Course description - Debreceni Egyetem

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Debreceni Egyetem
A környezetgazdálkodási mérnöki, illetve a természetvédelmi és vadgazda
mérnöki alapképzési (BSc) szakok képesítési követelményeinek kidolgozása, a
szakok beindítása. HEFOP- 3.3.1-P.-2004-09-0071/1.0 projekt
Course description
1. Title of the course : Preservation of domestic animal breeding
2. Name and title of the lecturer :
3. Name of the degree programme: Engineer of nature protection BSc.
4. Type of course : compulsory to select form (B)
5. Schedule of education: 6th semester , 2+1
6. Credit value of the course: 3
7. Educational objective: To make students aquainted with the history of domestic
animal breeds technical and cultural values of them as well as the methods of
preservation and utilization. International and Hungarian importance of the topic
should be emphasized.
8. Personal background : professor as lecturer
9. Course content:
1.week: The significance of the topic for animal breeders and the whole society. Ideas
and definitions. Development of the concept compared to preservation of
monuments and protection of endangered wild animals. Glossary: conservation
and preservation, animal genetic resources (AnGR), endangerment, bottle
neck, founder effect, species, breed and type, gene bank, data bank, genetic
diversity, the concept and importance of sustainable development in the
maintenance of traditional domestic animal breeds.
2.week: The history of conservation of (AnGR). The development and situation of
international breeds in the past centuries. The era of spontaneous protection,
the preservation in developed countries and the well organized global
conservation. The facts in Hungary. The role and rank of Hungary compared to
Debreceni Egyetem
Pannon Egyetem
Debreceni Egyetem
A környezetgazdálkodási mérnöki, illetve a természetvédelmi és vadgazda
mérnöki alapképzési (BSc) szakok képesítési követelményeinek kidolgozása, a
szakok beindítása. HEFOP- 3.3.1-P.-2004-09-0071/1.0 projekt
other countries. The history of conservation of AnGR in Hungary.The activity
of institutions involved in the topic in Hungary and abroad. FAO, UNEP,
UNESCO, RBI, SAVE, RBST, DAGENE.
3.week: Arguments for the conservation. The group of cultural arguments : products of
human work – their role in education – carriers of aesthetical values – nature
protection – protection of the view of regions – folklore – tourism. Group of
technical arguments : unknown requirements of the far future – utilization of
marginal areas – reasonable crossings – role as resources of genes – control
populations in genetic improvement – production of traditional products.
Emphasis on nature protection
4.week: Methods of conservation of AnGR: In situ preservation with pure bred
breeding and gene pool. Ex situ solution with cryogenic stored sperm, ova,
embryos, and in experimental farms and zoos. Possible finding of valuable
AnGR : hybrid lines, producing breeds, racing populations, improved breeds,
local breeds, gene pools in developing countries, hobby breeds, preserved
breeds, cell lines, isolated stored DNA, feral populations and relatives.
Possible role of biotechnology and gene technics in maintenance and
utilization of AnGR.
5.week: Concept of endangeredness and minimum number for survival of populations.
Historical, experimental, practical and genetical approach. Importance of
definition connected with sustainable development and the optional support.
Different modern genetic approaches based on the allowable inbreeding rate.
The FAO system. EU decisions and their importance in everyday work.
Resuscitation of extinct breeds.
6.week: Selection and breeding methods in conservation of AnGR. Improver,
disruptive and preserver selection. Importance of extreme individuals. The
different crossing methods are they allowable ? The improver, the brushing up,
Debreceni Egyetem
Pannon Egyetem
Debreceni Egyetem
A környezetgazdálkodási mérnöki, illetve a természetvédelmi és vadgazda
mérnöki alapképzési (BSc) szakok képesítési követelményeinek kidolgozása, a
szakok beindítása. HEFOP- 3.3.1-P.-2004-09-0071/1.0 projekt
uprading the commercial crossing, criss-crossing, the rotational crossing. The
role of genealogical, genetical and breeding lines in conservation of AnGR.
