Impaired Reaches - DEP`s Online Library

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3800-FM-WSFR0080
9/2005
COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
BUREAU OF WATER STANDARDS AND FACILITY REGULATION
IMPAIRED REACHES
(Date (YYYYMMDD), Start Time (military) and your three Initials uniquely identify the stream reach)
Date-Time-Initials
Example
20040401-1111-XYZ
Date
Time
Initials
Secondary Reach ID
(15 Characters Maximum)
State Water
Plan
Survey Type: (1) Basin Survey, (2) Cause & Effect, (3) Fish Tissue, (4) Intensive Unassessed Follow-up,
(5) Point of First Use, (6) SERA, (7) Special Protection, (8) Toxics, (9) Unassessed Screening, (10) Use
Attainability, (11) WQN
1.
2.
Station IDs (Date-Time-Initials)
used to make assessment
3.
4.
(Up to 5 stations)
5.
Magnitude
Compliance
BMPs in
Problem?
Place?
(H)igh, (M)edium,
Source
Cause
(L)ow
(Check if Yes) (Check if Yes)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Sources
Causes
100 Industrial Point Source
8050 Erosion from Derelict
0
Cause Unknown
2600 Exotic Species
200 Municipal Point Source
Land
100 Unknown Toxicity
2700 Osmotic Pressure
230 Package Plants
8100 Atmospheric
200 Pesticides
Deposition
300 Priority Organics
400 Combined Sewer Overflow
8300 Road Runoff
400 Nonpriority Organics
1000 Agriculture
8600 Natural Sources
410 PCB
1050 Crop Related
8700 Recreation and
420 Dioxin
Tourism
430 Chlordane
1350 Grazing Related
8710 Golf Courses
500 Metals
1600 Animal Feeding
8950 Other
600 Un-ionized Ammonia
2000 Silviculture
9000 Source Unknown
700 Chlorine
2300 Logging Roads
800 Other Inorganics
3000 Construction
900 Nutrients
3100 Road/Bridge
990 Water/Flow Variability
3200 Land Development
1000 pH
4000 Urban Runoff/Storm Sewers
1100 Siltation
4350 Small Residential Runoff
1200 Organic Enrichment/Low Dissolved Oxygen
5100 Active Surface Mining
(DO)
5200 Active Subsurface Mining
1300 Salinity/TDS/Chlorides
5500 Petroleum Activities
1400 Thermal Modifications
5800 Abandoned Mine Drainage
1500 Flow Alterations
6000 Land Disposal
1600 Other Habitat Alterations
6500 On-site Wastewater
1700 Pathogens
7000 Hydromodification
1900 Oil and Grease
7100 Channelization
2000 Taste and Odor
7200 Dredging
2100 Suspended Solids
7350 Upstream Impoundment
2200 Noxious Aquatic Plants
7400 Flow Regulation or Modification
2210 Excessive Algal Growth
7550 Habitat Modification
2300 Filling and Draining
7600 Removal of Riparian Vegetation
2500 Turbidity
7700 Bank Modification
7800 Drain and Fill Wetlands
Assessed By:
(15 Characters Maximum)
-1-
3800-FM-WSFR0080
Code
9/2005
Source
100
Industrial Point Source
200
Municipal Point Source
230
Package Plants
400
Combined Sewer
Overflow
1000
Agriculture
1050
Crop Related
1350
Grazing Related
1600
Animal Feeding
2000
Silviculture
2300
Logging Roads
3000
Construction
3100
Road/Bridge
3200
Land Development
Definition
A point source that processes liquid wastes generated by manufacturing or
industrial processes. Probable causes of impairment associated with this
source include metals, pH, organics, PCB, dioxin and thermal modifications .
Any publicly owned treatment works (sewage and wastewater treatment
plants) that process domestic, industrial and commercial wastewaters.
Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include nutrients,
ammonia, chlorine, dissolved solids, suspended solids, turbidity, pH and
pathogens.
