Philosophical, ontology and antropology (Module I)

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Philosophy
Module I. The history of Philosophy
The question ‘What is existence?’ refers to …
A. epistemology
B. ontology
C. neoplatonism
D. metaphysics
E. dualism
ANSWER: B
1.
2. … is something that can be said to be
A. Being
B. Knowledge
C. Category
D. Notion
E. Space
ANSWER: A
3. Who argues over the existence of properties and relations?
A. dualists
B. materialists
C. constructivists
D. realists
E. Pragmatists
ANSWER: D
4. … is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature and scope of knowledge and belief.
A. Epistemology
B. Ontology
C. Neoplatonism
D. Metaphysics
E. Dualism
ANSWER: A
5.
Who represented dialectics as theoretical system?
A. Marx
B. Ficht
C. Descartes
D. Hegel
E. Plato
ANSWER: D
6. What is the objective dialectics?
A. one that lives in the very objects
B. one that lives in the person’s thinking
C. one that is unchangeable
D. one that was developed by Hegel
E. there is no correct answer
ANSWER: A
7. What is the subjective dialectics?
A. one that lives in the very objects
B. one that lives in the person’s thinking
C. one that is unchangeable
D. one that was developed by Hegel
E. there is no correct answer
ANSWER: B
8. Which dialectic law explains the appearance of new species of animals and plants?
A. the law of transformation quantity into quality
B. the law of interpenetration of opposites
C. the law of the negation of the negation
D. all the answers are correct
E. there is no correct answer
ANSWER: A
9. Who introduced the term “metaphysics” in philosophy?
A. Socrates
B. Plato
C. Aristotle
D. Lenin
E. Skovoroda
ANSWER: C
10. Quintessential ideas about knowledge in dialectics called…
A. categories
B. principles
C. forms
D. laws
E. ration
ANSWER: B
11. Who introduced the classic definition of truth?
A. Hegel
B. Marx
C. Sartre
D. Aristotle
E. Plato
ANSWER: D
12. What do rationalists determine as the quintessential source of knowledge?
A. mind
B. practice
C. senses
D. truth
E. God
ANSWER: A
13. Who introduced the first philosophical conception of being?
A. Aristotle
B. Pre-socratics
C. Hegel
D. Leibnitz
E. Medieval philosophy
ANSWER: B
14. Who contradicted empirical being to “pure ideas” in the antique philosophy?
A. Plato
B. Aristotle
C. Socrates
D. Bacon
E. Dante
ANSWER: A
15. Which philosophical category has “the law of transformation quantity into quality”?
A. dialectics
B. consciousness
C. cognition
D. energy
E. negation
ANSWER: A
16. The way to show that a given hypothesis leads to a contradiction; thus, forcing the
withdrawal of the hypothesis as a candidate for truth is called …
A. the Plato’s method
B. the Hegelian method
C. the Aristotle’s method
D. the Marxian method
E. the Socratic method
ANSWER: E
17. What are two broad traditional and competing metaphysical views concerning the nature
of mind and conscious mental states?
A. thesis and antithesis
B. dualism and materialism
C. being and nothing
D. consciousness and unconsciousness
E. vice and virtue
ANSWER: B
18. Who does “the idea of contradiction, with class struggle playing the central role in social
and political life” belong to?
A. Marx
B. Hegel
C. Bacon
D. Aristotle
E. Socrates
ANSWER: A
19. Who does the dialectic method of cross-examination belong to?
A. Marx
B. Hegel
C. Leibnitz
D. Descartes
E. Socrates
ANSWER: E
20. Which metaphysical view states that the conscious mind or a conscious mental state is
non-physical?
A. dualism
B. materialism
C. Marxism
D. metaphysics
E. Leninism
ANSWER: A
21. In which religion can “the idea of the three phases of creation, maintenance of order and
destruction or disorder” be found?