The maintenance of female families. The critical role of mtDNA in family
breeding. Saving of different types. The change or maintaining of breed’s
names.
7.week: Positive and negative aspects of financial support. Two basic form of
subsidies (1) the British system on the basis of whole society. Farm parks of
RBST. (2) The French approach : subsidies and technical directives of
government. Hungary had the first iniciatives in he French version. The history
of Hugarian subsidies. Primary iniciatives of state farms. The degree of
subsidies as stimulating or in the case of extreme form as hindering factor of
own iniciatives of the breeders for development.
8.week: Possibilities for utilization of markets besides conservation of AnGR. Possible
use of commercial crossing (see 7.) in commodity production, its benefits and
limits. Traditional products and marketing. Investigation of values of products
using laboratory methods. Traditional food and gastronomy. Geographical
trade mark. Possibilities of non food function of production for the breeders of
traditional breeds. Shortening of food chain, direct on farm sale i.e. very
advantageous system for conservationists.
9.week: Inbreeding and genetic drift. Positive and negative effects of inbreeding.
Methods for measuring and expressing the degree of inbreeding in figures.
Wright, Malécot, and the approach of modern molecular genetics. The
inbreeding depression. Mating systems in order to avoid the increasing degree
of inbreeding. Rotational mating or crossing of genetical lines. Use of results
of molecular genetics in order to avoid or decrease the danger of genetic drift.
10.week: Genetic resources in horse breeding. Threatened horse breeds at home and
abroad. The Nonius, the Furioso, the Gidran, the Kisbér halfbred, the Shagya
Debreceni Egyetem
Pannon Egyetem
Debreceni Egyetem
A környezetgazdálkodási mérnöki, illetve a természetvédelmi és vadgazda
mérnöki alapképzési (BSc) szakok képesítési követelményeinek kidolgozása, a
szakok beindítása. HEFOP- 3.3.1-P.-2004-09-0071/1.0 projekt
Arabian, the Huzul, the Murinsulaner. The Hungarian Lipizzan as a valuable
type within an international breed. International pony and cold blooded horse
breeds threatened by extinction in abroad. Special role of heavy draught horses
: meat production and logging in the forests. Crossing as a source of danger in
the case of Irish Draught horse and the Cleveland Bay. A neglected species, the
donkey in Hungary
11.week: Genetic resources in cattle breeding. Breeds threatened by extinction in
abroad and at home. Theories on the origin of Hungarian Grey cattle. History
and spreading of the breed. Possibilities of breeding and utilization , its role in
nature protection, cutting the grass, and in beef production. Relative breeds in
Italy. Hungary as the geographical North limit for the buffalo. Buffalo bulls
from Transsylvania. Saving the Hungarian Simmental cattle without the genes
of Montbéliard, Red Holstein and Bavarian or Austrian spotted. Environmental
conditions milked cows in small holders’ farms.
12.week: Genetic resources in pig breeding. Threatened breeds in abroad and at home.
The Hungarian Mangalitsa, its origin and development. Genetic comparison of
colour varieties : the blond, the red and the swallow bellied. Mangalitsa in the
neighbouring countries. Possibilities for breeding and utilization. Crossing
with Duroc boars. Producing of special products. The Basna breed. Food
chemical laboratory investigations on the role of fat in human consumption.
Traditional and significant pig breeds : Berkshire, Cornwall.
13.week: Genetic resources in sheep and goat breeding. Endangered breeds. The
origin, present situation and valuable traits of Hungarian Ratzka. Possibilities
for breeding and utilization. Utilization of its product (wool) in folklore
products. Two varieties of Tzigai in Hungary and in the neighbouring countries
: the Zombor and Csóka type. Utilization of milking Tzigai. The Cikta (the
Tolna – Baranya Svabian sheep) as a special valuable breed to be saved.
