When it comes to water, there is no place like Wisconsin

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Name:
Groundwater
Match the term to its proper definition.
A. confining layer
F. discharge areas
B. hydrologic cycle
G. permeability
C. porosity
H. artesian wells
D. unsaturated zone
I. draw down
E. aquifer
J. runoff
K. water table
L. recharge areas
M. static water level
N. saturated zone
O. impermeable
P. groundwater
Q. cone of depression
R. spring
1.____ A zone in which all the pores and rock fractures are filled with water, underlies the unsaturated zone
2.____ The top of the saturated zone
3.____ A zone in which all the pores and rock fractures are not filled with water
4.____ Water that soaks into the soil and is stored in the pores (tiny spaces) between rocks and particles of soil.
5.____ How well rock material holds water
6.____ Layer of rock that transmits water freely
7.____ How well a material transmits water
8.____ Area where aquifers take in water
9.____ Area where groundwater flows to the land surface
10.____Do not need a pump because of natural pressures that force the water up and out of the well.
11.____Elevation of the water table above sea level
12.____Where water in aquifers is brought to the surface naturally
13.____The constant movement of water above, on, and below the earth’s surface
14.____Rain that cannot be absorbed into the ground and flows
15.____When water does not readily move through rock material
16.____A layer of impermeable material
17.____A cone-like shape of the water surfaces
18.____Lowering of the water table due to pumping
A. septic system
B. effluent
C. scum
D. sludge
E. plume
F. drain field
19.____The most common type of on-site wastewater treatment
20.____Solids in a septic system
21.____Floating items in a septic system
22.____The liquid wastewater contained in the septic tank
23.____Place where wastewater is allowed to percolate into the surrounding soil
24.____An area of contaminated groundwater
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Use the reading to complete the sentences.

Water is the (25). _________________ of every living creature on earth.

Wisconsin's groundwater could cover the whole state to a depth of (26). ___________ feet.

At last estimate, there were more than (27). ______________ ____ private wells in Wisconsin.

The (28). __________________ is the constant movement of water above, on and below the Earth’s
surface.

Wisconsin receives an average (29). _______ to (30). _______ inches of precipitation per year.

Approximately (31). __________________ of Wisconsin’s residents and (32). _______________ of
Wisconsin’s communities rely on groundwater to meet their water supply needs.

The boundary between the unsaturated and saturated zones is called the (33).
___________________.

Groundwater moves through the spaces (pores) between particles of a saturated material anywhere
from 0.1 foot per day to 3 feet per day. That translates into movement of (34). _________ to (35).
________ feet per year for groundwater.

(36). ___________________ gallons of groundwater per person per day may not seem like much, but
there are hidden costs for excessive water use.

The average daily cost of supplying groundwater to a family of four in 2005 was between (37).
______ and (38).________ cents – an increase of only a few cents since 1983.

Accidents happen – over (39). ____________________ spills of toxic or hazardous materials are
reported each year in Wisconsin.

Thanks to recycling efforts since 1995, each year we have diverted about (40).
___________________ percent of the Wisconsin generated solid waste from Wisconsin’s landfills.

In Wisconsin, more than (41). ___________________ private septic systems use on-site wastewater
treatment systems to meet their wastewater treatment and disposal needs
Match the term to its proper definition.
A. baseflow
B. infiltration
C. percolate
D. vadose zone
E. contaminants
F. leaching
G. leachate
J. volatile organic compounds
H. natural attenuation
K. evaporation
I. transpiration
42.____
The groundwater that sustains our lakes, streams and wetlands.
43.____
When a liquid changes into a gas.
44.____
Moisture given off from plants to the atmosphere.
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45.____
Water that filters into the ground.
46.____
Another name for the unsaturated zone.
47.____
Process where chemicals slowly pass through the soil and mix into the groundwater.
48.____
VOCs
49.____
Items that may pollute the groundwater such as storage tanks and septic systems.
50.____
The polluted liquid that forms when water percolates through solid waste.
51.____
A landfill design that counted on the soil to filter out chemicals and to prevent pollution.
52.____
Another name for infiltrate.
Short Answer:
53. What provides the energy that causes water to evaporate?
54. What is precipitation?
55. What three things may water do after it falls to Earth?
56. How does slope of the land affect the amount of runoff after a rain?
57. How does grass and other vegetation affect the amount of runoff after a rain?
58. What effect does gravity have on the hydrologic (water) cycle?
59. Why is groundwater clean-up so challenging and expensive?
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