURE
Northern Europe = Remained Gothic throughout the fifteenth century (1400’s)
Italy = great changes – life-sized figures / nude figures appear for first time since Antiquity
Purpose & Subject Matter:
1. Sculpture commissioned by the guilds & private patrons to ensure own remembrance
2. Portraiture popular
3. Life-sized figures or relief sculpture / religious in content / used to decorate churches & public buildings
4. Figures depicting subjects from mythology & religion used in decorating private homes
5. Great persons memorialized by equestrian statues & elaborate, classically decorated tombs
Media & Techniques:
1. Bronze = hollow cast into life-size figures & equestrian statues / also used for relief sculpture
2. Marble & stone = carved
3. Terracotta = modeled into life-sized figures & glazed reliefs
4. Wood = carved & gilded
Design:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Correct contrapposto (first time since Antiquity)
Drapery – moves with the body (does not obscure it) (wet drapery)
Well-muscled figures
Figure no longer dependent on architecture (if placed in a niche, they could easily be removed from it & stand alone
Action & dynamic composition increasing 1450 on
3-D achieved in relief sculpture / use of sculptors’ aerial perspective (lessening of relief as one moves into the distance) / use
of linear perspective
Correct scale in relief sculpture = figures are correctly sized with relation to settings
Realism (naturalism) in portrait sculpture – bone structure revealed beneath the skin / no flattery / eyes look straight at the
viewer / portrait busts include head & shoulders, without pedestals
Psychological insight – new to Renaissance (not derived from Antiquity or other earlier periods)
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
PAINTING – Regional differences very significant
NORTHERN EUROPE – religious & secular subjects were important / Three-quarter view portraits developed first in
Flanders / Linear perspective used along with aerial perspective, but imperfectly / Disguised symbolism introduce /
haloes eliminated / light sources definite / Oil painting invented in Flanders / Fresco paining less important /
Manuscript illuminations produced in French courts
Rise in new commercial towns become centers of the new Renaissance style in the arts => Flanders & other cities
(Bruges, Ghent, Antwerp, & Brussels) led the way in supporting the new style
FRANCE: The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) deterred the rise of a wealthy merchant class in France / International Gothic Style
prevailing manner of late 14th century
Characteristics = graceful poses (Gothic S curve), sweet facial expressions, naturalistic details – carefully rendered
costumes & textile patterns, presented in a palette of bright & pastel colors, with gold
Purpose & Subject Matter – Artists worked to please the tastes of royalty & wealthy nobility / Painted portraits & religious scenes
Media & Techniques – Panel painting popular, but did not overshadow manuscript illumination in France (as else where)
Design- No uniform style for 15th century French painting / Influenced by Flanders & Italy / artist had differing individual styles
1. Italian influence =
-Portraiture accurately representing the underlying structure
-Classical architectural backgrounds shown in correct perspective
2. Flemish influence=
-Poses, drapery, & setting (Strong influence of Van Eyck)
-Lighting effects
3. Gothic influence = gold backgrounds
FLANDERS: painting made to suit tastes of nobility & rising merchant class (money from wool trade & banking)
Purpose & Subject Matter – Interest in portraiture & religious subjects
Media & Techniques – By mid-century manuscript illumination replaced by panel painting & printmaking
1. Oil painting – on wood panels developed early in 15th century (Italy continues with tempera)
-Transparent glazes = built up in layers over an underpainting of tempera on gesso-coated panels
-Alla prima – painting directly over the gesso practiced by some artist (Bosch)
2. Grisaille – painting in oil done in shades of gray (imitation of stone carvings, modeling)
3. Multiple panels – hinged together to make large altarpieces
Design –
Accurate detail – equated with credibility; the more true to life a painting was, the more its story could be believed
Heavily draped figures –Flanders was a textile center
Contemporary settings & costumes – Scenes from the Bible shown as taking place in 15th century Flemish settings
Aerial perspectiveLinear perspective- correctly used in 2nd half of 15th century
Incorrect scale- sometimes figures are too large for implied space / or hierarchically scaled
No flattery – Portraits very detailed with no idealization / Detailed records of facial surface – little concern for underlying
bone structure
8. A definite light source – usually from the side
9. No haloes- haloes eliminated early in 15th century (Italian painters retained them until the end of the century)