A subcategory of Municipal Point Source is Package Plants, includes single
residence sewage treatment plants (SRSTP) and small STPs that are
prefabricated. Probable causes of impairment associated with this source are
nutrients, ammonia, chlorine, dissolved solids, suspended solids, turbidity, pH
and pathogens.
Intermittent overflow or other untreated discharge from a municipal combined
sewer system which results from a flow in excess of the dry weather carrying
capacity of the system. Such systems combine domestic, industrial and
commercial wastewater with stormwater. Found in older towns and cities.
Probable causes of impairment include pathogens, suspended solids,
nutrients, organic enrichment, unknown toxics and turbidity.
Consists of many agriculture activities that include crops, pasture, animal
feeding operations, waste spreading, fertilizers, etc. Probable causes of
impairment associated with this source include organic enrichment, nutrients,
pesticides, siltation and pathogens.
Subcategory of Agriculture used when the primary agricultural activity is row
crops or other crop related activities. Probable causes of impairment
associated with this source include organic enrichment, nutrients, pesticides,
siltation and pathogens.
Subcategory of Agriculture used when the primary agricultural activity is
grazing related. Probable causes of impairment associated with this source
include organic enrichment, nutrients, pesticides, siltation and pathogens.
Subcategory of Agriculture used when the primary agricultural activity is
related to animal feed lots. Probable causes of impairment associated with
this source include organic enrichment, nutrients, pesticides, siltation and
pathogens.
Any activities associated with removal of timber from forested lands including
tree farms and plantations. Clear cutting (even aged management), log
skidding, construction of log landings (location where logs are piled to be
loaded on trucks) and construction of logging roads are all activities included
under silviculture. Probable causes of impairment associated with this source
include thermal modifications, flow alterations (increased surface runoff as a
result of tree removal) and siltation.
Subcategory of Silviculture used when the primary silvicultural activity is
related to road building and logging roads. Probable causes of impairment
associated with this source include thermal modifications, flow alterations
(increased surface runoff as a result of road building) and siltation.
Earth moving and disturbance related to highway, road and bridge building
activities and other land development activities (i.e., new subdivisions for
residential housing and commercial properties). Probable causes of
impairment associated with this source include siltation, thermal modifications
and turbidity.
Earth moving and disturbance related to highway, road and bridge building
activities. Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include
siltation, thermal modifications and turbidity.
Earth moving and disturbance related to land development activities such as
new subdivisions for residential housing, commercial and industrial properties.
Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include siltation,
thermal modifications and turbidity.
-2-
3800-FM-WSFR0080
Code
4000
4350
5100
5200
5500
5800
6000
6500
7000
7100
7200
7350
7400
7550
9/2005
Source
Definition
Runoff from impervious or urban areas to surface waters from precipitation,
snowmelt and subsurface drainage and may be conveyed by storm sewers.
Urban Runoff/Storm
Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include habitat
Sewers
removal caused by bank erosion, or streambed scouring, or smothering of
habitat by siltation. Other probable causes include oils and grease, metals,
pathogens and nutrients.
Subcategory of Urban Runoff/Storm Sewers used for small residential
developments less than 25 acres. Probable causes of impairment associated
Small Residential
with this source include habitat removal caused by bank erosion, or
Runoff
streambed scouring, or smothering of habitat by siltation. Other probable
causes include oils and grease, metals, pathogens and nutrients.
Strip mining or quarrying operations to remove coal, other minerals or rocks
from the ground that are day-lighted. Probable causes of impairment
Active Surface Mining
associated with this source include flow alterations from dewatering due to
bedrock fracturing; and siltation due to erosion from spoil piles, or runoff from
hauling roads, or from process washing.
Deep mining activities related to coal and other mineral extraction. Probable
Active Subsurface
causes of impairment associated with this source include metals and/or pH
Mining
from acid or alkaline discharges, flow alterations from dewatering due to long
wall mining activities that fracture bedrock.
