A Partnership Between Academe, Local Government Units and

Natural Resource Management Education Strategies: A partnership Between,
Academe, Local Government Units and Community in Sogod Bay Area
Veronica L. Reoma*, Nestor O. Morales*,
Gloria M. Reyes** and Valerio B. Cabalo ***
Research Specialist II, **President and ***VP RDE
Southern Leyte State University- Sogod, Southern Leyte Philippines 6606
053-382 -3264/ 3264, www.slsuonline.edu.ph
Forest and aqua-marine areas degradation give an alarming concerned of
the Local Chief Executives and the National leaders because the end result of these
are the natural calamities such as the rockslide observed in Guinsaugon, St.
Bernard, landslides in Liloan and San Ricardo, and siltation of Subang Daku river in
Sogod, Southern. The government has already enacted laws and measures
dedicated to the natural resources management as early as 1970’s. Inspite of this
existing systems people in the locality are still very passive in the actual
implementation and preservation of the environment, thus, this study is conducted by
the Southern Leyte State University to foster education as a potent management tool
to promote knowledge, awareness and practices for the restoration of the
environment in Sogod Bay area and to analyze the dynamics behind a successful
partnership of the academe, the Local Government Units of selected Sogod Bay
Barangays and the community in sustaining the Natural Resource Management. The
most significant output that can be attributed to this activity is the enhancement of
collaboration between the LGUs, community and academe to sustain NRM and the
increase in community’s participation to its activities.
Natural Resource Management Education Strategies: A partnership Between,
Academe, Local Government Units and Community in Sogod Bay Area
Veronica L. Reoma*, Nestor O. Morales*,
Gloria M. Reyes** and Valerio B. Cabalo ***
Research Specialist II, **President and ***VP RDE
Southern Leyte State University- Sogod, Southern Leyte Philippines 6606
053-382 -3264/ 3294, www.slsuonline.edu.ph
Forest and coastal areas are one of the most important natural resources in
Southern Leyte. In 1939 forest covered 42% of the land area but it has decreased to
12% in 1987 (Ender, 2004) an estimated loss of 240,000 hectares. The main causes
of the forest losses were, large scale logging operations and extensive conversion of
the forest land into agricultural areas like coconut, rice and abaca. The phenomena
give an alarming concerned of the Local Chief Executives and the National leaders
because the end result of this
are the natural calamities such as the rockslide
observed in Guinsaugon, St. Bernard, landslides in
Liloan and San Ricardo,
Southern Leyte.
Even before the recent catastrophes, the government has already enacted
laws and measures dedicated to the natural resources management as early as
1970’s. The latest program is the Community-Based Forest Management program
(CBFM) implemented in the year 1996 by the DENR
Administrative Order under DAO 96-29 as a strategy to protect the declining natural
resources in the uplands. Recently the DENR has issued another Administrative
order No. 2000-44, amending certain provisions of DAO 96-29 and providing specific
guidelines for the establishment and management of Community-Based Projects
within the protected areas. Rules and regulations for the implementation of Executive
Order No. 263, otherwise known as the Community- Based Forest Management
Strategy is hereby amended to align it with the provisions of republic Act 7586,
otherwise known as the National Integrated Protected Areas Systems (NIPAS) Act of
On the otherhand, The CRM network in Southern Leyte operates in the entire
municipalities in the province
The Coastal Resource Management
Network was born in July 2002 with Leyte Island Program (LIP) in collaboration with
GTZ and the Provincial Coastal Resource Management Office (PCRMO) as the
organizer. The Network is composed of the PO’s, NGOs, LGUs, Academe and
Government Line Agencies conducting or involving CRM activities in the province.
However, inspite of this existing systems people in the locality are still very
passive in the actual implementation and preservation of the environment as
evidenced by massive burning of plastic and crop residues, wastes disposal is still a
problem and rampant violations against the mother earth both in the forest and in the
seas are frequently observed. Thus, this study is conducted by the Southern Leyte
State University to foster education as a potent tool to give promote knowledge,
awareness and practices for the restoration of the environment in Sogod Bay area.