10. Disguised symbolism – ordinary object used to symbolize religious concepts: dog = fidelity, mousetrap = Christ as bait to
catch the Devil, enclosed garden = Mary’s virginity, Lilies = purity of the Virgin
11. Individual innovations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
GERMANY:
Purpose & Subject Matter – Business prospered (free of warfare) / Art commissioned by wealthy merchants / subjects religious
Media & Techniques – wood panels with temper & oil paints
Design- Germany divided into small, political units / did not have a unified style / Influences include:
1. The soft style – Cologne (North) = combination of International Gothic Style with ornate, delicate figures & gold backgrounds
/ influence of Jan Van Eyck in facial types, costumes & voluminous drapery
2. The hard style – (Southern) also influenced by Van Eyck but more angular
3. Combined style- Medieval characterization of the Devil / Italian backgrounds with correct perspective
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
ITALY- Subjects primarily religious (portraits & illustrations of pagan myths also produced) / One-point perspective & aerial
perspective scientifically developed / Figure-triangle composition introduced / Directed lighting, careful shading &
proportional scaling of figures developed earlier than in North / Fresco wall paintings most important form / tempera
also used on wood panel
Florence led other commercial center of northern & central Italy in supporting the arts / Banking fortunes of the
Medici family made Florence one of the two great cultural centers of Europe (other is Flanders) / Several other
wealthy families & guilds also patronized the arts
Purpose & Subject Matter – Medici & other wealthy families commissioned many paintings to decorate churches & other
public buildings & homes / Subjects included:
1. Religious paintings (previous same sources)
2. Portraiture
3. Pagan mythology (after mid-century)
Media & techniques1. Fresco wall paintings were of primary importance
2. Panel paintings-Done in tempera (oil used in North)
-Large, flat altarpieces with fewer panels than north
-Occasionally in form of tondo (round paintings) / mid-century for private homes
Design- Italian Quattrocento painting (!5th century in Italian visual arts & literature)
1. Correct linear perspective – Brunelleschi invention / In 1435 Alberti wrote rules:
-No distortion of straight lines
-No distortion of objects parallel to the picture plane
-Orthogonal (diagonal lines) converge in a single vanishing point, depending on the position of the observer’s eye
-Size diminishes relative to distance
2. Aerial perspective- the graying (bluing) of colors as they recede into the distance
3. Correct representations of anatomy
4. Correct scale of figures & surroundings; elimination of hierarchic scaling
5. Landscape backgrounds, some with architecture
6. Haloes still used
7. Sacra conversazione composition (Madonna & Child conversing with Saints)
8. Figure-triangle composition
9. Lighting from a definite source outside the picture
10. Profile portraits followed later by three-quarter views
AP ART HISTORY
Chapter 17 – Early Renaissance Comparative Analysis Assignment
Mrs. Lawson
100 Points Total
GRAPHICS
Woodcuts – Woodblock printing had been used in Europe since the 12 th century in the textile industry / in the 14th century the
woodcuts were used artistically / The late 15th century is considered the peak of woodcut design
Media & Techniques1. Relief prints – artist cuts away the background, inks the surface, & prints the raised design by hand (or on a
mechanical press)
2. Fine detailing requires the use of dense wood – poplar, pear, cherry / Gouges of various widths used for cutting
3. Color often hand-painted on early woodcuts
Design1.
2.
Initially primitive (simple forms & figures indicated by outline & a few lines to suggest drapery & other detail)
By end of century, crow-hatching & other methods used to create subtle gradations of tone & suggest depth
Engravings – developed as an outgrowth of metalsmithing arts / about 1430 began to be used / By end of century replaces
woodcut in most areas
Media & Techniques
1. Engravings are intaglio prints – artist cuts into the surface (metal plate) with a burin to produce groves which are
filled with ink / The surface of the plate is wiped clean, paper is laid over the plate & is forced into the grooves to
pick up the ink because of the pressure of the press
2. Engravings usually not multi-colored
3. Dry point – variation of engraving in which a fine metal needle is used to scratch the image into the plate / Dry
point prints are softer & more fluid than engraving (fewer prints can be pulled from plate)
Design –
1.
2.
Engravings more detailed than woodcuts
Hatching & stippling used to convey texture, volume, & depth / Northern artists preferred form-following
hatching / Italian artists preferred parallel hatching
Download
Related flashcards
Renaissance music

35 Cards

Create flashcards