Place of Birth: Shanghai, China
Nationality: USA
Birthdate: August 1, 1938
B.A., 1961, Howard Payne College
Ph.D., 1965, California Institute of Technology
Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow (1970-72)
John Simon Guggenheim Fellow (1974-75)
Fujio Matsuda Presidential Scholar (1985)
UH Regents' Medal for Excellence in Research (1986)
NSF Creativity Extension Award (1987-89)
Resolution of Merit, the 14th Hawaii State Legislature (1988)
UH Regents' Medal for Excellence in Teaching (1988)
Honorary Member, Golden Key National Honor Society (1992)
NIH MERIT Award (1992-95)
Mortar Board Honoree (1996)
60th Birthday Honoree, ACS Meeting (1998)
Fellow of the Foundation for Outstanding Scholarship, Taiwan (2000-2001)
Fellow of the Inter-American Photochemical Society (2010)
Research and/or Professional Experience:
Predoctoral Research and Teaching Assistant, California Institute of Technology, 1961-64. Doctoral thesis,
"Mechanisms of Photosensitized Reactions of Conjugated Dienes" (with George S. Hammond)
Research Chemist, Central Research Department, duPont Company, 1964-68.
Visiting Researcher at The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University and The Royal Institution at
London, September 1974-June 1975.
Associate Professor of Chemistry, 1968-72, Professor of Chemistry, 1972-2005, Professor emeritus, 2005- ;
hire back part-time, 2005-08, University of Hawaii. Photochemistry and photophysics of conjugated
polyenes, new isomers of vitamin A and carotene, visual pigment analogs, bacteriorhodopsin, sensory
rhodopsin and 19F-NMR of membrane proteins.
Visiting Professor, National Taiwan University, 2000; National Tsing Hua University, 2001.
Member of Professional Societies: American Chemical Society, American Society of Photobiology,
Interamerican Photochemistry Society.
American Chemical Society Tour Speaker, 2005- .
Invited Lectures at National and International Meetings:
Gordon Conference on Organic Photochemistry, New Hampshire, August, 1967.
XXIIIrd International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Boston, July, 1971.
Gordon Conference on Organic Photochemistry, New Hampshire, August, 1975.
Sixth International Conference on Frontiers in Biochemical and Biophysical Studies of Macromolecules, Honolulu,
August, 1982.
US/Japan Joint Seminar on Molecular Mechanisms in Visual Excitation, Honolulu, January, 1984.
American Society of Photobiology, New Orleans, June, 1985.
FASEB Conference on Biology and Chemistry of Vision, Saxtons River, Vermont, August, 1985.
Beijing International Conference on Photochemistry, Beijing, China, October, 1985.
Seventh International Congress of Eye Research, Nagoya, Japan, September, 1986.
Structure and Function of Visual Pigment, Kyoto, Japan, October, 1986.
First Winter Conference of the Inter-American Photochemical Society, Clearwater Beach, Florida, January, 1988.
Third International Conference on Retinal Proteins, Mt. Hiei, Japan, May, 1988.
The 1989 International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies, Honolulu, December, 1989.
First International Symposium on Organic Chemistry for Chinese Chemists, Shanghai, China, July 12-14, 1990.
Gordon Conference on Organic Photochemistry, New Hampshire, July 15-19, 1991.
US-Japan Joint Seminar on Biophysical Chemistry of Retinal Proteins, Honolulu, January 12-16, 1992.
11th International Congress on Photobiology, Kyoto, Japan, September 7-12, 1992.
10th International Symposium on Carotenoids, Trondheim, Norway, June 20-25, 1993.
Photochemical Sciences Colloquium: Diversity in Research, Bowling Green, Ohio, October 23, 1993.
First East Asia Symposium on Biophysics, Hyogo, Japan, May 16-20, 1994.
US-Japan Binational Conference on Future Prospects of Solar Energy Conversion, Kona, HI, January 5-10, 1995.
Annual Meeting of American Society of Photobiology, Washington, DC, June 16-22, 1995.
8th IAPS Conference, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, May 19-24, 1996.
11th International Symposium on Carotenoids, Leiden, Netherlands, August 4-9, 1996.
The Fourth Sino-Japan Binational Symposium on Photochemistry, Huangshan, China, October 5-9, 1997.
American Chemical Society National Meeting, Boston, August 22-26, 1998.
12th International Symposium on Carotenoids, Cairns, Australia, July 18-23, 1999.
16th International Symposium on Fluorine Chemistry, Durham, UK, July 16-21, 2000.
IUPAC Symposium on Photochemistry, Dresden, Germany, July 22-27, 2000.
Okazaki Conference on Retinoid Binding Proteins, Nagoya, Japan, November 1-2, 2000.
PacifiChem 2000 Conference, Honolulu, December 14-19, 2000.
Gordon Conference on Photochemistry, Connecticut, July 8-13, 2001.
12th National Symposium on Photochemistry, Wuyi Shan, China, October 17-23, 2001.
15th International Symposium on Carotenoids, Honolulu, January 6-12, 2002.
First Asian Conference on Photobiology, Awaji Island, Japan, June 26-28, 2002.
IUPAC Symposium on Photochemistry, Budapest, Hungary, July 14-19, 2002.
The Gary Boggess Distinguished Lecture, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, September 24, 2002.
31st Annual Meeting of American Society for Photobiology, Baltimore, Maryland, July 5-9, 2003.
XX1st International Conference on Photochemistry, Nara, Japan, July 26-31, 2003.
14th International Congress on Photobiology, Jeju, Korea, June 10-15, 2004.
Fourth Asian Photochemistry Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, January 5-12, 2005.
PacifiChem Conference on Photoisomerization, December 15-20, 2005.
PacifiChem Conference on Supramolecular Photochemistry, December 15-20, 2005.
American Chemical Society Speaking Tour, the “Gulf Circuit” (Texas/Louisiana/Mississippi/Alabama), March 20-25,
ACS Speaking Tour, the “Marquette Circuit” (Michigan/Wisconsin), September 17-23, 2006.
Third Oceania Photobiology Conference, Beijing, China, November 10-14, 2006.
Symposium on Modern Physical Organic Chemistry, Miami, Florida, January 10-12, 2007.
18th Annual Meeting of the InterAmerican Photochemical Society, St. Petersburg, FL, January 3-7, 2008.
ACS Speaking Tour, the “Ozark Circuit”, Missouri, April 14-18, 2008.
5th Asian Photochemistry Conference, Beijing, China, November 1-3, 2008.
ACS NW Regional Meeting, Tacoma, “Chemistry, Energy & Sustainability”, June 28 – July 1, 2009.
13th Asian Chemistry Congress, Shanghai, China, “Organic & Green Chemistry”, September 14-16, 2009.
20th Annual Meeting of the InterAmerican Photochemical Society, St. Petersburg, FL, January 2-5, 2010.
PacifiChem Conference on Dynamics and Mechanisms of Photochemical Reactions of Biological Proteins , December 15-20,
Research Support:
Petroleum Research Fund, Type G, September 1, 1968 - August 31, 1970, $7,500.
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, July 1970 - June 1972, $15,000.
National Science Foundation, GP-14248, CHE-12686, CHE-16500, "Non-Radiative Processes in Electronically
Organic Molecules: Mapping the Torsional Potential Surfaces of Excited Polyenes"
April 1, 1970 - November 30, 1978; total amount, $156,700.
September 1, 1979 - August 31, 1983; total amount, $113,700.
May 15, 1984 - November 15, 1989; total amount, $369,600.
National Science Foundation, "U.S.-Japan Cooperative Science Program" (with Kyoto University), April 1, 1987 - March 31,
1989; $15,050.
National Science Foundation, "Undergraduate Research Experiences at UH-Manoa," March 1, 1996 - February 28, 1999,
National Science Foundation joint with EPSCoR, "Hula-twist, a Supramolecular Photochemical Reaction Mechanism. A New
Perspective of Photoisomerization," March 1, 2001 – February 28, 2005, $313,800.
National Science Foundation, “New Aspects on Photoisomerization: Mechanistic Concepts, Medium Effects,” August 1, 2005December 31, 2010, $336,000.
National Institutes of Health, EY-00918, AM-17806, "New Geometric Isomers of Vitamin A and Carotenes,"
January 1, 1973 - December 31, 1974; total amount, $27,659.
January 1, 1975 - June 30, 1979; total amount, $127,235.