This study is conducted
to foster education as a potent tool to promote
knowledge, awareness and practices for the restoration of the environment in Sogod
Bay area and to analyze the dynamics behind a successful partnership of the
academe, the Local Government Units of selected Sogod Bay Barangays and the
community in sustaining the Natural Resource Management.
1. to determine the perceive needs and environmental problems and issues of
the selected communities in Sogod bay area;
2. to create an effective strategy/ies to restore the environment;
3. to assist the day care centers and elementary schools in inculcating the Natural
Resource Management (NRM);
4. to identify, enhance and strengthen linkages with agencies supporting the
NRM concerns; and
5. to propose recommendations and identified solutions for the sustainability of
the NRM project in Sogod bay area.
Methodologies and Strategies of Implementation
a. Gathering of Baseline data
This activity
is a research cum extension activity. Using the purposive
sampling of municipalities where SLSU external campuses are located and random
sampling for barangays and its respondents, a questionnaire was fielded to assess
the knowledge, awareness and practices of the local residents on Natural Resource
Management (NRM), training needs and problems and issues
and proposed
solutions related to the environment were gathered. Data gathered were tabulated
and analyzed using descriptive statistics.
The following 5 municipalities were identified, Silago, San Juan, Sogod,
Bontoc and Tomas Oppus. Sample
respondents were taken randomly from the
selected pilot barangays of each SLSU external campuses using the sloven formula
for the total number of respondents. There were 541 respondents distributed as
Hinunangan 102
Bontoc 93
Tomas Oppus
Figure 1. The number of respondents and the places
where the project is conducted
Secondary data were gathered from the Provincial Planning Development Office of
Southern Leyte and the Municipal Planning Office of the sample municipalities. The
data gathered were the projects conducted in the municipalities related to NRM and
its stakeholdersfrom 2005-2010, NRM priority needs and alternative livelihood
priorities .
A series of Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was also employed to gather the
opinion of the NRM implementers, Local Chief Executives and Barangay residents.
b. NRM stakeholders linkages
SLSU recalled the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) signed between public
and private agencies related to Natural Resource Management. Assigned focal
person per project signed by the university. The university actively coordinated and
link with other institutions for human, financial resources
to activate the
organizations and other networks. Meetings and workshops were conducted to
assess status of collaboration and planning for the next 10 years of activities to
strengthen collaboration to restore the environment.
c. Education Management Strategies
c.1. Elementary Pupils
One of the major activities of the project is to educate not only the adults but
the children as well. SLSU in coordination with the Local Chief Executives through
the barangay captain and the DEPEd are launching a program called Alternative
Learning System (ALS). This is the program where feeding and environmental
awareness and advocacy is being enhanced through film showing, lectures and
workshops with the pupils. Leaflets and flyers were disseminated, Instructional
Materials (IMs) were also enhanced by providing additional learning materials like
books, visual aids, tables, cabinets and television sets and construction of comfort
rooms to selected barangays. Day care centers were the target beneficiaries of the
program since it is in this growth stage where young children are fast learning. They
are told to practice not to throw garbage especially non decomposable items
anywhere instead tucked it in their pockets if trash cans are not yet available. The
process of waste management is introduced the early stage of child development.
c.2. Adults and Farmers
Adults like the parents and senior citizens were also included during the FGD,
workshops and trainings on Solid Waste Management and Health and Sanitation
issues. Farmers were also included by promoting organic production like the use of
compost and vermicomposting. This program is in collaboration with the Office of
the Provincial Agriculture and Municipal Agriculture Office. Farmers were trained
how to produce their own compost and how to apply it to their farms. Farmers Field
School (FFS) and University School on Air (USOA) were also conducted to give
avenue for the farmers and other listeners to access information on Natural
Resource Management and Organic Rice Production.
Station DYSL, Radio ng
Bayan Sogod and Department of Agriculture –Agricultural Training Institute are one
of the collaborating agencies in this aspect.
Leaflets and flyers on Vermi composting is being developed and disseminated
to the interested farmers. Machines like the vermicompost separator is also being
developed by the Engineers of SLSU.
d. Assistance and Assessment of the RA 9003 Implementation
The university together with the Local Government units are jointly planning
and conducting Monitoring and evaluation scheme to implement the RA 9003
otherwise known as Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2003.