A. Christianity
B. Buddhism
C. Hinduism
D. Islam
E. Judaism
ANSWER: C
22. What is the aim of the dialectical method?
A. to try to resolve the disagreement through discussion
B. to try to resolve the disagreement through scientfic
C. to try to resolve the disagreement through linguistic
D. to try to resolve the disagreement through philoslphical
E. to try to resolve the disagreement through logical
ANSWER: A
23. Aristotle was a student of …
A. Plato
B. Marx
C. Socrate
D. Leibniz
E. Freud
ANSWER: A
24. How many metaphysical views do you know?
A. 42
B. 32
C. 12
D. 20
E. 2
ANSWER: E
25. Who was the representative of the theory of mind?
A. Plato
B. Rene Descartes
C. John Locke
D. Leibnitz
E. Immanuel Kant
ANSWER: E
26. What is the central issue in philosophy of mind?
A. problem of senses
B. problem of properties
C. problem of mental state
D. problem of cognition
E. problem of consciousness
ANSWER: E
27. What are two kinds of reason?
A. Practical and empirical
B. Theoretical and empirical
C. Historical and theoretical
D. Practical and theoretical
E. Spiritual and material
ANSWER: D
28. Who was the first that mentioned the term “philosophy”?
A. Aristotle
B. Socrates
C. Pythagoras
D. Plato
E. Epicures
ANSWER: C
29. What is a function of philosophy that is directed at comprehension of integrity of the
world, at cognition of the background and preconditions of interconnection between man
and the world, at systemic-theoretical, logical-consequent and argumentative solution of
outlook problems?
A. Practical
B. Cognitive
C. Methodological
D. Critical
E. Mythological
ANSWER: B
30. The main … task of philosophy is to ground and prove truth in the scientific cognition.
A. methodological
B. cognitive
C. critical
D. practical
E. mythological
ANSWER: A
31. .… function proves philosophy to be able to influence the formation both of mass outlook
and outlook position of an individual.
A. Cognitive
B. Critical
C. Methodological
D. Vital-practical
E. Mythological
ANSWER: D
32. A person’s attitude to life; a view; what is likely to happen in future is …
A. criticism
B. practice
C. outlook
D. consciousness
E. theory
ANSWER: C
33. Teaching about God is …
A. Theology
B. Mythology
C. Metaphysics
D. History
E. Dialectics
ANSWER: A
34. The idea of a single God is …
A. Creationism
B. Anthropocentrism
C. Theocentrism
D. Spirituality
E. Faith
ANSWER: C
35. Christian world outlook stands for the idea of creation of the world out of nothing.
A. Theocentrism
B. Faith
C. Creationism
D. Spirituality
E. Symbolism
ANSWER: C
36. World outlook considered man not only as a natural and physical creature but also as a
spiritual personality. Antique philosophy came to conclusion about existence of body and
soul in the human nature.
A. Anthropocentrism
B. Spirituality
C. Faith
D. Creationism
E. Symbolism
ANSWER: B
37. Christianity defines it as a special state of human soul.
A. Faith
B. Spirituality
C. Creationism
D. Theocentrism
E. Anthropocentrism
ANSWER: A
38. The study of God and religious belief; a system of religious beliefs and theory is …
A. Metaphysics
B. Dialectics
C. Theology
D. History
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: C
39. The belief that nothing has any values, especially religious and moral principles …
A. Nihilism
B. Existentialism
C. Empirism
D. Romanticism
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: A
40. A philosophical theory, which emphasizes the existence of the individual person as free
agents, responsible for their own development, is …
A. Empirism
B. Nihilism
C. Existentialism
D. Romanticism
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: C
41. A system of philosophy that recognize only things that can be scientifically or logically
proved is …
A. Existentialism
B. Positivism
C. Nihilism
D. Romanticism
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: B
42. The art of investigating or debating the truth of options is …
A. Dialectic
B. Communication
C. Verification
D. Metaphysics
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: A
43. In Hinduism, certain … elements can be found in embrio, such as idea of the three
phases of creation (Brahma), maintence of order (Vishnu) and destruction or disorder
(Shiva).
