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ENVI 121 Final Review Sheet:
Marine Mammals:
1) What are the general characteristics of marine mammals?
2) What is viviparous?
3) How did marine mammals evolve?
4) What are general characteristics of seal, sea lions and walruses?
5) What is blubber used for?
6) How do seals swim?
7) Where do seals live?
8) What are the major differences between seals and sea lions?
9) What do walruses eat and what are their tusks used for?
10) What are sea otters and polar bears closely related to?
11) What makes sea otters different? What do they eat? Why are they important in
kelp forests?
12) What do polar bears eat? Why are they impacted by climate change? Why are
they considered marine mammals?
13) Where do manatees live? What is different about them compared to seals and sea
lions? What do they eat? What is their biggest danger?
14) What are the general characteristics of cetaceans?
15) What is meant by convergent evolution?
16) Where are their rear limbs?
17) What are general characteristics of baleen whales? What is baleen made of and
where is it located? How do they feed? What are the major diets of the great
18) What are ventral grooves? How do baleen whales differ in the way they feed? Do
all have dorsal fins?
19) What are the general characteristics of toothed whales? Give some examples of
toothed whales?
20) What is the status of the great whales? Why were they used for? Why are the
susceptible to over hunting?
21) What are adaptations for marine mammals ability to dive to deep depths?
22) How do they echolocate and what do they use it for?
23) What is the general migration pattern for whales?
24) Are whales playful?
1) What is ecology and why so we care about it?
2) What are abiotic and biotic factors?
3) What are populations?
4) How do populations grow with unlimited resources? Does this normally happen?
5) What is a limiting resource? What happens to populations when a resource
becomes limited?
6) What is meant by a self-regulating population? What is a carrying capacity?
7) What is competition? What are the different types? What is resource partitioning?
8) What is predation? What is top down and bottom up control? What is meant by
9) What are trophic structures? What is a food chain? What is a food web and what
is the difference between the two?
10) What are trophic levels? What is a trophic pyramid and how does it relate to
biomass, energy and numbers? What is the transfer of energy between trophic
11) Why are decomposers important?
Living Resources:
1) Why is seafood important to humans?
2) How have fisheries changed in the past few decades?
3) Where do most fisheries occur and why?
4) What is the most productive fisheries? How are they caught? What are they
mainly used?
5) How are cods and other demersal fish caught? How does this method impact the
6) Where are tuna caught and how are they caught?
7) What are other examples of species caught from the oceans?
8) When do fish populations have the greatest growth rates?
9) What is overfishing and how does it impact the population and economy?
10) What is the maximum sustainable yield? Is it easy to calculate?
11) What is bycatch?
12) What are ways to manage fisheries?
13) What is mariculture? Is it always good?