Material Recovery Facility—Process and System is being proposed as a source of
organic fertilizer in Southern Leyte. With the spiraling high cost of synthetic fertilizer
in the market, it is beyond the reach of our local farmers. This is the present and
major problem of local farmers. The best and the most appropriate way is to provide
them fertilizer where price is within the reach and financial capabilities of the farmers.
Organic fertilizer is the farmer’s demand of the time. The proposed project is not only
economically stable, but the greatest need of the many as it address specifically the
need to process collected garbage by segregating in the organic waste and
processing bio-waste into an environmentally friendly fertilizer product.
Aside from monitoring and evaluation, the Engineering Department of the
University is assisting the barangays in establishing a Material Recovery Facility
(MRF) through technical assistance and in improving if there is an existing one.
Trees, Mangrove, and seaweeds planting and promotion
of “One Man One Tree can Make a Forest”
A slogan was initiated by the academe and
absorbed by the lone
congressional district of Southern Leyte. It is called, “ One Man One Tree can
Make a Forest.”
It is the target of the project to encourage every citizen of
Southern Leyte to plant at least one tree per person in the community.
seedlings are being produced by the local women of the province and is funded by
the congressman of the district to be distributed to the barangay level for planting
and maintenance.
The role of the academe is to sustain the project by monitoring and evaluation
purposes. Providing compost to the tree planters
providing assistance in
procuring the seedlings.
Rubber tree is also promoted by the University and the Congressman to
augment the income of the households in the next 5 years. It is part of the plan to
plant rubber tree not only to be eco friendly and mitigate disaster and climate change
but also for income generation of the rubber once it will produce latex, the “white
gold” of Mindanao area.
f. Coastal and River Cleanups
The university includes coastal and river cleanup together with the barangay
residents not only as an exercise but to encourage the barangay residents in the
community to be aware of the wastes that exist in both areas. The wastes were
segregated and others were collected for recycling purposes.
The barangays
through its Local Chief Executives were also part of the activities.
Highlights of Accomplishments
A. Baseline data
Base from the result of the interview it was found out that the respondents are
aware of the existing organizations that are working within their respective areas and
what projects and activities they are conducting. The following projects and activities
were observed in the locality: Most of the respondents were married (90.94%) with
7 % singles and only few are separated and live in status (Table1)
Table 1. Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status
Marital Status
Live in
The distribution of the respondents in terms of educational attainment is
presented in table 2. The distribution ranges from elementary graduate, elementary
level and high school level (32.9%, 28.47%, 27.54%). High school graduates or
having technical or vocational courses comprises only 6.47% with 3.88% as college
Table 2. Distribution of Respondents by Highest Educational Attainment
Highest Educational Attainment
Elementary level
Elementary graduate
High school level
HS grad/Tech/Vocational course
College level
Identified programs and projects in Southern Leyte from 2005-2010
The following programs identified by the residents related to environment are
health and sanitation, coastal clean up, environmental protection, fishing laws, tree
planting, guzo farming,
Programs about fishing, river clean ups, and mangrove
planting citing the different agencies who are also members of the Environmental
Technical Working Group.
Table 3. Identified Programs, Activities and Agencies Involved conducted
from 2005-2010 in the Sogod Bay Area
Fish net inspection
Fishing Laws
Fishpond and Fingerlings Culture
Foreshore Line Identification
Bantay Dagat
Coastal Clean Up
Coastal Resource Management
Environmental Management
Environmental Protection
Fish Sanctuary
Guzo Farming
Info campaign in Environmental
Information about Fishing ground
Laws on Illegal Fishing
Leyte Island Project (LIP)
College of Maasin, SLSU
Livelihood Programs
LGU, BFAR, College of Maasin
Marketing Marine and Aquatic Products BFAR
Mud Crab Culture
Municipal Fishers Aquatic Resources
Council (MFARMC)
Brgy. Fishers Aquatic Resources
Council (BFARMC)- ORA
Participatory Resource Assessment
Police Pathways
Programs against Illegal Fishing
Protection of Fishing Grounds
Sanctuary Seminar
Silago Bay Integrated Coastal
Tilapia/Ulang Culture
Mangrove and Tree planting
SLSU, Lugs
NRM Priority Needs
The identified priority needs of the respondents in terms of Natural Resource
Management was asked, to the respondents it was overwhelming for them to ask for
an alternative livelihood activities
and budget or financial assistance to reduce
pressure in fishing, farming and other jobs related to the use of the natural
resources, education on natural resource management ranks 2nd followed by health
and health related assistance,
Figure 2.