May 1, 1976 - June 30, 1982; total amount, $76,387 (Supplemental grant for biochemical work).
July 1, 1979 - June 30, 1982; total amount, $207,435.
July 1, 1981 - June 30, 1982; $100,727 (Supplemental grant for a nmr spectrometer).
July 1, 1982 - June 30, 1987; total amount, $587,166.
July 1, 1987 - June 30, 1992; total amount, $727,318.
July 1, 1992 - December 31, 1995; total amount, $629,529.
National Institutes of Health, New Title: "Isomeric Retinoids, Carotenoids, and Their Protein Complexes," January 1, 1996 November 30, 1999, $908,177; December 1, 2000 - November 30, 2001, $64,403.
National Institutes of Health, NO1 CP 75897-56, "Synthesis of New Retinoids for in vitro Studies of Prevention of Lung Cancer
and Other Epithelial Cancers," September 30, 1977 - September 29, 1980; total amount, $124,508.
HFSPO Award, "Molecular Mechanism for Visual Transduction" (cooperative program with Kyoto University), August 1, 1990 July 30, 1993; total amount for UH, $75,000.
Army Research Office, "Near IR Absorbing Azulenic Polyene Pigments," April 1, 1996 - March 30, 1999; total amount,
$326,494; July 1, 1999 - June 30, 2002, $360,000.
Robert S. H. Liu - Publications List (*Invited paper or book chapter)
1. G. S. Hammond & RSHL, "Stereoisomeric Triplet States of Conjugated Dienes," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 85, 477-478 (1963).
2. G. S. Hammond, N. J. Turro & RSHL, "Photosensitized Dimerization of Conjugated Dienes," J. Org. Chem., 28, 3297-3303
3. RSHL & G. S. Hammond, "Photosensitized Cyclization of Myrcene: The Problem of Addition of Dienes to Alkenes," J. Am.
Chem. Soc., 86, 1892-1893 (1964).
4. RSHL, N. J. Turro & G. S. Hammond, "Activation and Deactivation of Conjugated Dienes by Energy Transfer," J. Am. Chem.
Soc., 87, 3406-3412 (1965).
5. RSHL, "2-Methylenebicyclo[2.1.1]hexanes: A Non-stereospecific, Photosensitized, Cyclization Reaction of Trienes,"
Tetrahedron Lett., 2159-2165 (1966).
6. A. J. Fry, RSHL & G. S. Hammond, "Comparison of Rates of Fast Triplet Quenching Reactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 88, 47814782 (1966).
7. RSHL, "Photosensitized Isomerization of 1,3-Cyclooctadienes and Conversion to Bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-7-ene," J. Am. Chem. Soc.,
89, 112-114 (1967).
8. RSHL & G. S. Hammond, "Photosensitized Internal Addition of Dienes to Olefins," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 89, 4936-4944 (1967).
9. RSHL, "2,3-Bis(perfluoromethyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octa-2,5,7-trienes and Their Photorearrangement Reactions," J. Am. Chem. Soc.,
90, 215-216 (1968).
RSHL & J. R. Edman, "The Role of Second Triplet States in Solution Photochemistry I. Reactions of Rigid Systems Sensitized
by Anthracene and Substituted Anthracenes," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 90, 213-215 (1968).
RSHL & D. M. Gale, "Second Triplet States II. Reactions of Nonrigid Systems Sensitized by Anthracene and Substituted
Anthracenes," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 90, 1897-1899 (1968).
RSHL, "Second Triplet States III. 9,10-Dichloroanthracene-Sensitized Isomerization of Stilbenes. The Question of Energy
Transfer between Intimately Associated Molecular Pairs," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 90, 1899-1900 (1968).
RSHL & J. R. Edman, "Second Triplet States IV. Triplet-Triplet Energy Transfer from the Second Triplet States of
Anthracenes. Chemical Studies," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 91, 1492-1497 (1969).
RSHL & R. E. Kellogg, "Second Triplet States V. Triplet-Triplet Energy Transfer from the Second Triplet State of
Anthracene. Spectroscopic Methods," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 91, 250-252 (1969).
RSHL & C. G. Krespan, "Thermal and Photochemical Additions of Perfluoro-2-butyne to Aromatic Compounds," J. Org.
Chem., 34, 1271-1278 (1969).
F. G. Moses, RSHL & B. M. Monroe, "The 'Merry-Go-Round' Quantum Yield Apparatus," Mol. Photochem., 1, 245-249 (1969).
RSHL, "Photoisomerization of Bis(perfluoromethyl)bicyclo[2.2.2]octa-2,5-dienes to Tetracyclo[,8.05,7]octanes,"
Tetrahedron Lett., 1409-1412 (1969).
C. Yamada, M. J. Pahk & RSHL, "Photosensitized Cyclization Reaction of 2-Phenylhexa-1,5-diene," Chem. Commun., 882
R. O. Campbell & RSHL, "Photo-dimerization of 9-Phenylanthracene," Chem. Commun., 1191 (1970).
RSHL & V. Ramamurthy, "Self-Quenching in Photocycloaddition of Thiobenzophenone to Crotononitrile: A Case of Energy
Transfer from S2," Mol. Photochem., 3, 261-265 (1971).
RSHL, "5,5-Dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane," Org. Photochem. Syn., 1, 48-49 (1971).
RSHL & Y. Butt, "Photochemistry of Polyenes I. A Comparative Study of Cis-Trans Isomerization from the S1 and T1 States
of a Conjugated Triene (Alloocimene)," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 93, 1532-1534 (1971).
23.* RSHL, "Polyenes II. Recent Studies on the Photochemistry of Conjugated Trienes and Higher Polyenes," Pure Appl. Chem.
Suppl. (23rd Congr.), 1, 335-350 (1971).
K. S. Y. Lau, R. O. Campbell & RSHL, "Second Triplet States VI. Solvent Viscosity Effect on Anthracene-T2-Sensitized
Isomerization of Stilbenes. Photostationary State Composition and Quantum Yield Studies," Mol. Photochem., 4, 315-325
V. Ramamurthy, T. T. Bopp & RSHL, "NMR Studies of 7-cis--Ionol and Related Compounds. Ring-chain Conforma-tional
Preference," Tetrahedron Lett., 3915-3916 (1972).
V. Ramamurthy, Y. Butt, C. Yang, P. Yang & RSHL, "Polyenes III. Preparation of 7-cis--Ionyl and -Ionylidene Derivatives
and Other Sterically Hindered Olefins by One-Way Sensitized Geometric Isomerization," J. Org. Chem., 38, 1247-1249 (1973).
V. Ramamurthy & RSHL, "Polyenes IV. Photochemistry of Dehydro--Ionone and Related Compounds," Tetrahedron Lett.,
441-444 (1973).
V. Ramamurthy & RSHL, "Polyenes V. Photochemistry of -Ionylideneacetonitrile and Related Compounds. Direct
Conversion of a Cyclohexadiene to Trans-hexatriene," Tetrahedron Lett., 1393-1396 (1973).
R. O. Campbell & RSHL, "Second Triplet States VII. More on the Second Triplet States of Anthracenes in Sensitized
Reactions of Olefins. Evidence against the Singlet-Triplet Energy-Transfer Process," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 95, 6560-6562 (1973).
RSHL, Y. Butt & W. G. Herkstroeter, "Polyenes VI. Triplet Lifetime of Conjugated Trienes. Allo-ocimene and
Cholestatriene," Chem. Commun., 799-801 (1973).
C. S. C. Yang & RSHL, "Synthesis and Atropisomerism of Hindered cis--Alkyl Styrenes," Tetrahedron Lett., 4811-4814 (1973).
R. O. Campbell & RSHL, "The Mechanism of the Diene-Catalyzed Photodimerization of 9-Phenyl-anthracene. The Nature
of the Reactive Intermediate," Mol. Photochem., 6, 207-223 (1974).
V. Ramamurthy & RSHL, "Polyenes VII. Preferred Directions of Photoisomerization of Ionylideneacetaldehyde and the
C18-Tetraene Ketone in the Retinal Series. Synthesis of the Hindered 7-Cis Isomers," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 96, 5625-5627 (1974).
C. C. Ladwig & RSHL, "Second Triplet States VIII. The Second Triplet State of Naphthalene in a Sensitized Reaction in
Solution," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 96, 6210-6211 (1974).