Debreceni Egyetem
Pannon Egyetem
Debreceni Egyetem
A környezetgazdálkodási mérnöki, illetve a természetvédelmi és vadgazda
mérnöki alapképzési (BSc) szakok képesítési követelményeinek kidolgozása, a
szakok beindítása. HEFOP- 3.3.1-P.-2004-09-0071/1.0 projekt
14.week: Genetic resources in poultry breeding. Threatened breeds in abroad and at
home. Yellow, White and Speckled Hungarian hen. The question of partridge
coloured variety. The black variety of naked neck Hungarian. Pure bred
breeding and crossing. Special utilization : capon and self maintaining poultry
breed. The Bronz Turkey, the guinea-fowl and other colour varieties. Natural
and organic products. Crossed combinations. Goose varieties in Hungary. The
Hungarian duck and pigeon. Elaboration of traditional products and the
marketing.
10. Mode of assessement during the semester : individual tasks
11. Type of exam : colloquium
12. Compulsory practice related to the course: 13. Compulsory and recommended literature :
Alderson L.: The chance to survive. Northamptonshire. 1989.
Bodó I. :A géntartalékok megőrzése az állattenyésztésben. MTA doktori disszertáció. 1991.
Bodó I. Eleven örökség. Mezőgazda Kiadó, Budapest. 2001.
Bökönyi S.: Die Haustiere inUngarn in Mittelalter auf Grund der Knochenfunde. Akadémiai
Kiadó. 1961.
Brem G. et al : Ex situ cryoconservation of Genoms and genes. FAO Animal Production and
Health Paper 76 Roma. 1989.
Crawford R.D.: Conservation and management in poultry science. Proc. 4th World conf. of
Gen Appl. Sci .XIV Edinburgh. 1990.
Hankó B: Ősi magyar háziállataink.Tiszántúli Mg Kamara. 1940.
Mihók S.: (szerk) Gazdasági Állataink – Fajtatan: Ló és Szamár. Mezőgazdasági Kiadó,
Budapest. 2001. 1-360.
Debreceni Egyetem
Pannon Egyetem
Debreceni Egyetem
A környezetgazdálkodási mérnöki, illetve a természetvédelmi és vadgazda
mérnöki alapképzési (BSc) szakok képesítési követelményeinek kidolgozása, a
szakok beindítása. HEFOP- 3.3.1-P.-2004-09-0071/1.0 projekt
Mihók S.: Gazdasági Állataink – Fajtatan: Tyúk, gyöngytyúk, pulyka, kacsa, pézsmaréce, lúd.
Mezőgazda Kiadó, Szerk.: Mihók S. Budapest. 2006. 1-195.
Németh J., Ferencz G.: A domesztikált állatfajták védelme és fenntartása. Állattenyésztés és
Takarmányozás. 1974. 23. 2.17.
Sambraus H.H. : Alte Haustierrassen in Ungarn. Arche Nova. 1987. 5. 1. 36.
Yamada Y., Kimura K.: Survival probability in small populations. FAO Animal Prod.Health
Paper 44/1 Róma. 1984.
14. Exam themes :
Definition and interpretation of animal genetic resources (AnGR). Which population can be
qualified as an AnGR population?
Technical arguments for conservation of AnGR.
Cultural arguments for conservation of AnGR.
Historical periods of conservation of AnGR.
Degrees of endangered ness of AnGR.
Aspects for selection of animal populations to be preserved.
Interpretation of data bank, gene bank and their role in conservation.
Advantages and disadvantages of conservation of feral populations.
The bottle neck phenomenon and its consequences.
International history of conservation of AnGR.
Hungarian history of conservation of AnGR.
Institutions and societies involved in conservation of AnGR.
Importance of inbreeding in conservation of AnGR.
Interpretation and definition of effective population size.