A. Dialectical
B. Metaphysical
C. General
D. Natural
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: A
44. In the Logic Hegel describes a dialectic of … .
A. Consciousness
B. Practice
C. Existence
D. Philosophy
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: C
45. Whose is this model: “thesis – antithesis – synthesis”?
A. Hegel
B. Kant
C. Marx
D. Engels
E. Fichte
ANSWER: A
46. In philosophy, method of investigating the nature of truth by critical analysis of concepts
and hypotheses.
A. Dialectic
B. Logic
C. Ontology
D. Anthropology
E. Axiology
ANSWER: A
47. The power or right to act, speak, or think; the state of not being subject to or affected by
(something undesirable) is …
A. Freedom
B. Will
C. Despotism
D. Terrorism
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: A
48. What definition of philosophy seems to you the most appropriate?
A. Philosophy is a state of soul
B. Philosophy is a science of sciences
C. Philosophy is a study about a man
D. Philosophy is wisdom of love
E. Philosophy is love of wisdom
ANSWER: E
49. Gnoseology (epistemology) is …
A. the study of being
B. the study of sources, essence and laws of development
C. the study of man
D. the study of values, including Aesthetics, Ethics and political philosophy
E. theory of knowledge, study of the essence, forms and principles of cognition and
thinking
ANSWER: E
50. Metaphysics is …
A. the study of being
B. the study of values, including Aesthetics, Ethics and political philosophy
C. the study of sources, essence and laws of development
D. theory of knowledge, study of the essence, forms and principles of cognition and
thinking
E. concerned with such issues as the nature of the ultimate reality, philosophy of
religion, philosophy of mind, personal identity, freedom of will and immortality
ANSWER: E
51. Ontology is …
A. the study of being
B. the study of sources, essence and laws of development
C. the study of the laws of thought and forms of argument
D. theory of knowledge, study of the essence, forms and principles of cognition and
thinking
E. the study of values, including Aesthetics, Ethics and political philosophy
ANSWER: A
52. Philosophical anthropology is …
A. the study of being
B. the study of sources, essence and laws of development
C. the study of man
D. theory of knowledge, study of the essence, forms and principles of cognition and
thinking
E. the study of values, including Aesthetics, Ethics and political philosophy
ANSWER: C
53. What are two kinds of reason?
A. Practical and empirical
B. Theoretical and empirical
C. Historical and theoretical
D. Spiritual and material
E. Practical and theoretical
ANSWER: E
54. Axiology is …
A. theory of knowledge, study of the essence, forms and principles of cognition and
thinking
B. the study of sources, essence and laws of development
C. the study of being
D. the study of the laws of thought and forms of argument
E. the study of values, including Aesthetics, Ethics and political philosophy
ANSWER: E
55. Logic is …
A. the study of being
B. the study of the laws of thought and forms of argument
C. the study of sources, essence and laws of development
D. the study of values, including Aesthetics, Ethics and political philosophy
E. theory of knowledge, study of the essence, forms and principles of cognition and
thinking
ANSWER: B
56. It is a vision of the world from the only-center position of a man. What is the definition?
A. Science
B. Society
C. Thought
D. Nation
E. Outlook
ANSWER: E
57. What are the constituent elements of outlook?
A. Basic components and basics levels of outlook
B. Basic levels and forms and historical types of outlook
C. Basic forms and historical types of outlook
D. Main components of outlook and basic levels of outlook
E. Basic components of outlook, basic levels and forms and historical types of outlook
ANSWER: E
58. … is the self-consciousness of a tribe, where development of the individual selfconsciousness is not observed.