Priority Needs in
Terms of NRM
Alternative livelihood
Financial Assistance
Education Enhancement
Health and Health Related Issues
MRN Management
Alternative Livelihood Projects Priority
The identified priority needs of the respondents are tied between wood
recovery and utilization and goat raising under coconut or under the trees followed
by hog fattening for commercial scale, tilapia production and other aqua-marine
projects and candle making. Cutting the trees that are full grown and woods
recovery or those that are damage by typhoons and other natural calamities like
landslides and fire or kaingin that were previously employed by the people before the
formation of CBFM. However, DENR announces the suspension of cutting trees and
wood recovery after the landslide event at Quezon province and other abuses done
with our trees to make it appear as damaged and under wood recovery situations.
This is the main reason why most of the people are frustrated to actively join the
activities of the organization due to lack of additional income and livelihood derived
from wood recovery. It was noted that there are lots of big trees that are toppled
down by the previous typhoons that are not being utilized. It is noted that flower and
vegetable gardening belongs to the last priority of the respondents.
Table 4. Identified priority needs in terms of alternative livelihood
Alternative Livelihood
Tilapia production or other aqua-marine projects like
guzo (seaweeds) farming
Wood recovery and utilization
Goat raising under coconut/trees
Piggery /Hog fattening for commercial scale
Duck raising and duck eggs processing
Chicken raising
Candle making
Abaca Handweaving
Vegetable and flower gardening/arrangement
Waitering, table skirting & setting
overhauling, ICT)
* Multiple response
Perceived NRM Problems and Related Issues
During the Focus Group discussion the respondents were able to identify
common problems in the Sogod Bay area that can be observed all throughout the
season. Possible reasons were also identified and proposed solutions are being
identified (Table 5). Based from the FGD, the education strategies of the university is
being evaluated and planning with other stakeholders were formulated including the
close coordination with other TWG on NRM of the province. The issues were lack of
information on NRM strategies and if they have information there’s no other way to
earn a living except through fishing and farming thus alternative livelihood should be
given budget. It was also perceived that there’s no focal person in the LGUs to man
the NRM related issues, thus, other activities and implementation are not being
RA 9003 or the ecological solid waste segregation and solid waste
is also perceived to be not properly implemented. The common
solution identified is to create a focal person for this at the barangay and the
municipal levels.
Table 5. Perceived NRM problems, issues and proposed solutions
Possible Reasons
Proposed Solutions
Lack of information
on NRM strategies
Not enough
information provided
Alternative Livelihood
demands are not
responded by the
National Line
No support from the
LGUs (endorsement
and follow up)
Dialogue/meetings/seminars be
conducted. and provision of
IEC materials in vernacular
A meeting must be conducted
between DENR, Academe, LGU
officials & other NRM
Lack of funds needed
for (tree, mangrove,
Budget is not
enough to support
Include NRM from the Annual
Investment Plan (AIP) of the
guzo) planting
materials, seedlings
and other materials
the requested
alternative livelihood
No LGU staff is
assigned for NRM
project alone
No budget from LGU
for additional staff
National office or DENR must
provide a staff to work on NRM
as a counterpart to the LGU
Low Budget
Scarcity of budget in
the national release
Strengthen/increase the
collaboration with external
funding agencies like GTZ
Filipino Values for
easy money
Values reformation through
education specifically the youth
and children
Assistance to alternative
Lack of penalties to
reprimand violators of
the forest,
surroundings, rivers,
coastal areas and
the seas
Garbage collectors
are not permanent
and garbage are not
collected regularly
10 Garbage are thrown
everywhere inspite of
the provision of waste
disposal containers
11 Solid Waste
Management (RA
9003) is not properly
No alternative
Not enough budget
Fines or penalties must be
for human resource
collected to households who
on garbage collection have not followed waste
Children and other
Include proper waste disposal
individuals need
and care of the environment to
values re orientation/ the children specially the pre
elementary school children
Propose project and activities to
utilize the waste or projects on
waste recycling must be
Not enough
Create a focal person at the
personnel and no
barangay and municipal level
strict implementation
for violators
Academe must come in with
Education campaign.