V. Ramamurthy & RSHL, "Photochemical and Thermal Internal Cycloadditions in retro--Ionylidenemalononitrile," J. Org.
Chem., 39, 3435-3436 (1974).
V. Ramamurthy, G. Tustin, C. C. Yau & RSHL, "Polyenes VIII. Preparation of Sterically Hindered Geometric Isomers of 7cis--Ionyl and -Ionylidene Derivatives in the Vitamin A Series," Tetrahedron, 31, 193-199 (1975).
V. Ramamurthy and RSHL, "New Geometric Isomers of Vitamin A and Carotenoids I. 7-Cis Isomers of Retinal via 7-Cisand 7,9-Dicis--C18-tetraene Ketones," Tetrahedron, 31, 201-206 (1975).
A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers II. 7-cis,9-cis- and 7-cis,9-cis,13-cis-Retinal. A Stereo-selective Synthesis of 7-cis,9cis--Ionylideneacetaldehyde," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 97, 4128-4130 (1975).
C. C. Ladwig & RSHL, "Second Triplet States IX. A Deuterium Isotope Effect on the Lifetime of the Second Triplet State of
Naphthalene," Chem. Phys. Lett., 35, 563-565 (1975).
V. Ramamurthy & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers III. Geometric Isomers of 11,12-Dehydro-15-demethyl--axerophtene," J. Org.
Chem., 40, 3460-3462 (1975).
V. Ramamurthy & RSHL, "Polyenes IX. Excitation, Relaxation, and Deactivation of Dienes, Trienes and Higher Polyenes in
the Vitamin A Series in the Sensitized Isomerization Reaction," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 98, 2935-2942 (1976).
V. Ramamurthy & RSHL, "Polyenes X. Sigmatropic Hydrogen Migration and Electrocyclization Processes in Compounds in
the Vitamin A Series," J. Org. Chem., 41, 1862-1867 (1976).
W. J. DeGrip, RSHL, V. Ramamurthy & A. E. Asato, "Rhodopsin Analogues from Highly Hindered 7-cis Isomers of Retinal,"
Nature, 262, 416-418 (1976).
V. Ramamurthy & RSHL, "7-cis--Ionol," Org. Photochem. Syn., 2, 70-71 (1976).
C. C. Ladwig & RSHL, "Second Triplet States X. Energy Transfer from the Second Triplet State of Naphthalene and Other
Aromatic Compounds," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 98, 8093-8097 (1976).
A. Harriman & RSHL, "Polyenes XI. Flash Photolytic Studies of Hindered Isomers of Retinal," Photochem. Photobiol., 26, 2932 (1977).
M. Denny & RSHL, "Polyenes XII and Vitamin A Isomers IV. Sterically Hindered Isomers of Retinal from Direct Irradiation
of the All-trans Isomer. Isolation of 7-cis-Retinal," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 4865-4867 (1977).
RSHL, A. E. Asato & M. Denny, "Vitamin A Isomers V. 7-cis-3-Dehydroretinal and 7-cis-3-Dehydro C18 Ketone from Direct
Irradiation of the Trans Isomers in Polar Solvents," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 8095-8097 (1977).
M. Denny & RSHL, "Polyenes XIII. Photosensitized Isomerization of Previtamin D 2 and Tachysterol and the Related 1,2-bis(1-Cyclopentenyl) ethylene: Torsional Potential Curves of Triene Triplets," Nouv. J. Chim., 2, 637-641 (1978).
G. Gapski, A. Kini & RSHL, "Polyenes XIV. Synthesis and Photoisomerization of 'Mini--Carotenes'," Chem. Lett., 803-804
A. E. Asato, H. Matsumoto, M. Denny & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers VI. Fluorinated Rhodopsin Analogues from 10-Fluoroand 14-Fluororetinal," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 100, 5957-5960 (1978).
H. Matsumoto, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "7-cis-Porphyropsin from 7-cis-3-Dehydroretinal and Cattle Opsin," Photochem.
Photobiol., 29, 695-698 (1979).
M. Grodowski, RSHL & W. G. Herkstroeter, "Polyenes 15. A Study of Isomeric Retinal Triplets by Low Temperature
Spectroscopic and Kinetic Flash Photolysis," Chem. Phys. Lett., 65, 42-45 (1979).
RSHL, M. Denny, M. Grodowski & A. E. Asato, "Polyenes 16. Photoisomerization of 10-Fluoro-, 14-Fluoro-, and 3Dehydroretinal. The Polar Character of the Excited State Intermediates," Nouv. J. Chim., 3, 503-505 (1979).
A. Kini, H. Matsumoto & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 7. Doubly Hindered 7,11-Dicis Isomers of Retinal. Synthesis,
Properties, and Interaction with Cattle Opsin," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 101, 5078-5079 (1979).
V. Ramamurthy & RSHL, "Spectroscopic Properties of Molecules Related to Hindered Isomers of Retinal," Proc. Ind. Acad.
Sci., 88A, 239-247 (1979).
A. Kini & RSHL, "Hindered Bis(cis-alkenyl)durene and Bis(cis-alkenyl)mesitylene: Preparation by Selective Photosensitized
Isomerization and Hindered Rotation by Dynamic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance," J. Org. Chem., 44, 4725-4727 (1979).
S. Kawamura, S. Miyatani, H. Matsumoto, T. Yoshizawa & RSHL, "Photochemical Studies of 7-cis-Rhodopsin at Low
Temperatures. Nature and Properties of the Bathointermediate," Biochemistry, 19, 1549-1553 (1980).
H. Matsumoto, RSHL, C. J. Simmons & K. Seff, "Longitudinal Restrictions of the Binding Site of Opsin as Measured with
Retinal Isomers and Analogues," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 102, 4259-4262 (1980).
H. Matsumoto, A. E. Asato, M. Denny, B. Baretz, Y.-P. Yen, D. Tong & RSHL, "Aromatic Retinal Analogues and Their
Interaction with Cattle Opsin," Biochemistry, 19, 4589-4594 (1980).
A. Kini, H. Matsumoto & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 8. 9,11-Di-cis-retinal and 9,11-Di-cis-rhodopsin," Bioorg. Chem., 9, 406410 (1980).
M. Denny, M. Chun & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 9. 9-cis,11-cis-Retinal from Direct Irradiation of all-trans-Retinal,"
Photochem. Photobiol., 33, 267-269 (1981).
D. Miller, M. Trammell, A. Kini & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 10. Sulfone Routes to Sterically Hindered 7-cis Isomers of
Vitamin A," Tetrahedron Lett., 22, 409-412 (1981).
B. H. Baretz, A. K. Singh & RSHL, "Polyenes 17. Photochemical cis, trans Isomerization of Three Cyano-substituted
Diphenyl-1,3-butadienes and a Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. The Dipolar Character and the Torsional Potential Surfaces of the
S1 State," Nouv. J. Chim., 5, 297-303 (1981).
Y. C. C. Butt, A. K. Singh, B. H. Baretz & RSHL, "Polyenes 18. Photosensitized Geometric Isomerization of Alloocimene.
The Triplet Torsional Potential Surface of a Conjugated Triene," J. Phys. Chem., 85, 2091-2097 (1981).
V. Ramamurthy, M. Denny & RSHL, "Polyenes 19. Photoisomerization of the C15-Aldehyde and the C18-Ketone in the
Vitamin A Series. Solvent Effect on Photoisomerization of Compounds Related to Retinal," Tetrahedron Lett., 22, 2463-2466
RSHL, H. Matsumoto, A. E. Asato, M. Denny, Y. Shichida, T. Yoshizawa & F. W. Dahlquist, "Synthesis and Properties of 12Fluororetinal and 12-Fluororhodopsin. A Model System for 19F NMR Studies of Visual Pigments," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 103,
7195-7201 (1981).
C. J. Simmons, RSHL, M. Denny & K. Seff, "The Crystal Structure of 13-cis-Retinal. The Molecular Structures of its 6-s-cis
and 6-s-trans Conformers," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B37, 2197-2205 (1981).
69.* RSHL & H. Matsumoto, "Fluorine-Labeled Retinals and Rhodopsins," Methods Enzymol., 81, 694-698 (1982).
70.* RSHL, "Synthetic and Structural Studies of Visual Pigments," in "Carotenoid Chemistry and Biochemistry," ed. by G. Britton
and T. W. Goodwin, Pergamon Press, 253-264, 1982.