A. Mythology
B. Syncretism
C. Animism
D. Outlook
E. Fetishism
ANSWER: A
59. What are three historical types of outlook?
A. Methodological, religious, philosophical
B. Religious, practical, mythological
C. Empirical, methodological, theoretical
D. There is no correct answer
E. Mythological, religious, philosophical
ANSWER: E
60. Etymologically from the Greek philos means …
A. wisdom
B. love
C. friendship
D. respect
E. sympathy
ANSWER: B
61. Etymologically from the Greek sophia means …
A. Friendship
B. Respect
C. Lover
D. Sympathy
E. Wisdom
ANSWER: E
62. The specific feature of the … is fixed in the very etymology of the word "religion" that in
Latin means "object to worship" or the service and worship of God or the supernatural.
A. Mythological outlook
B. Philosophical outlook
C. General outlook
D. Scientific outlook
E. Religious outlook
ANSWER: E
63. Such point of view that after the death the human beings live again in other forms. What
is this?
A. Syncretism
B. Religion
C. Animism
D. Reincarnation
E. Fetishism
ANSWER: D
64. How many casts does the caste division of society in India include?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 5
D. 8
E. 4
ANSWER: E
65. The highest caste, comprising the priests.
A. Kshatriya caste
B. Brahmin caste
C. Vaisya caste
D. Shudra caste
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: B
66. Caste, comprising warriors and rulers.
A. Vaisya caste
B. Shudra caste
C. Brahmin caste
D. There is no correct answer
E. Kshatriya caste
ANSWER: E
67. Caste, comprising farmers and merchants.
A. Kshatriya caste
B. Shudra caste
C. Vaisya caste
D. Brahmin caste
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: C
68. Caste, comprising manual workers.
A. Kshatriya caste
B. Vaisya caste
C. Brahmin caste
D. There is no correct answer
E. Shudra caste
ANSWER: E
69. Concentration, contemplation and ecstasy. What does it mean?
A. Physical disciplines
B. *Stages of meditation
C. Moral disciplines
D. Material science
E. Animal sacrifice
ANSWER: B
70. Symbol of shadow or the passive, feminine principle of life. Choose the right answer.
A. Yang
B. Dao
C. Deo
D. Monism
E. Yin
ANSWER: E
71. Symbol of Sun or the active, masculine principle of life. Give right answer.
A. Dao
B. Yin
C. Yang
D. Monism
E. Deo
ANSWER: C
72. Way or universal force harmonizing nature.
A. Yang
B. Yin
C. Monism
D. Deo
E. Dao
ANSWER: E
73. What is a book of Ancient Indian school, which contains the expressions about
philosophical understanding of the world?
A. Brahmins
B. Atmans
C. Empirists
D. Upanishads
E. Vedas
ANSWER: E
74. “Four noble truths” – one of the features of...
A. Islam
B. *Buddhism
C. Stoicism
D. Neo-Platonism
E. Daoism
ANSWER: B
75. Chinese philosopher. His ideas about the importance of practical moral values formed the
basis of the philosophy of Confucianism.
A. Buddha
B. Socrates
C. Plato
D. Aristotle
E. Confucius
ANSWER: E
76. Siddartha Gautama. Born an Indian prince, he renounced wealth and family and after
achieving enlightenment while meditating, taught all who came to learn from him.
A. Confucius
B. Socrates
C. Plato
D. Prophet Mohammad
E. Buddha
ANSWER: E
77. The first Christians appeared in…
A. 1 – 2 c. AD
B. 2 – 3 c. AD
C. 4 – 5 c. AD
D. 2 – 1 c. BC
E. 3 – 4 c. AD
ANSWER: A
78. The last and the highest stage of the development of the West religious philosophy of
Middle Ages, which is characterized by connection of theological-dogmatic ideas and
rational methodology is called ...
A. Deism
B. Ontology
C. Gnoseology
D. There is no correct answer
E. Scholastic
ANSWER: E
79. The system of speculative ideas about nature, which was worked out in different
philosophical doctrines is …
A. Metaphysics
B. Natural philosophy
C. Dialectics
D. Outlook
E. Consciousness
ANSWER: B
80. The belief that God is present in all things; belief in many or all gods is …
A. Syncretism
B. Animism
C. Theology
D. There is no correct answer
E. Pantheism
ANSWER: E
81. German philosopher. He rejected Christianity’s compassion for the weak, and formulated
the idea of the Ubermensch (superman), who can rise above the restrictions of ordinary
morality.