Activities related to the extraction of oil and gas. These activities include road
building site preparation, tank holding facilities, and brine water holding
facilities. Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include
Petroleum Activities
siltation from road build and site preparation; oils and grease from leaking
tanks, pipes and equipment; salinity/TDS/chlorides; and osmotic pressure due
to improper disposal of brine solutions.
Acid or alkaline discharges from inactive mine sites. Probable causes of
Abandoned Mine
impairment associated with this source include metals, pH and siltation from
Drainage
erosion of spoil piles.
Disposal of sewage effluent on land via spray irrigation, or onlot septic or the
beneficial use of sewage sludge or disposal of industrial or other non-sewage
Land Disposal
wastes on land. Probable cause of impairment associated with this source is
nutrients.
A subcategory of Land Disposal used when onlot septic systems are failing.
On-site Wastewater
Probable cause of impairment associated with this source is nutrients.
Modification of hydrologic regimes by damming, channelizing and dredging.
Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include habitat
Hydromodification
alterations (lack of or removal of habitat by concrete channels and dredging),
thermal modifications, suspended solids, DO from upstream impoundments
and flow alterations due to discharge regulation.
Subcategory of Hydromodification used when streams are channelized.
Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include habitat
Channelization
alterations (lack of or removal of habitat by concrete channels), thermal
modifications.
Subcategory of Hydromodification used when dredging has or is occurring.
Dredging
Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include habitat
alterations (lack of or removal of habitat).
Subcategory of Hydromodification used when upstream impoundments are
Upstream Impoundment present. Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include
thermal modifications and low DO.
Subcategory of Hydromodification used when upstream impoundments are
Flow Regulation or
present and controlling stream discharge. Probable causes of impairment
Modification
associated with this source include thermal modifications, flow variability and
flow alterations.
Changes to habitat associated primarily with land development activities.
Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include habitat
Habitat Modification
alterations, thermal modifications, flow alterations, filling and draining and
siltation.
-3-
3800-FM-WSFR0080
9/2005
Code
Source
7600
Removal of Riparian
Vegetation
7700
Bank Modification
7800
Drain and Fill Wetlands
8050
Erosion from Derelict
Lands
8100
Atmospheric Deposition
8300
Road Runoff
8600
Natural Sources
8700
Recreation and Tourism
8710
Golf Courses
8950
Other
9000
Source Unknown
Definition
Subcategory of Habitat Modification used when riparian vegetation has been
removed from banks and riparian areas. Probable causes of impairment
associated with this source include habitat alterations, thermal modifications,
flow alterations and siltation.
Subcategory of Habitat Modification used when stream banks have been
modified by bank stabilization. Probable causes of impairment associated with
this source include habitat alterations, thermal modifications and siltation.
Subcategory of Habitat Modification used when wetlands have been drained
and filled. Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include
habitat alterations, thermal modifications, flow alterations, filling and draining
and siltation.
Erosion from contaminated abandoned industrial or other developed land.
Probable causes of impairment associated with this source include siltation,
metals, PCBs, dioxins and chlordane.
Fallout of pollutants released into the air through the burning of fossil fuels
with precipitation. Probable primary causes of impairment associated with this
source include pH, metals, and secondary causes from nutrients (nitrogen),
PCBs and dioxins.
Surface runoff of precipitation from roadways. Probable causes of impairment
associated with this source include siltation, salinity, metals, oils and grease.
Naturally occurring pollutants, found in watersheds, which originate from
unique geologic formations, or from activities of wildlife (beaver dams) that
result in unusual water quality conditions. Because these “impairments” are
due to naturally occurring conditions, this condition should be considered to
be site-specific and not impairment. Course of action should be to develop
site-specific criteria.
Impairments related to recreational or tourism activities. As an example,
stream bank erosion caused by heavy foot traffic at a campground or other
recreational facility.