71.* RSHL & A. E. Asato, "Synthesis and Photochemistry of Stereoisomers of Retinal," Methods Enzymol., 88, 506-516 (1982).
A. E. Asato, D. Mead, M. Denny, T. T. Bopp & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 11. 19,19,19-Trifluororetinal and 20,20,20Trifluororetinal," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 104, 4979-4981 (1982).
R. Fenstemacher, H. Matsumoto & RSHL, "Visual Pigment Analogs from Isomers of 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroretinal. The
Importance of the Trimethylcyclohexenyl Ring," Bioorg. Chem., 11, 404-411 (1982).
A. E. Asato, A. Kini, M. Denny & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 12. 7-cis,9-cis,11-cis-Retinal, all-cis-Vitamin A, and 7-cis,9-cis,11cis-12-Fluororetinal," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 105, 2923-2924 (1983).
RSHL, A. E. Asato & M. Denny, "Polyenes 20. Medium- and Substituent-Directed Stereoselective Photoisomerization of
Polyenes in the Vitamin A Series. Application of the Dellinger-Kasha Model," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 105, 4829-4830 (1983).
76.* RSHL, "A Study on the Specificity of the Binding Site of Opsin with New Geometric Isomers of Retinal and Fluorinated
Retinals," in "Frontiers in Biochemical and Biophysical Studies of Proteins and Membranes," ed. by T.-Y. Liu, etc., Elsevier
Science Publishing Co., 387-397, 1983.
RSHL, J. P. Zingoni, A. Kini, M. Trammell, D. Chu, A. E. Asato & T. T. Bopp, "Restricted Rotation and Ring-Chain
Conformation in Hindered 7-Cis Isomers of Retinal and Related Compounds. A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study," J.
Org. Chem., 48, 4817-4821 (1983).
R. V. Bensasson, E. J. Land, RSHL, K. K. N. Lo & T. G. Truscott, "Triplet States of Isomers of the C15-aldehyde and the C18ketone: Lower Homologues of Retinal," Photochem. Photobiol., 39, 263-265 (1984).
RSHL, H. Matsumoto, A. Kini, A. E. Asato, M. Denny, A. Kropf & W. J. DeGrip, "Bioorganic Studies of Visual Pigments 1.
Seven New Hindered Isomeric Rhodopsins. A Reexamination of the Stereospecificity of the Binding Site of Bovine Opsin,"
Tetrahedron, 40, 473-482 (1984).
V. J. Rao, R. J. Fenstemacher & RSHL, "Polyenes 21. Solvent Dependent Photoisomerization of Polyene Nitriles," Tetrahedron
Lett., 25, 1115-1118 (1984).
A. Maeda, A. E. Asato, RSHL & T. Yoshizawa, "Interaction of Aromatic Retinal Analogues with Apopurple Membranes of
Halobacterium halobium," Biochemistry, 23, 2507-2513 (1984).
RSHL & A. E. Asato, "Photochemistry and Synthesis of Stereoisomers of Vitamin A," Tetrahedron, 40, 1931-1969 (1984).
A. T. Nakayama, T. T. Bopp & RSHL, "NMR Studies of Geometric Isomers of 3-Dehydro--ionone," J. Org. Chem., 49, 34243426 (1984).
RSHL, A. E. Asato, M. Denny & D. Mead, "Visual Pigments 2. The Nature of Restrictions in the Binding Site of Rhodopsin.
A Model Study," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106, 8298-8300 (1984).
RSHL & A. E. Asato, "Polyenes 22. The Primary Process of Vision and the Structure of Bathorhodopsin: A Mechanism for
Photoisomerization of Polyenes," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 82, 259-263 (1985).
V. J. Rao, J. P. Zingoni, R. Crouch, M. Denny & RSHL, "Isomers of 3,7,11-Trimethyldodeca-2,4,6,8,10-pentaenal (a Linear
Analogue of Retinal) and Lower Homologues in Their Interaction with Bovine Opsin and Bacterioopsin," Photochem.
Photobiol., 41, 171-174 (1985).
F. Crescitelli & RSHL, "The Gecko Opsin: Responses to Geometric Isomers of Retinal and 3-Dehydroretinal," Photochem.
Photobiol., 41, 309-316 (1985).
D. Mead, R. Loh, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 13. Fluorinated Retinoids via Crossed Aldol Condensation of
1,1,1-Trifluoroacetone," Tetrahedron Lett., 26, 2873-2876 (1985).
RSHL, D. Mead & A. E. Asato, "Polyenes 23. Application of the H.T.-n Mechanism of Photoisomerization to the Photocycles
of Bacteriorhodopsin. A Model Study," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 107, 6609-6614 (1985).
RSHL & D. T. Browne, "Visual Pigments 3. A Bioorganic View of the Chemistry of Vision: H.T.-n and B.P.-m,n Mechanisms
for Reactions of Confined, Anchored Polyenes," Acc. Chem. Res., 19, 42-48 (1986).
RSHL, H. Matsumoto, A. E. Asato & D. Mead, "Visual Pigments 4. A Mechanistic Model Study of Processes in the
Vertebrate and Invertebrate Visual Cycles," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 108, 3796-3799 (1986).
C. J. Simmons, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Structure of All-trans-3,4-didehydroretinal (Retinal2)," Acta Crystallogr., C42, 711-715
S. C. Crane & RSHL, "Models for Demonstrating Organic Structures to a Large Audience," J. Chem. Ed., 63, 516-517 (1986).
A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 15. The Preparation of Vicinal Difluoroolefinic Carbonyl Compounds and Their
Application to the Synthesis of Difluororetinal Analogs," Tetrahedron Lett., 27, 3337-3340 (1986).
A. E. Asato, M. Denny & RSHL, "Visual Pigments 5. Retinal and Rhodopsin Analogues Directed toward a Better
Understanding of the H.T.-n Model of the Primary Process of Vision," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 108, 5032-5033 (1986).
C. J. Simmons, A. E. Asato, M. Denny & RSHL, "The Structures of 9-cis-Retinal and 19,19,19-Trifluoro-9-cis-retinal," Acta
Crystallogr., C42, 1558-1563 (1986).
A. E. Asato, M. Denny, H. Matsumoto, T. Mirzadegan, W. C. Ripka, F. Crescitelli & RSHL, "Visual Pigments 6. Study of the
Shape of the Binding Site of Bovine Opsin Using 10-Substituted Retinal Isomers," Biochemistry, 25, 7021-7026 (1986).
RSHL, F. Crescitelli, M. Denny, H. Matsumoto & A. E. Asato, "Visual Pigments 7. Photosensitivity of 10-Substituted Visual
Pigment Analogues: Detection of a Specific Secondary Opsin-Retinal Interaction," Biochemistry, 25, 7026-7030 (1986).
99. D. Mead, A. E. Asato, M. Denny, RSHL, Y. Hanzawa, T. Taguchi, A. Yamada, N. Kobayashi, A. Hosoda & Y. Kobayashi,
"Vitamin A Isomers 14. 9-Cis and 11-Cis Isomers of 18,18,18-, 19,19,19- and 20,20,20-Trifluororetinal," Tetrahedron Lett., 28,
259-262 (1987).
Y. Shichida, T. Ono, T. Yoshizawa, H. Matsumoto, A. E. Asato, J. P. Zingoni & RSHL, "Electrostatic Interaction between
Retinylidene Chromophore and Opsin in Rhodopsin Studied by Fluorinated Rhodopsin Analogues," Biochemistry, 26, 44224428 (1987).
K. Muthuramu & RSHL, "Polyenes 24. Regioselective Photoisomerization of Fluoro Aryl Dienes. Role of Dipolar
Intermediates of Excited Dienes," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 109, 6510-6511 (1987).
102.* RSHL, M. Denny, J. P. Zingoni, D. Mead, H. Matsumoto & A. E. Asato, "Visual Pigments 8. Fluorine Labeled Visual
Pigments: Photoreactivity and 19F-Nmr," in "Biophysical Studies of Retinal Proteins," ed. by T. G. Ebrey, et al., University of
Illinois Press, 59-63, 1987.
A. Trehan & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 16. All-cis-retinal and 7-cis,9-cis,11-cis-Retinal," Tetrahedron Lett., 29, 419-422 (1988).
P. Arjunan & RSHL, "Polyenes 25. Regioselective Photoisomerization of Pentaenals. Effect of Methyl Substituents,"
Tetrahedron Lett., 29, 853-856 (1988).
