Study Questions Evolution 1. Why is evolution so central to every aspect of biology? 2. Describe 4 ways that fossils can form and give an example of each. 3. How do fossils in sedimentary rock support Darwin’s theory of evolution? 4. In what way do the following areas contribute support to the theory of evolution? biogeography, comparative anatomy, embryology, molecular biology 5. What 3 conditions did Darwin note as necessary for natural selection to occur? 6. Explain why natural selection is called an editing mechanism. 7. What are the basic sources of genetic variation? 8. What is the unit of evolution? What is evolving? 9. Define “fitness” in the evolutionary sense. 10. Describe 5 forces that affect evolution. Why does only one of these (which one?) lead to adaptations? 11. Explain how population size determines the effects of genetic drift. 12. What could be the effects of nonrandom mating? 13. What are three types of natural selection? Name and describe examples of each. 14. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are an example of which type of selection? 15. What strategies could prevent antibiotic resistant bacteria from threatening human health? 16. Why can’t natural selection produce perfectly adapted organisms? 17. Why do deleterious alleles remain in the gene pool? Describe at least 2 reasons. 18. What is a species? 19. What step is essential for the formation of new species? List at least 6 ways this step can be achieved. 20. Explain how speciation can occur gradually or suddenly. 21. What is adaptive radiation? When is it most likely to occur?