Subcategory of Recreation and Tourism related to land management activities
for the maintenance of golf courses. Probable causes of impairment
associated with this source include habitat alterations, siltation, pesticides,
nutrients, pathogens and thermal modifications.
Other sources of pollutants not described by any other sources.
Sources that have not or cannot be determined at the present time. Should
only be used when unable to conduct an exhaustive investigation of potential
sources of pollutants.
-4-
3800-FM-WSFR0080
Code
9/2005
Cause
0
Cause Unknown
100
Unknown Toxicity
200
Pesticides
300
Priority Organics
400
Nonpriority Organics
410
PCB
420
Dioxins
430
Chlordane
500
Metals
600
Un-ionized Ammonia
700
Chlorine
800
Other Inorganics
Definition
Used when the cause of impairment cannot be identified. Should be used
only when unable to identify cause when an immediate follow-up survey is
not possible or when no cause can be identified.
Cause of impairment from some unknown toxic agent. WETT testing should
be conducted on any suspected toxic substance in point source discharges
to the stream. Should not be used except on rare occasions. If nonpoint
sources are involved, follow-up should concentrate on suspected causes
inferred by land use such as pesticides, metals, etc.
Group of man-made chemical compounds (diazinon, carbaryl, chlropyrifos,
prometon, atrazine, etc.) used for the control of pests. These pesticides
have a direct impact on aquatic communities and often result in aquatic life
use impairment and violations of Chapter 16 criteria violations.
Persistent biomagnifying man-made compounds (PCBs, Aldrin, DDT,
Dieldrin and other man-made organic compounds) introduced to the
environment. When introduced into the environment, these compounds
biomagnify and, as a result, concentrations increase rapidly as humans and
other wildlife consume them. Impairment results when fish tissue sample
results exceed the chronic criteria, resulting in the issuance of fish
consumption advisories to protect human health.
Other organic compounds not known to bioaccumulate or biomagnify up the
food chain, but known to be toxic or injurious to human health.
Man-made compound (no known natural source of this compound) used in
electrical equipment, hydraulic fluids and heat-conducting fluids and other
industrial applications. Manufacture of PCBs ceased in 1977. When
introduced into the environment, these compounds biomagnify up the food
chain and, as a result, concentrations increase rapidly as humans and other
wildlife consume them. PCBs primarily enter the environment through
contaminated sites and sediments. Impairment results when fish tissue
sample results exceed the chronic criteria, resulting in the issuance of fish
consumption advisories to protect human health.
Group of persistent, toxic, heterocyclic hydrocarbons that occur as byproducts from industrial processes (manufacture of herbicides, paper),
incineration of waste and other combustion (forest fires). Dioxins
biomagnify up the food chain and, as a result, concentrations increase
rapidly as humans and other wildlife consume them. Impairment results
when fish tissue sample results exceed the chronic criteria, resulting in the
issuance of fish consumption advisories to protect human health.
Pesticide used on crops, lawns and gardens to control insect populations
and on home foundations as a termiticide, used from 1948 to 1988.
Chlordane, a persistent biomagnifying organochlorine insecticide, rapidly
increases in concentration as it moves up the food chain as humans and
other wildlife consume them. Impairment results when fish tissue sample
results exceed the chronic criteria, resulting in the issuance of fish
consumption advisories to protect human health.
High concentrations instream of various metals caused by mining and other
resource use/extraction activities as a nonpoint source pollutant. Iron, Al
and Mn typically precipitate and are frequently obvious, but other metals
may be present in high concentrations with no visible precipitate present.
Metals may also enter streams as point source pollutants from industrial
and municipal waste treatment plants. May also include heavy metals that
biomagnify (Hg) or bioaccumulate (Pb).
Ammonia nitrogen associated with sewage, manure or fertilizers in elevated
concentrations that can be very toxic (pH dependent) to aquatic life (see
§93.7 for water quality criteria).