F. Crescitelli & RSHL, "The Spectral Properties and Photosensitivities of Analogue Photopigments Regenerated with 10- and
14-substituted Retinal Analogues," Proc. R. Soc. London, B 233, 55-76 (1988).
Y. Shichida, K. Nakamura, T. Yoshizawa, A. Trehan, M. Denny & RSHL, "9,13-dicis-Rhodopsin and Its One-Photon-OneDouble-Bond Isomerization," Biochemistry, 27, 6495-6499 (1988).
107.* RSHL, A. E. Asato, M. Denny, D. Mead, T. Mirzadegan & B.-W. Zhang, "The Binding Site of Rhodopsin by Molecular
Modeling and Visual Pigment Analog Studies," in "Molecular Physiology of Retinal Proteins," ed. T. Hara, published by the
Yamada Science Foundation, 43-48, 1988.
108.* Y. Shichida, Y. Imamoto, K. Nakamura, T. Yoshizawa, A. Trehan, M. Denny & RSHL, "Formations of Dicis Rhodopsins and
Their Photochemical Reactions," in "Molecular Physiology of Retinal Proteins," ed. T. Hara, published by the Yamada
Science Foundation, 385-386, 1988.
RSHL & T. Mirzadegan, "Visual Pigments 11. The Shape of a Three-Dimensional Binding Site of Rhodopsin Based on
Molecular Modeling Analyses of Isomeric and Other Visual Pigment Analogues," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 110, 8617-8623 (1988).
B.-W. Zhang, A. E. Asato, M. Denny, T. Mirzadegan, A. Trehan & RSHL, "Isomers, Visual Pigment, and Bacterio-rhodopsin
Analogs of 3,7,13-Trimethyl-10-isopropyl-2,4,6,8,10-tetradecapentaenal and 3,7,11-Trimethyl-10-isopropyl-2,4,6,8,10dodecapentaenal. (Two Ring Open Retinal Analogs)," Bioorg. Chem., 17, 217-223 (1989).
A. E. Asato, B.-W. Zhang, M. Denny, T. Mirzadegan, K. Seff & RSHL, "A Study of the Binding Site Requirements of
Rhodopsin Using Isomers of -Retinal and 5-Substituted -Retinal Analogs," Bioorg. Chem., 17, 410-421 (1989).
112.* RSHL, T. Mirzadegan & A. Trehan, "Visual Pigments 10. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Retinoids and Visual Pigment
Analog Studies," in "Carotenoids: Chemistry and Biology," eds. N. I. Krinsky, M. M. Mathews-Roth and R. F. Taylor,
Plenum Press, 139-147, 1989.
S. Ganapathy, A. Trehan & RSHL, "Photoisomerization of 7-cis-Retinal. The Concentration Effect," Chem. Commun., 199-200
114.* RSHL & A. E. Asato,"Visual Pigments 9. The Binding Site of Opsin Based on Analog Studies with Isomeric, Fluorinated,
Alkylated and Other Modified Retinals," in "Chemistry and Biology of Synthetic Retinoids," eds., M. Dawson and W. H.
Okamura, CRC Press, 51-75, 1990.
A. Trehan, RSHL, Y. Shichida, Y. Imamoto, K. Nakamura & T. Yoshizawa, "On Retention of Chromophore Configuration of
Rhodopsin Isomers Derived from Three dicis Retinal Isomers," Bioorg. Chem., 18, 30-40 (1990).
Y. Fukada, T. Okano, Y. Shichida, T. Yoshizawa, A. Trehan, D. Mead, M. Denny, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Comparative Study
on the Chromophore Binding Sites of Rod and Red-Sensitive Cone Visual Pig-ments by Use of Synthetic Retinal Isomers
and Analogues," Biochemistry, 29, 3133-3140 (1990).
A. Trehan, T. Mirzadegan & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 17. The Doubly Hindered 7,11-Dicis, 7,9,11-Tricis, 7,11,13-Tricis and
All-cis Isomers of Retinonitrile and Retinal," Tetrahedron, 46, 3769-3780 (1990).
M. E. Tierno, D. Mead, A. E. Asato, RSHL, N. Sekiya, K. Yoshihara, C-W. Chang, K. Nakanishi, R. Govindjee & T. G. Ebrey,
"14-Fluorobacteriorhodopsin and Other Fluorinated and 14-Substituted Analogues. An Extra, Unusually Red-Shifted
Pigment Formed during Dark Adaptation," Biochemistry, 29, 5948-5953 (1990).
X.-Y. Li, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Polyenes 26. -Lactoglobulin Directed Photoisomerization of Retinal and Related
Compounds," Tetrahedron Lett., 31, 4841-4844 (1990).
G. R. Loppnow, M. E. Miley, R. A. Mathies, RSHL, H. Kandori, Y. Shichida, Y. Fukada & T. Yoshizawa, "Structure of the
Retinal Chromophore in 7,9-dicis-Rhodopsin," Biochemistry, 29, 8985-8991 (1990).
A. E. Asato, X.-Y. Li, D. Mead, G. M. L. Patterson & RSHL, "Azulenic Retinoids and the Corresponding Bacterio-rhodopsin
Analogs. Unusually Red-Shifted Pigments," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 112, 7398-7399 (1990).
122.* RSHL & B.-W. Zhang, "Aspects of Recent Advances in Photobiochemistry: Visual Pigments," Photograph. Sci. Photochem. (in
Chinese), 296-299 (1990).
S. Ganapathy & RSHL, "Polyene 27. Photoisomerization of Hindered Poly-cis Isomers of Retinal. Regioselectivity and OnePhoton-Multiple-Bond Isomerization," Tetrahedron Lett., 31, 6957-6960 (1990).
L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "An Unexpected C-19 Product from Reaction of Retinal with MnO2. Structure Characteri-zation
and Bacteriorhodopsin Analogs," Tetrahedron Lett., 32, 1933-1936 (1991).
125.* RSHL & Y. Shichida, "Polyenes 28. Protein Directed Regioselective Photoisomerization of the Retinyl Chromophore in
Visual Pigment Analogs," in "Photochemistry in Organized and Constrained Media," ed. V. Ramamurthy, VCH Publishers,
Inc., N.Y., 817-840, 1991.
B.-W. Zhang & RSHL, "Polyenes 29. Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Direction of Photoisomerization of Retinoids: The
Origin of the Solvent Polarity Effect," Chinese Chem. Lett., 2, 9-12 (1991).
L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "11-Methyl-9-demethylretinal and 11-Methyl-9,13-didemethylretinal. Effect of Altered Methyl
Substitution Pattern on Polyene Conformation, Photoisomerization and Formation of Visual Pigment Analogs," Tetrahedron,
47, 3711-3718 (1991).
T. Okada, H. Kandori, Y. Shichida, T. Yoshizawa, M. Denny, B.-W. Zhang, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Spectroscopic Study of the
Batho-to-Lumi Transition during the Photobleaching of Rhodopsin Using Ring-Modified Retinal Analogues," Biochemistry,
30, 4796-4802 (1991).
RSHL, C. W. Liu, X.-Y. Li & A. E. Asato, "Butyl Conformational Reorganization as a Possible Explanation for the
Longitudinal Flexibility of the Binding Site of Bacteriorhodopsin. The Azulene and C-22 Retinoid Analogs," Photochem.
Photobiol., 54, 625-631 (1991).
L. U. Colmenares, A. E. Asato, M. Denny, D. Mead, J. P. Zingoni & RSHL, "NMR Studies of Fluorinated Visual Pigment
Analogs," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 179, 1337-1343 (1991).
131.* T. Mirzadegan & RSHL, "Probing the Visual Pigment Rhodopsin and Its Analogs by Molecular Modeling Analysis and
Computer Graphics," Prog. Retinal Res., 11, 57-74, 1991.
RSHL, "Bioorganic Studies of Visual Pigment and Bacteriorhodopsin Analogs," YOUJI HUAXUE (J. Org. Chem., Shanghai),
12, 40-49 (1992).
P. O. Andersson, T. Gillbro, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Dual Singlet State Emission in a Series of Mini-Carotenes," J. Luminescence,
51, 11-20 (1992).
L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "9,11-Dicis-12-Fluororhodopsin. Chromophore Properties from 19F-NMR Studies," Photochem.
Photobiol., 56, 101-105 (1992).