Creation of the University Plan for NRM in Southern Leyte
Based from the output of the baseline gathering, the following strategies were
implemented by the university. It was included in the annual plan of every university
department was presented in the Research Development and Extension Evaluation
Committee (RDEREC) was presented for approval prior to its implementation.
Existing collaboration with other institutions and agencies were identified and
renewal of memorandum of agreement (MOA) were also relaunch to foster close
collaboration and assurance of a successful project.
Table 6. Southern Leyte State University Natural Resource Management Action Plan for Southern Leyte
To enhance trade and industrial skills of the
Provide opportunities for alternative income
Offer short term trade skills courses to
recipient barangays.
To develop Information Education
Communication Materials for the Children
To translate existing NRM materials to the
local dialect for older staeholders
Promotion of
To foster collaboration with Dep Ed and
other private institutions for NRM education
To establish vermi compost centers
To promote Organic Pesticides
To promote organically grown farm
Rules and
Policy on
To provide Assistance in the
Implementation of RA 9003
tilapia and “ulang” production
Abaca –based product development
Basic electricity house wiring
Food processing & baking techniques
Solid Screen Painting
Refrigeration and Airconditioning
Dress remodeling
Candle making
Swine and poultry management
Goat and other ruminants training
Puppet show on environmental issues
Radio Program with Station DYSL Radio
ng Bayan Sogod
Distribution of IEC vernacular translated
Develop Instructional Materials
(IMs) for Children on NRM issues
Incorporate NRM subjects in Alternative
Learning System
Centers for vermicomposting is established
in all 5 campuses
Develop indigenous pesticides
Refer markets for organically grown
Translate IEC for organic farming
- Partnership in training and information
campaign on proper solid waste
Lead Department/Agency
SLSU Bontoc
IT Dept, SLSU Sogod
IT Dept SLSU Sogod
IT Dept SLSU Sogod
IT Dept SLSU Sogod
IT Dept SLSU Sogod
IT Dept SLSU Sogod
Arts & Sciences SLSU
SLSU Hinunangan
SLSU Hinunangan & Bontoc
SLSU TO and Sogod
All campuses
& line
All campuses
SLSU and Dep Ed Non formal
All campuses of SLSU
SLSU Hinunangan
All campuses
Coral Cay
& LGUs
Ed, CM
nal District
All campuses
All campuses
Dep Ed,
Activities to
segregation/ collection and participative
SLSU Bontoc and Tomas
action for converting solid waste into
Oppus campuses
organic fertilizer and utilization of
same to increase crop production.
To provide Coastal and marine policies
To foster planting of trees
To plant mangroves in the seashore
To scout use of alternative source of energy
Information dissemination and conduct of
Trees planted in the riverbanks and along
The shoreline areas
Mangroves to be planted in the shorelines
of 5 pilot areas
Training on alternative sources of energy
Like the use of biogas and solar energy
Procurement and planting of rubber trees
All campuses
All campuses in all pilot areas
Congressional District of So.
Leyte & LGUs and SLSU
B. NRM stakeholders linkages
The Southern Leyte State University is a member of the Technical Working
Group of the Province of Southern Leyte which seeks to provide the 18
municipalities and 1 city a sound policy framework for the protection and
management of the environment and natural resources within their jurisdiction. The
composition of the NRM Technical Working Group are: the Municipal Planning and
Environmental Offices (18 municipalities) and one city, the academe (SLSU with 5
campuses, College of Maasin and Department of Education), Provincial Coastal
Resource Management Office (PCRMO), Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR),
Department of Agriculture (DA), Provincial Tourism Office and Provincial Natural
Resource Management Office (PNRMO). The PNRMO served as the secretariat of
the tWG due to its central location and related focal functions on NRM.
The NRM TWG drafted the NRM code primarily to attain sustainable
development and ensures that component local government units (LGU) shall adopt
all reasonable and practiceable measures to protect, restore and enhance the quality
of the environment as well as to promote the well –being and safety of their
constituents. The environmental code underwent a process, series of meetings and
Focus group discussion and critiquing with the support of the Environment and
Rural Development program (EnRD) and the Decentralization Program of the
German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). The Environment Code was promulgated
with the LGU Executive Order Number 6 pursuant to section 104, of ordinance No.