Used as a disinfection agent in water processing that when present in
treated effluent in elevated concentrations is toxic to aquatic life.
Other inorganic compounds (i.e., antimony, arsenic, chromium, lead,
mercury, zinc, etc.) that may be in high concentrations and toxic to aquatic
life.
-5-
3800-FM-WSFR0080
Code
9/2005
Cause
900
Nutrients
990
Water/Flow Variability
1000
pH
1100
Siltation
1200
Organic
Enrichment/Low DO
1300
Salinity/TDS/Chlorides
1400
Thermal Modifications
1500
Flow Alterations
1600
Other Habitat
Alterations
1700
Pathogens
1900
Oil and Grease
2000
Taste and Odor
2050
Color
2100
Suspended Solids
2200
Noxious Aquatic Plants
2210
Excessive Algal Growth
2300
Filling and Draining
2500
Turbidity
2600
Exotic Species
2700
Osmotic Pressure
Definition
Presence of excessive quantities of phosphorus and/or nitrogen that under
the proper conditions may result in dense algal or macrophyte growth and
wide fluctuations in DO levels. Average daily DO may be relatively normal.
Biological impairment may occur without Chapter 93 criteria violations.
Changes in hydrologic regime caused by water releases, increased surface
runoff from impervious surfaces during storm events, scouring and drought.
Results in unstable environment for macroinvertebrates and fishes. Habitat
alterations include stream widening, substrate paving, shallower pools, etc.
Measure of hydronium ions that may be in excess of water quality standard
of 6.0–9.0. May be related to abandoned mine drainage and/or acid
precipitation, but may also be associated with excess nutrients and organic
enrichment of streams.
Aggradation of “clean” sediments or soils in excess of what the stream
channel can transport. Results in smothering of habitat for
macroinvertebrates and fishes.
Excessive quantities of organic material instream causing severe DO sag
and may result in low average daily DO.
Dissolved solutes (i.e., brines from oil and gas industry or meat packing,
road salt) that once they are instream can become toxic at high
concentrations.
Increases in natural water temperatures from heated wastewater sources.
Changes in hydrologic regime as a result of water regulation (including
dams without or with insufficient minimum releases) or dewatering as a
result of bedrock fracturing from mining activities or lack of base flow due to
reduced rain water infiltration in urban areas or reduction in base flow
caused by groundwater withdrawals.
Habitat changes due to severe bank erosion, removal or lack of riparian
vegetation, or presence of concrete channels and streambeds.
High levels of fecal coliform bacteria that are indicators of the potential for
disease-causing bacteria, viruses and protozoans.
Petroleum products used for lubrication for automobiles and industrial
equipment. May enter the stream with road and highway runoff or from
improper disposal.
Bad tastes and odors in drinking water generally caused by excessive algal
growth in water supply waters.
Addition of colors to stream water from processed industrial wastewater.
Organic solids suspended in the water column, primarily from sewage. May
also be from inorganic sediments associated with land use.
Invasive non-native aquatic plants such as the Hydrilla, Eurasian Water
Milfoil and Purple Loosestrife.
Large algal standing crops generally occurring due to high concentrations
of nutrients.
Filling of wetlands and/or streams with soils in combination with the
installation of drainage pipes to remove water. This is a DEP-permitted
activity and should be confirmed with the Soils and Waterways section to
determine if permits have been issued.
Reduction of water clarity as a result of suspended sediments and/or
organic material.
Invasive non-native animal species such as the Zebra Mussel, European
Ruffe, Round Goby, Sea Lamprey, Spiny Water Flea and Red-Eared Slider.
Pollutants that disrupt the ability of aquatic life to maintain osmoregulatory
balance. This cause is primarily related to the specifics of discharge permits
that involve brines and other wastes with high solute concentrations (i.e., oil
and gas drilling activities, meat packing, food processing, etc.).
-6-
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