Y. Zhu, S. Ganapathy & RSHL, "Stereospecific Thermal Rearrangement of the Four Labile Isomers of Retinal. Activation
Parameters and FT-IR Data," J. Org. Chem., 57, 1110-1113 (1992).
S. Ganapathy & RSHL, "Polyenes 30. Quantum Chain Processes in Photoisomerization of the All-Trans, 7-Cis and 11-Cis
Isomers of Retinal," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 114, 3459-3464 (1992).
L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "1H NMR and 19F NMR Chemical Shifts of Fluorinated Retinals, Schiff Bases and Protonated
Schiff Bases," Mag. Res. Chem., 30, 490-496 (1992).
138.* E. Krogh & RSHL, "Visual Pigments: Photoisomerization in a Flexible Box," The Spectrum, 5, 6-10 (1992).
A. E. Asato, C. Watanabe, X.-Y. Li & RSHL, "The Proline and -Lactoglobulin Mediated Asymmetric Self-Condensation of Ionylideneacetaldehyde, Retinal and Related Compounds," Tetrahedron Lett., 33, 3105-3108 (1992).
L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "19F NMR Evidence for Restricted Rotation of the Retinyl Chromophore in Doubly Labeled
Visual Pigment Analogs," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 114, 6933-6934 (1992).
Y. Zhu, S. Ganapathy, A. Trehan, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 18. FT-IR Spectra of All Sixteen Isomers of
Retinal, Their Isolation, and Other Spectroscopic Properties," Tetrahedron, 48, 10061-10074 (1992).
T. Mirzadegan, C. Humblet, W. C. Ripka, L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "Modeling Rhodopsin, a Member of G-Protein
Coupled Receptors, by Computer Graphics. Interpretation of Chemical Shifts of Fluorinated Rhodopsins," Photochem.
Photobiol., 56, 883-893 (1992).
S. Ganapathy & RSHL, "Polyenes 31. Photoisomerization of Sixteen Isomers of Retinal. Initial Product Distribution in
Direct and Sensitized Irradiation," Photochem. Photobiol., 56, 959-964 (1992).
RSHL & L. U. Colmenares, "19F-NMR in Studies of FluorinatedVisual Pigment Analogs. A Method for Detecting
Neighbouring Groups or Empty Space in a Binding Site," in "Structures and Functions of Retinal Proteins," ed. J. L. Rigaud,
Colloque INSERM/John Libbey Eurotext Ltd., 221, 251-254 (1992).
T. Gillbro, P. O. Andersson, RSHL, A. E. Asato, S. Takaishi & R. J. Cogdell, "Location of the Carotenoid 2A g-State and Its
Role in Photosynthesis," Photochem. Photobiol., 57, 44-48 (1993).
146.* RSHL, L. U. Colmenares & W. Niemczura, "19F-NMR Studies of Fluorinated Visual Pigment Analogs," in "Frontiers of
Photobiology," A. Shima et al., eds., Elsevier Science Publishers, 171-172, 1993.
147.* T. Gillbro, P.-O. Andersson, RSHL, A. E. Asato & R. J. Cogdell, "Location and Relaxation Paths of the Carotenoid S1 State
and its Role in Energy Transfer," in "Frontiers of Photobiology," A. Shima et. al., eds., Elsevier Science Publishers, 25-30,
RSHL, E. Krogh, X.-Y. Li, D. Mead, L. U. Colmenares, J. R. Thiel, J. Ellis, D. Wong & A. E. Asato, "Analyzing the Red-shift
Characteristics of Azulenic, Naphthyl, Other Ring-fused and Retinyl Pigment Analogs of Bacteriorhodopsin," Photochem.
Photobiol., 58, 701-705 (1993).
Y. Zhu & RSHL, "Divergent Pathways in Photobleaching of 7,9-dicis-Rhodopsin and 9,11-dicis-12-Fluororhodopsin: OnePhoton-Two-Bond and One-Photon-One-Bond Isomerization," Biochemistry, 32, 10233-10238 (1993).
RSHL & Y. Zhu, "Mechanism for the Two-bond Isomerization in the Photoirradiation of 7,9-Di-cis-retinal," Chem. Commun.,
1765-1766 (1993).
151.* RSHL, “Why Me?” IAPS Newsletter, 16(2), 38-40 (1993).
A. E. Asato, A. Peng, M. Z. Hossain, T. Mirzadegan and J. S. Bertram, "Azulenic Retinoids: Novel Non-benznoids
Aromatics with Anticancer Properties," J. Med. Chem., 36, 3137-3146 (1993).
Y. Zhu, R. W. Larsen & RSHL, "FT-IR Spectra of the Schiff Bases and Protonated Schiff Bases of 7-cis -and 7,9-Dicis-Retinal,"
Photochem. Photobiol., 59, 562-565 (1994).
R. J. Cogdell, T. Gillbro, P. O. Andersson, RSHL & A. E. Asato, "Carotenoids as Accessory Light-harvesting Pigments," Pure
Appl. Chem., 66, 1041-1046 (1994).
J. Hirayama, Y. Imamoto, Y. Shichida, T. Yoshizawa, A. E. Asato, RSHL & N. Kamo, "Shape of the Chromophore Binding
Site in pharaonis Phoborhodopsin from a Study Using Retinal Analogs," Photochem. Photobiol., 60, 388-393 (1994).
R. Chen & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 19. 7-Cis- and 7,9-Dicis-3-dehydroretinal. Hindered Isomers of Vitamin A2
Aldehyde," Tetrahedron Lett., 35, 6251-6254 (1994).
R. Chen, L. U. Colmenares, J. R. Thiel & RSHL, "Spiral Hexatrienes. The Hindered cis Isomer of Mini-carotene-3 and
Hexakis-(2,2',4,4',6,6'-trifluoromethyl)stilbene," Tetrahedron Lett., 35, 7177-7180 (1994).
157.* RSHL, "Photochemistry of Polyenes Related to Vitamin A," in "CRC Handbook of Organic Photochemistry and
Photobiology," eds. W. M. Horspool & P. S. Song, CRC Press, 165-172, 1995.
X.-Y. Li & RSHL, "Photostationry State Compositions of Retinal and Related Compounds Included in -Lactoglobulin.
Effects of Protein Host on Isomer Distribution of Polyene Substrates," Photochem. Photobiol., 62, 361-366 (1995).
P. O. Andersson, T. Gillbro, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Temperature and Viscosity Sensitive S 1 Emission from a Highly
Substituted Triene," Chem. Phys. Lett., 235, 76-82 (1995).
P. O. Andersson, T. Gillbro, S. M. Bachilo and R.-L. Chen, "Solvent and Temperature Dependence of Dual Fluorescence in a
Series of Carotenes," J. Phys. Chem., 99, 16199-16209 (1995).
L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "Fluorinated Phenylrhodopsin Analogs. Binding Selectivity, Restricted Rotation and 19F-NMR
Studies," Tetrahedron, 52, 109-118 (1996).
A. E. Asato, RSHL, V. P. Rao & Y. M. Cai, "Azulene-containing Donor-acceptor Compounds as Second-order Nonlinear
Chromophores," Tetrahedron Lett., 37, 419-422 (1996).
L. U. Colmenares, D. Mead, W. Yoshida, M. Alam & RSHL, "An F NMR Study of Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl
Bacteriorhodopsin Analogs," J. Phys. Chem., 100, 9172-9174 (1996).
L. U. Colmenares, W. P. Niemczura, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "A 19F NMR Study of Rhodopsin Analogs: Use of
Vinylfluororetinal Chromophores," J. Phys. Chem., 100, 9175-9180 (1996).
R.-L. Chen & RSHL, "Vitamin A Isomers 20. New Hindered Isomers of 3-Dehydroretinal (Vitamin A2)," Tetrahedron, 52,
7809-7816 (1996).
C. J. Simmons, L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "X-Ray Crystal Structure of a Hindered 7-Cis Isomer of Vitamin A. 7-cis-8Fluororetinal," Tetrahedron Lett., 37, 4103-4104 (1996).
R.-L. Chen & RSHL, "New Isomers of Bovine Porphyropsin. A Nondestructive Method for Determining Chromophore
Configuration during Formation of Visual Pigment Analogs," Bioorg. Chem., 24, 207-219 (1996).
J. R. Thiel, C. J. Simmons & RSHL, "X-Ray Crystal Structure of cis-Mini-3 (A Spiralene[3])," Tetrahedron Lett., 38, 19-20 (1997).