2008-06. It leads to the formulation of the Implementing Rules and Regulations
(IRR) of the Southern Leyte for the effective implementation of its provision.
Aside from that a series of extension activities were conducted to different target
municipalities and selected barangays related to Natural Resource Management. It
is said that, in order to sustain the learnings one must show the people how rather
than telling only the person how to do it. NRM network works with synergy planning
coordinating and reporting activities every quarter to look into the overall impact of
the activities as planned.
C. Educational Management Strategies
c.1 Radio as a vehicle for NRM advocacy
The different strategies that is implemented by the Southern Leyte State
University are varied due to the report as conducted by Reyes et al. 2008 that
Information education and communication preferences of the farmers specifically
abaca farmers are more on radio rather than in print like in newspapers. As reflected
in the profile of the respondents, most of them have lower educational background
only few have reached college level thus, the SLSU foster an agreement with radio
station DYSL, Radio ng Bayan Sogod with a time slot for a program “Kalambuan sa
Kaumahan” which means “Progress in the Farm” every 5:00 am to 6 am from
Monday to Friday.
University School on Air (USOA) is also being conducted. There were 2
USOA undertaken by the university using the time slot allotted in the MOA, 1 is on
corn and the other is on rice since these are the two staple crops of the area. There
were 211 farmer graduates of the USOA on corn and nearly 200 for the USOA on
rice which is newly started within this year.
In the program a module on
environmental protection is included as it is part of the NRM action plan. Resource
speakers were selected exerts of their fields.
Every Wednesday at 11:00 am to 12:00 noon a radio program is also aired to
disseminate information on the activities conducted by the entire university. The
whole activity on NRM is also being a part of the info-dissemination part of the
Table 7. Listeners survey of the SLSU “Kalambuan sa Kaumahan” Program
Kalambuan sa
diehard listeners
(daily with less
listeners and
(more than 10
DA InformSources
ation (ATs)
(print IEC)
It is very clear that most of the respondents are not using print IEC but
mostly are using radio. Although Department of Agriculture Information (Agricultural
Technicians) and Techno Gabay
Centers are one of the places of information
mostly identified by the respondents as one of the sources of information because
the LGUs local agricultural services are partners of the SLSU DYSL programs. The
co-anchor of the program is a technician from the LGU together with SLSu and
DYSL staff. Collaboration between other agencies cam in when they act as resource
person in every topic being discussed.
c.2 Information Education Communication (IEC) materials
The use of IEC materials
is also one of the strategies being used by
translating the information into Cebuano or vernacular dialect and dissemination is
through seminar and trainings. This is done specifically in the pilot areas where they
also expressed their request for specific trainings and seminars. A translated leaflet
is being included.
The following leaflets are developed by the University in
Vernacular which was subjected to critiquing by experts: Ang Pagpadaghan sa Wati
(How to do Vermiculture),
Ang Paghimo ug Compost Pinaaagi sa Wati ( The
Vermicomposting)m Giya sa Hustong Pagdispatsar sa mga Basura (Desirable
Guide to Get Rid of Wastes, Ang Pagbuhi ug Ulang (Fresh Water Prawn Production)
and many other existing leaflets from different agencies like DENR, DOST, DA
translated into vernacular and distributed to the different stakeholders.
c. 3 Alternative Learning System (ALS)
This strategy is in collaboration with the Dep Ed incharge of the program and
the different private learning institutions. The program covers the production of
Information materials for the pupils, making their environment clean by introducing
proper waste segregation and disposal. Film showing of the ill effects of improper
waste disposal like flood in Manila and Quezon province and rockslides in Saint
Bernard, Southern Leyte where thousands of lives where lost including children. By
then pupils are taught to place their waste in the waste can designate for
biodegradable and non biodegradable. If waste cans are not available to contain the
wastes in their pockets and disposed it until such time that it is available. Contest
were being done at the elementary level on waste segregation. The pilot schools
selected were given IEC gadgets like TV sets, DVD players and construction of
water sealed toilets specifically in the kindergarten schools where the barangay
LGUs cannot afford. This was done through collaboration among agencies.