A. I. Kant
B. L. Feuerbach
C. J. Fichte
D. There is no correct answer
E. F. Nietzsche
ANSWER: E
82. “World was catching me but has not caught”.
A. T. Shevchenko
B. I. Franko
C. H. Skovoroda
D. P. Kulish
E. There is no correct answer
ANSWER: C
83. Professional philosophy appeared in Ukraine in...
A. Monasteries
B. Universities
C. Schools
D. There is no correct answer
E. Kiev-Mohyla academy
ANSWER: E
84. Where is Kiev-Mohyla academy situated?
A. In Lviv
B. In Ternopil
C. In London
D. In Kiev
E. In Paris
ANSWER: D
85. Who divided philosophy into dialectics, ethics and physics?
A. Plotinus
B. Aristotle
C. Socrates
D. There is no correct answer
E. Plato
ANSWER: E
86. How many periods are there in the Greek philosophy?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 1
E. 5
ANSWER: B
87. Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Pythagoras, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea are
the representatives of …
A. the classic period
B. the Roman period
C. the Christian period
D. the Greek period
E. the pre-Socratic period
ANSWER: E
88. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Democritus are the representatives of …
A. the pre-Socratic period
B. the Roman period
C. the Christian period
D. the classic period
E. the Greek period
ANSWER: D
89. Pyrrho, Epicurus, Cicero, Seneca are the representatives of …
A. the classic period
B. the early Greek period
C. the Christian period
D. the Greek period
E. the Roman period
ANSWER: E
90. German Protestant theologian, the leading figure of the German Reformation. He
preached the doctrine of justification by faith (the belief that people are freed from sin by
their faith in God rather than by their good actions) and attacked papal authority. He was
excommunicated in 1521.
A. M. Luther
B. There is no correct answer
C. B. Castiglione
D. J. Burckhardt
E. J. Calvin
ANSWER: A
91. Who told that the world is an objective intellect and according to logic is very close to
subjective man’s intellect?
A. Shevchenko
B. Skovoroda
C. Kant
D. Bacon
E. Hegel
ANSWER: E
92. … any philosophical problem is studied in the context of God.
A. Theocentrism
B. Theodicy
C. Theologism
D. Personalism
E. Gnosticism
ANSWER: A
93. … the study which explains the contradiction of the idea of God as Absolute and the
existence of the world evil.
A. Theocentrism
B. Theodicy
C. Theologism
D. Personalism
E. Gnosticism
ANSWER: B
94. … everything around is determined by God and eventually reaches its aim.
A. Theocentrism
B. Theodicy
C. Theologism
D. Personalism
E. Gnosticism
ANSWER: C
95. …God is Absolute Personality, which served as a sample for man creating.
A. Theocentrism
B. Theodicy
C. Theologism
D. Personalism
E. Gnosticism
ANSWER: D
96. … derived from the Greek word - “revealed knowledge”.
A. Theocentrism
B. Theodicy
C. Theologism
D. Personalism
E. Gnosticism
ANSWER: E
97. … was the first to prove the possibility to combine the Bible beliefs with the Greek
philosophy.
A. St. Aquinas
B. St. Augustine
C. Philo of Alexandria
D. Plato
E. Kant
ANSWER: C
98. Who wrote the Confessions and the City of God?
A. St. Aquinas
B. St. Augustine
C. Philo of Alexandria
D. Plato
E. Kant
ANSWER: B
99. … was called the Angelic Doctor and the Prince of Scholastics
A. St. Aquinas
B. St. Augustine
C. Philo of Alexandria
D. Plato
E. Kant
ANSWER: A
“Believe to understand”, who told this?
A .Clement of Alexandria
B. Quintus Tertullianus
C. Origen
D. There is no correct answer
E. St. Augustin
ANSWER: E
100.
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