RSHL & A. E. Asato, "Making Organic Concepts Visible," J. Chem. Ed., 74, 783-784 (1997).
J. Liu, RSHL & C. J. Simmons, "Synthesis and Properties of an Arylspiralene. A Cisoid Z,Z-1,4-Diphenyl-1,3-butadiene,"
Tetrahedron Lett., 38, 3999-4002 (1997).
J. Liu, L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "Fluorinated Astaxanthins," Tetrahedron Lett., 38, 8495-8498 (1997).
R. S. Muthyala & RSHL, "Synthesis of Fluorinated Azulenes," J. Fluorine Chem., 89, 173-175 (1998).
R. S. Muthyala, M. Alam & RSHL, "Alkylated Azulenic Retinal and Bacteriorhodopsin Analogs," Tetrahedron Lett., 39, 5-8
J. R. Bell, R. S. Muthyala, R. W. Larsen, M. Alam & RSHL, "Photoactivities of the Red-Shifted Azulenic Bacterio-rhodopsin
Analogues," J. Phys. Chem. A, 102, 5481-5483 (1998).
T. Iwasa, L. U. Colmenares, K. Hirata, H. Takashima, A. Naito, A. Nosaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Kikkawa, H. Saito, RSHL & M.
Tsuda, "19F-NMR and UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopic Studies of Fluorinated Octopus Rhodopsin and its Photoproducts,"
J. Phys. Chem. A, 102, 5602-5610 (1998).
B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. DeCristofano, F. J. Aranda, D.V. Rao, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Third Order Nonlinear
Optics of Some Azulenic Donor Acceptor Compounds," Proc. SPIE, 3473, 101-111 (1998).
176.* RSHL, "Playing with Excited Double Bonds. Isomeric Triplets, Upper Excited States, One-Way Isomerization and HulaTwist," IAPS Newsletter, 21(2) 39-43 (1998).
D. Hoischen, L. U. Colmenares, J. Liu, C. J. Simmons, G. Britton & RSHL, "Fluorinated Analogs of the Carotenoprotein, Crustacyanin," Bioorg. Chem., 26, 365-374 (1998).
178.* RSHL, "Looking Back to My Research Effort (1962-1998)," The Spectrum, 11(4), 7-8 (1998).
A. E. Asato and L. U. Colmenares, "R. S. H. Liu," J. Phys. Chem. A, 102, 5316-5317 (1998).
N. Tetreault, R. S. Muthyala, RSHL & R. P. Steer, "Control of the Photophysical Properties of Polyatomic Molecules by
Substitution and Solvation: The Second Excited Singlet State of Azulene," J. Phys. Chem. A, 103, 2524-2531 (1999).
L. U. Colmenares, X-L. Zou, J. Liu, A. E. Asato, RSHL, A. deLera & R. Alvarez, "11,12-Difluoro-rhodopsin and Related OddNumbered Fluororhodopsins. The Use of JF,F for Following a Cis-trans Isomerization Process," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 121, 58035804 (1999).
D. Hoischen, L. U. Colmenares, I. Koukhareva, M. Ho & RSHL, "9-CF3 and 13-CF3--Carotene, Canthaxanthin and Related
Carotenoids. Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemical Data," J. Fluorine Chem., 97, 165-171 (1999).
H. Imai, T. Hirano, A. Terakita, Y. Shichida, R. S. Muthyala, R.-L. Chen, L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "Probing for the
Threshold Energy for Visual Transduction. Red-shifted Visual Pigment Analogs from 3-Methoxy-3-dehydroretinal and
Related Compounds," Photochem. Photobiol., 70, 111-115 (1999).
B. R. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. DeCristofano, A. Panchangam, S. K. Bhadra, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, A. E. Asato
& RSHL, "Optical Power Limiting In Some Azulenic Compounds," Proc. SPIE, 3798, 32-37 (1999).
P. Wang, P. Zhu, C. Ye, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Theoretical Investigation and Molecular Design of Some Azulene Derivatives
with Large Hyperpolarizabilities," J. Phys. Chem. A, 103, 7076-7082 (1999).
J. N. Woodford, C. H. Wang, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering of Azulenic Donor-Acceptor Molecules at
1064 and 1907 nm," J. Chem. Phys., 111, 4621-4628 (1999).
RSHL, R. Muthyala, X.-S. Wang, A. E. Asato, P. Wang & C. Ye, "Correlation of Substituent Effects and Energy Levels of the
Two Lowest Excited States of the Azulenic Chromophore," Org. Lett., 2, 269-271 (2000).
A. E. Asato, D. T. Watanabe & RSHL, "The Use of Prochiral Centers for Demonstrating Asymmetric Stacking in Aggregates
of Azulenylazulenium Cyanine Dyes," Org. Lett., 2, 2559-2562 (2000).
RSHL & G. S. Hammond, "The Case of Medium-Dependent Dual Mechanisms for Photoisomerization: One-Bond-Flip and
Hula-Twist," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 97, 11153-11158 (2000).
D. A. Oulianov, A. E. Asato & P. M. Rentzepis, "Kinetics and Mechanism of Donor-acceptor Azulenic Optical Limiting
Molecules," Chem. Phys. Lett., 327, 117-124 (2000).
T-I. Ho, C.-K. Ku & RSHL, "Preparation of 1-Arylazulenes Through Regioselective Photoarylation of Azulene with Aryl Iodides,"
Tetrahedron Lett., 42, 715-717 (2001).
J. Ni, J. Liu, L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "Isomers of 10-Fluoro-20-13C-retinal and the Corresponding Rhodopsin Analogs,"
Tetrahedron Lett., 42, 1643-1644 (2001).
J.-H. Ho, T.-I. Ho & RSHL, "Proton-Assisted Switching of Reaction Pathways of Stilbene Analogues Brought by Direct Irradiation,"
Org. Lett., 3, 409-411 (2001).
RSHL, "Photoisomerization by Hula-Twist: A Fundamental Supramolecular Photochemical Reaction," Acc. Chem. Res., 34,
555-562 (2001).
RSHL & G. S. Hammond, "Examples of Hula-Twist in Photochemical cis,trans Isomerization," Chem. Euro. J., 7, 4536-4544
194.* L. U. Colmenares, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Effects of Fluoro-Substituents on Excited State Properties of Conjugated Polyenes
(Fluorinated Retinoids)," The Spectrum, 14(3), 8-12 (2001).
Y.-P. Yen, S.-F. Chen, Z.-C. Heng, J.-C. Huang, L.-C. Kao, C.-C. Lai & RSHL, "Thermal Rearrangements of 3,3-Spiroalkylated Pyrazoles: Ring Expansion and Novel Cases of Sequential 1,5-Shifts," Heterocycles, 55, 1859-1871 (2001).
R. Muthyala, D. Watanabe, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "The Nature of the Delocalized Cations in Azulenic Bacteriorhodopsin
Analogs," Photochem. Photobiol., 74, 837-845 (2001).
RSHL, "Colorful Azulene and its Equally Colorful Derivatives," J. Chem. Ed., 79, 183-185 (2002).
198.* RSHL, "Hula-twist in Photoisomerization: Organic Systems," Photogr. Sci. Photochem., 20, 81-87 (2002).
Y.-P. Yen, K.-T. Chen, S.-C. Lee, C.-C. Shen, C.-C. Lai, & RSHL, "Reducing the Complexity of Photoreaction Pathway of
Pyrazoles: Photochemistry of 4,5-Cycloalkanopyrazoles," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A, 150, 109-114 (2002).
J. Liu, N. L. Shelton & RSHL, "Study of -Crustacyanin Utilizing Halogenated Canthaxanthins," Org. Lett., 4, 2521-2524
201.* RSHL, "Photoisomerization by Hula-twist – Photoactive Biopigments," Pure Appl. Chem., 74, 1391-1396 (2002).
202.* RSHL, "Hula-twist, a Supramolecular Photoisomerization Reaction Mechanism in Reactions of Photosensitive Biopigments,"
J. Photosci., 9(2), 1-4, (2002).
J. Ni & RSHL, "A Convenient One-Pot Synthesis of 13-Perfluoroalkylated Retinoids," Syn. Comm., 32, 3695-3701 (2002).
RSHL, "Introduction to the Symposium-in-Print: Photoisomerization Pathways, Torsional Relaxation and the Hula-Twist,"
Photochem. Photobiol., 76, 580-583 (2002).