Projects using recycled wastes are also included in the program like thru
pillows made of candy wrappers and decors out of recycled wastes. The entire
university is also promoting eco friendly
environment by recycling the non
biodegradable wastes like making Christmas items and ladies accessories out of
plastic and recycled products.
D. Assistance and Assessment of the RA 9003 Implementation
The 5 pilot sites: Hinunangan, San Juan, Sogod, Bontoc and Tomas Oppus
assess and assists the LGUs in the implementation of the RA 9003 by helping the
Municipal and Barangay government facilitate
full implementation of R.A.
9003, otherwise known as Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2003 through
partnership in training and information
campaign on proper solid waste
segregation/collection and participative action for converting solid waste into organic
fertilizer and utilization of same to increase crop production.
This was done by
mandating the university engineers in the college of Engineering to make a model of
the Material Recovery Facility (MRF) of the pilot sites. This was done by assessing
and evaluating the existing MRF and make an improved model to be suggested to
the Lugs. The design is made for the following purposes: durable, spacious and
garbage collected friendly to the environment. This is done so that the MRF facility
of the pilot areas will be sustainable. SLSU through its extension arm assists the
LGUs facilitate massive
people participation in the implementation of RA 9003.
Training and campaign on proper waste segregation and collection processes as
embodied in the respective ordinance.
On the otherhand a composting process
was done to convert one (1) ton solid biodegradable waste into organic fertilizer
daily. And use this organic fertilizer to establish an organic fertilization techno- demo
on rice, vegetables and rootcrops.
E. Trees, Mangrove, and seaweeds planting and promotion of “One Man
One Tree can Make a Forest”
e.1 Mangroves
In the coastal areas mangroves are being planted together with the program
funded by GTZ EFOS
and Provincial Natural Resource Management Office
(PNRMO) of the province of Southern Leyte on Mangrove Greenbuilt in Southern
Leyte. Today there are 25,000 mangroves planted in five pilot areas involving the
LGUs in the selected sites and the community. The Mangrove greenbuilt is located
in Maasin, Malitbog, San Juan and Libagon, Southern Leyte. The university is the
lead institution in the monitoring and evaluation of the project.
On the otherhand a separate extension activity is conducted by the university
to plant mangroves in the areas of Bontoc, Tomas Oppus and Hinunanagan with a
total mangrove of 3, 000. Care and maintenance is part of the project by gathering
growth data of the plant related to its compost application.
e.2 Seaweeds to decrease pressure in the seas
Seaweeds planting and processing is being promoted in the areas where the
sea current is desirable. The coastal areas in Barangay Calag-itan, Hinunangan
Southern Leyte Is now planting with seaweeds spearheaded by it BLGU assisted by
SLSU Hinunangan campus.
There are 34 farmer collaborators
and grouped
themselves into an association known as the Calag-itan United Farmers Association
(CAGUFA). The farmers are planting the indigenous source of seaweeds from
Bohol. Recently, they are harvesting 70-100 kilos of seaweeds per week and sold
either fresh or dried
to Tacloban City.
The fish that become the pest of their
seaweeds served also as their alternative income.
e.3 One Man One Tree can Make a Forest
The program is being adopted by Congressman Mercado in the lone
Congressional District
of Southern Leyte in
(Roger Gaviola Mercado).
his program on Restore Green
The seedlings are provided by the
congressman’s office to SLSU NSTP students, faculty and staff of all the campuses.
Every year 3,000-4,000 trees are planted since 2005 up to the present depending
on the number of students enrolled at the university. To reduce dependence on the
source of planting materials, the SLSU campuses are now setting an area for
bamboo and trees nurseries.
With the purpose of adding more value to the trees being planted, rubber tree
or the white gold of Mindanao for its latex is now being procured and planted in all
campuses of SLSU. There are also selected sites in the province where rubber tree
is being planted.
To date there are 10,000 newly planted rubber trees
not to
mention the existing rubber trees owned by a private persons in Hinunangan where
he already acquired income from this kind of tree (Pedro Masing).