Debreceni Egyetem
Pannon Egyetem
Debreceni Egyetem
A környezetgazdálkodási mérnöki, illetve a természetvédelmi és vadgazda
mérnöki alapképzési (BSc) szakok képesítési követelményeinek kidolgozása, a
szakok beindítása. HEFOP- 3.3.1-P.-2004-09-0071/1.0 projekt
Methods for avoiding problems of inbreeding.
Expression of degree of inbreeding in figures.
Inbreeding coefficients of individuals and inbreeding level of populations and their role in
conservation of AnGR.
Interpretation of decreasing genetic variability and its importance in populations of different
breeds.
Improver crossing methods and their permissibility in conservation of AnGR.
Commercial crossing methods and their permissibility in conservation of AnGR.
List and evaluation of in situ preservation methods.
List and evaluation of ex situ preservation methods.
Selection and rules of selection methods in conservation of AnGR.
Importance of conservation for mankind.
Effects of genetic drift and methods for avoiding its harmful impact.
Evaluation of possible resuscitation of breeds and examples.
Importance and the impact of environment in conservation of AnGR.
Possibilities for utilization of endangered rare breeds.
The Hungarian Grey cattle, change of its population size to the critical state and after it
International value of Hungarian Buffalo, the conservation of AnGR taken into consideration.
The most important requirements for breeding Gidran horse breed, the conservation of AnGR
taken into consideration.
The most important aspects for breeding Nonius horse breed, the conservation of AnGR taken
into consideration.
The most important aspects for breeding furioso horse breed, the conservation of AnGR taken
into consideration.
The most important aspects for breeding Kisbér horse breed, the English half bred character
and Hungarian cultural value taken into consideration.
Debreceni Egyetem
Pannon Egyetem
Debreceni Egyetem
A környezetgazdálkodási mérnöki, illetve a természetvédelmi és vadgazda
mérnöki alapképzési (BSc) szakok képesítési követelményeinek kidolgozása, a
szakok beindítása. HEFOP- 3.3.1-P.-2004-09-0071/1.0 projekt
The most important aspects for breeding Huzul horse breed, its international situation and the
conservation of AnGR taken into consideration.
The most important aspects for breeding Lipizzan horse breed, the conservation of AnGR and
the special Hungarian type within the international breed taken into consideration.
The most important aspects for breeding Shagya Arabian horse breed, the conservation of
AnGR, the Hungarian and international population size taken into consideration.
The Murinsulaner and the Hungarian heavy horses.
Evaluation and maintenance of Hungarian Simmental cattle breed as a traditional one.
The most important Hungarian poultry breeds to be preserved and their traits.
The Turkey breeds and varieties to be preserved.
Evaluation of Hungarian guinea-fowl population as AnGR.
Evaluation of in Hungary bred traditional water fowl breeds as AnGR.
Situation and importance of donkey breeds in Hungary from the aspect of AnGR.
The important traits and history of Hungarian Ratzka. Colour varieties’ value for conservation
of AnGR.
Evaluation of varieties and traits of Tzigai sheep breed.
The origin, history and valuable traits of Cikta sheep.
History, breed development and present situation of Hungarian Mangalitsa. Its most important
breed character. For what gave good example the history of last 15 years of Mangaltiza and
Hungarian Grey cattle .
Comparison of utilization of traditional horse breeds with other domestic animals in Hungary.
Comparison of maintenance possibilities of cattle and poultry breeds in Hungary.
The Hungarian pigeon breeds.
The list of Hungarian dog breeds, their grouping according breeding goal and their evaluation
as AnGR.
Hungarian goat population as ANGR.
The best and the worst utilizable traditional domestic animal breeds.
Debreceni Egyetem
Pannon Egyetem
Debreceni Egyetem
A környezetgazdálkodási mérnöki, illetve a természetvédelmi és vadgazda
mérnöki alapképzési (BSc) szakok képesítési követelményeinek kidolgozása, a
szakok beindítása. HEFOP- 3.3.1-P.-2004-09-0071/1.0 projekt
Debreceni Egyetem
Pannon Egyetem
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