Y. Imamoto, M. Kataoka & RSHL, "Mechanistic Pathways for the Photoisomerization Reaction of the Anchored, Tethered
Chromophore of the Photoactive Yellow Protein and Its Mutants," Photochem. Photobiol., 76, 584-589 (2002).
206.* L. U. Colmenares & RSHL, "Regiospecific Protein Perturbation on F NMR Shifts and Photoisomerization of
Fluororhodopsins. An Interpretation Based On Recent Crystal Structures of Rhodopsin," J. Photosci., 10, 81-87 (2003).
J. Saltiel & RSHL, "Michael Kasha & George S. Hammond," J. Phys. Chem. A, 107, 3147-3148 (2003).
S. Shevyakov, H-R. Li, R. Muthyala, A. E. Asato, J. Croney, D. Jameson & RSHL, "Orbital Control of the Color and Excited
State Properties of Formylated and Fluorinated Derivatives of Azulene," J. Phys. Chem. A, 107, 3295-3299 (2003).
Y. Imamoto, T. Kuroda, M. Kataoka, S. Shevyakov, G. Krishnamoorthy & RSHL, "Photoisomerization by Hula-twist. 2,2'Dimethylstilbene and a Ring-fused Analogue," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 42, 3630-3633 (2003).
RSHL & G. S. Hammond, "Photochemical Reactivity of Polyenes: From Dienes to Rhodopsin, from Microseconds to
Femtoseconds," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2, 835-844 (2003).
G. Krishnamoorthy, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Conformational Isomerizations of Symmetrically Substituted Styrenes. Noreaction Photoreactions by Hula-twist," Chem. Commun., 2170-2171 (2003).
RSHL & A. E. Asato, "Tuning the Color and Excited State Properties of the Azulenic Chromophore: NIR Absorbing
Pigments and Materials," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C, 4, 179-194 (2003).
RSHL & L. U. Colmenares, "The Molecular Basis for the High Photosensitivity of Rhodopsin," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA,
100, 14639-14644 (2003).
214.* RSHL & G. S. Hammond, "Hula-twist, a Photochemical Reaction Mechanism Involving Simultaneous Configurational and
Conformational Isomerization, in "CRC Handbook of Organic Photochemistry and Photobiology," eds. W. M. Horspool & F.
Lenci, CRC Press, 2nd ed., 26:1-11, 2004.
G. Krishnamoorthy, S. Schieffer, S. Shevyakov, A. E. Asato, K. Wong, J. Head & RSHL, "S-cis Conformers in Low
Temperature Irradiation of Dienes. Hula-twist Mechanism of Isomerization," Res. Chem. Interm., 30, 397-405 (2004).
S. Schieffer, J. Pescatore, R. Ulsh & RSHL, "Regioselective Hula-twist Photoisomerization of Cinnamate Esters in Organic
Glass," Chem. Comm., 2680-2681 (2004).
G. Krishnamoorthy, S. Schieffer, J. Pescatore, R. Ulsh, RSHL & J. Liu, "Photoreactions of Cisoid 1,4-Diphenyl-1,3-butadienes.
Direct Irradiation in Solution and in Low Temperature Organic Glass," Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 3, 1047-1051 (2004).
L. Y. Yang, RSHL, K. J. Boarman, N. L. Wendt & J. Liu, "New Aspects of Diphenylbutadiene Photochemistry. Regioselective
Hula-twist Photoisomerization," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127, 2404-2405 (2005).
RSHL, "You're Repulsive!" - Teaching VSEPR in a Not-so-elegant Way," J. Chem. Ed., 82, 558-560 (2005).
RSHL & G. S. Hammond, "Reflection on Medium Effects on Photochemical Reactivity," Acc. Chem. Res., 38, 396-403 (2005).
L. Y. Yang, RSHL, N. L. Wendt & J. Liu, "Steric Effects in Hula-twist Photoisomerization. 1,4-Dimethyl- and 2,3-Dimethyl1,4-diphenylbutadienes," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127, 9378-9379 (2005).
RSHL, G. S. Hammond & T. Mirzadegan, "Possible Role of the 11-cis Retinal Conformation in Controlling the Dual Decay
Processes of Excited Rhodopsin," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA., 102, 10783-10787 (2005).
223.* RSHL, “Perspective on Photochemistry in the Middle of an Ocean,” The Spectrum, 18, #2, 4-11 (2005).
RSHL, “While Walking into the Sunset,” an e-Book for the occasion of RSHL’s retirement, September 2005.
225.* RSHL, L. Y. Yang, C. K. Hirata, J. Liu & T.-I. Ho, "Hula-twist. A Stereoselective and Regioselective Photoisomerization
Reaction Mechanism," J. Chinese Chem. Soc., 53, 227-232 (2006).
N. Nakane, A. Nicolaides, H. Tomioka, A. E. Asato & RSHL, "Hula-twist Photoisomerization of a Styrene Derivative
Examined by Argon Matrix Infrared Spectroscopic Method," Mol. Phys., 104, 1009-1015 (2006).
L. Y. Yang, M. Harigai, Y. Imamoto, M. Kataoka, T.-I. Ho, E. Andrioukhina, O. Federova, S. Shevyakov & RSHL, "Stilbene
Analogs in Hula-twist Photoisomerization,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 5, 874-882 (2006).
L.-Y. Yang & RSHL, “A Re-investigation of Low Temperature Photochemistry of 11-cis-Retinal Mechanism of
Photoisomerization,” J. Chinese Chem. Soc., 53, 1219-1224 (2006).
RSHL, L. Y. Yang & J. Liu, “Mechanisms of Photoisomerization of Polyenes in Confined Media: From Organic Glasses to
Protein Binding Cavities,” Photochem. Photobiol., 83, 2-10 (2007).
L. Y. Yang & RSHL, “Mechanism of Photoisomerization of 1-Naphthyl-2-phenylethylenes in Organic Glasses,” Photochem.
Photobiol., 84, 1436-1440 (2007).
H, Li, , F. Gao, A. E. Asato & R. S. H. Liu, “A Comprehensive investigation of the interrelationships between spectroscopy
and photochemistry of some azulenic derivatives,” Spectrochim. Acta A, 69, 272-277 (2008).
Y.-P. Zhao, Campbell, R. O. & RSHL, “Solar Reactions for Preparing 7-cis-Isomers of Dienes and Trienes in the Vitamin A
Series,” Green Chem., 10, 1038-1041 (2008).
Y.-P. Zhao, L.-Y. Yang & RSHL, “The Role of Organic Glasses in cis/trans Photoisomerization at Low Temperatures,” Chem.
Asian J., 4, 754-759 (2009).
Y.-P. Zhao, L.-Y. Yang & RSHL, “Designing Systems for One-way trans to cis Photoisomerization for Solar Reactions,” Green
Chem., 11, 837-842 (2009).
V. Ramamurthy, J. Nithyanandhan, Y.-P. Zhao, M. Porel, A. Parthasarathy & RSHL, “The Nature of Supramolecular
ComplexesControlled by Structure of the Guest Molecules: Formation of Octa-acid Based Capsuleplex and Cavitandplex,”
Langmuir, 25, 10575-10586 (2009).
RSHL, “A Learning Experience through Studies in Photochemistry,” Frontier Chem. China, 4, 403-424 (2009).
P. H. M. Bovee-Geurts, I. F. Fernandez, RSHL, R. A. Mathies, J. Lugtenburg & W. J. DeGrip, “Fluoro-derivatives of Retinal
Illuminates the Decisive Role of the C12-H Element in Photoisomerization and Rhodopsin Activation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.,
131, 17933-17942 (2009).
RSHL, L.-Y. Yang, Y.-P. Zhao, A. Kawanabe & H. Kandori, “Supramolecular Effects in Photoisomerization in Organic
Glasses and Proteins,” accepted for publication in “Supramolecular Effects on Photochemical Reactions,” edited by V.
Ramamurthy & Y. Inoue, VCR.
RSHL, Y.-P. Zhao & L.-Y. Yang, “Scope and Limitations of the Hula-twist Mechanism of Photoisomerization,” in “CRC
Handbook of Organic Photochemistry & Photobiology” 3rd edition, ed. by A. Griesbeck, F. Ghetti & M. Oelgemoeller, CRC Press,
† Work done by group members (bold) using resources available in the group
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