It is the plan of the NRM TWG to plant rubber tree in areas where there is no
plant existing yet. The compost from vermiculture is being utilized as a booster to
the newly planted rubber seedlings. A rubber budwood garden is now established at
Hinunanangan campus and will soon be distributed also to all the remaining
F. Coastal and River Clean ups
The university is conducting coastal and river clean ups since 1998 up to the
present , however, in 2005 the university started to tie up with the communities
through its local chief executives in doing the annual clean ups. The pilot barangays
where the river and coastal clean up are conducted are also scheduling this as a
local activity together with their constituents where children and adults join together
to at least remove the non biodegradable wastes in the seas and in the rivers.
Mean Distribution of wastes collected in percent by weight
It is reflected in table 7 that the majority of the wastes gathered from the
coastal areas in Southern Leyte across 6 years is consistently high in plastic bags
(28%, diapers (22%), plastic cups (12%), plastic bottles (11%), Styrofoam (9.5%)
followed by others such as nails, coins, pins and other unidentified parts of machines
or computers with minimal percentage in the total waste that was gathered in the
coastal sites during the cleanup activities. The waste in the river were not classified
due to differences in identification of the wastes in terms of weight and interms of
number. The coastal wastes are classified based on weight because some of the
gathered wastes are already disintegrated that it cannot be classified into number.
There are other wastes that cannot be classified due maybe to the action of water
and other mechanical causes of disintegration.
Table 7. Percent distribution of the wastes gathered from the coastal areas of
Southern Leyte for year 2009-2010.
Waste classification
Average %
Disposable diapers
Plastic bags
Plastic cups
Plastic bottles
Galvanized Iron
Glass and/or bottles
Summary and Conclusion
There were 5 major activities conducted in order for the university to address
the problem on NRM. The following are: educational management strategies,
strengthen linkages with other NRM stakeholders, assistance and assessment of
RA 9003, mangrove, trees and seaweeds planting and production and regular
coastal and river clean up.
The education component
of the study includes
programs in the radio that would improve the lives of the farmers and fisherfolks that
cut across natural resources management strategies and issues, production and
development of acceptable Information Education, Communication materials and link
with educators for a more understandable natural waste management strategies like
projects related to NRM for the children. The result of the activity showed that more
trees, mangroves, seaweeds are planted, adults, pupils and students are aware of
the NRM activities in the Southern Leyte area and linkages between stakeholders is
enhanced by more collaboration activities sharing resources for a better output.
It is concluded therefore that radio, IEC materials, trainings and actual
conduct and sharing of NRM related activities could cover more areas and reach out
more people in the communities. Inspite of the meager budget per government
institution but as institution with NRM spirit and passion collaboration is the key to do
more. The most significant output that can be attributed to this activity is the
enhancement of collaboration between the LGUs, community and academe to
sustain NRM and the increase in community’s participation to its activities like
massive tree planting, coastal and river clean up as part of the LGUs and
pupils’/students’ routine activities, waste segregation and recycling, promotion of eco
friendly materials and adoption of organic agricultural production.
The project is to be continued
in collaboration with the different agencies in
the Southern Leyte province with the same mandate to foster NRM. Membership in
the Technical Working Group of the NRM in Southern Leyte will be increased and
strengthened through further trainings and seminars for the TWG members or pool
of experts.
Resource generation will also be enhanced by scouting foreign
assistance sharing the same passion to foster a friendly environment.
Existing trees, mangroves, seaweeds must be maintained and turned over to
the local communities for protection and maintenance. The day care centers will be
monitored and follow up assistance must be done to ensure sustainability of the
started programs and projects.
Review of related literatures
DENR Annual Report 1996 and 2006
Ender, Thomas. 2005. The situation of CBFM Implementation. The GTZ Technical
Report November, 2005. 34 pp
Lim. V. 2005-2010. The Southern Leyte Profile and Stakeholders for Five years
Provincial Development Plan.
Reoma, V.L. 2008. Educational Radio Program as a vehicle for Develoipment. SLSU
RDE Journal. Jan-Dec. 2008. pp 108-118.
Reyes, Gloria M. and VL Reoma. 2007. Information Education Communication (IEC)
Preferences of the Farmers in Sogod Bay Area. RDE Journal. JanuaryDecember 2007. pp.1-12.
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