20130125-113743

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Theme №15: Disorders of the bladder, urethra and male genitals (cryptorchidism, ectopia
and aplasia of the testis, hydrocele, funiculocele, phimosis, paraphimosis).
I. Actuality of theme.
The mesonephric ducts and ureters drain into the cloaca , which is later subdivided into the urogenital
sinus (anteriorly) and the anorectal canal (posteriorly) during weeks 4 - 6. The bladder is formed by the
upper part of the urogenital sinus. The lower part forms the urethra in females. In males, the
mesonephric ducts form the posterior urethra and closure of the urogenital groove creates the anterior
urethra. The testes descend into the scrotum in the 3rd trimester (passing through the inguinal canal at
24-28 weeks. Failure of testicular descent results in cryptorchidism (or undescended testes).
Hypospadias is a congenital deformity where the opening of the urethra (the meatus) occurs on the
underside (ventral) part of the penis, anywhere from the glans to the perineum. In epispadias, the
urethra opens onto the dorsal surface of the penis, anywhere from the glans, penile shaft, or, most
commonly, the penopubic region. Abnormal congenital mucosal folds in the prostatic (posterior)
urethra causing lower urinary tract obstruction.
II. Purpose of the class.
1.
To know the classifications of the disorders of the bladder, urethra and male genitals
2.
To know the definitions the disorders of the bladder, urethra and male genitals
3.
To know clinical signs of the disorders of the bladder, urethra and male genitals
4.
To be a good hand to estimate the changes in data of laboratory, X-ray and instrumental
examinations for the diagnostic the disorders of the bladder, urethra and male genitals.
5.
To know main list of diseases for differential diagnosis with the the disorders of the
bladder, urethra and male genitals
6.
To know the most often complications of the disorders of the bladder, urethra and male
genitals
7.
To know the treatment modalities of the disorders of the bladder, urethra and male
genitals (cryptorchidism, ectopia and aplasia of the testis, hydrocele, funiculocele,
phimosis, paraphimosis)
Literature:
Urology. Michael T. Macfarlane - 4th ed. (House Officer Series) – Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,
2006. – P. 51-54, 238-261.
Clinical manual of urology. Philip M. Hanno, S. Bruce Malkowicz, Alan J. Wein. – 3rd ed. –
McGRAW-Hill, 2001. – P. 813-849.
Smith’s General Urology. Emil A. Tanagho, Jack W. McAninch – 16th ed. - McGRAW-Hil, 2004. –
P.510-527, 560-592, 612-635.
Oxford handbook of urology. John Reynard, Simon Brewster, Suzanne Biers. – Oxford university
press, 2006. – P. 530-538, 544-550.
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