COVENANT UNIVERSITY KM 10 IDIROKO RD,OTA 2014/2015 ACADEMIC SESSION COURSE COMPACT College: Development Studies School: Social Sciences Department: Political Science/International Relations Programmes: Political Science Course Code: POS 423 Course Title: Civil-Military Relation Units: 3 Course Lecturer: Dr. Duruji, Moses and Mr. Ugochukwu Abasilin Semester: Omega Time: Monday 12-2 PM, Wednesday 11-12 NOON Location: Inter Rel. Lab. Che. C 28 Brief Overview of Course At least since Plato, scholars and policymakers alike have grappled with this most vexing problem of the modern state: who guards the guardians? How can a society raise an armed force to protect itself from external enemies when that same force can turn its guns inwards and conquer the society it is supposed to serve? There is no logical reason why those with guns should obey those without them. So why is it that some militaries willfully submit to democratic civilian control and others don’t? This paradox of civilian control animates this course. We will start with an inquiry into the domestic and external factors which shape civilian control over the military and cause its overt breakdown or military intervention. We will then explore the ‘relative autonomy’ of the military in transitional democracies which it exercises through its influence or ‘prerogatives’ in issue areas ranging from the constitution to defense policy. Finally, we will scrutinize the linkages between civil-military relations and important external outcomes like war and nuclear deterrence. Throughout the course, the emphasis will be on doing comparative politics: applying theories to cases, and using cases to test theories. We will focus especially on the rather bewildering case of Nigeria which has cycled between military and civilian rule since independence in 1960, and continues to struggle with democratization 15 years after the transition to fourth republic in 1999 Course Objectives/Goals At the end of this course students are expected to: Understand the theoretical explanation for civil-military relations Understand the structure of the military institution, their constitutional role and process of military deployment Understand why some militaries submit to civil control, whereas others do not. Understand the historical elements of the Nigerian military and the explanation for its meddling in Nigerian political process Acquire the necessary knowledge needed to expertly analyze political state and its military institution as well as the behaviour of the military. Methods of Lecture delivery/Teaching Aids Lecture Delivery Method The method of teaching is participatory. The teacher outlines the major points of discourse on the topic, whereas students are encouraged to raise probing questions that are to be trashed in class. Teaching Aids The teaching aid employed is the overhead projector where PowerPoint’s slides of the weekly topics are displayed on the screen during contact hours Class Meetings There will be two hours of lectures every week and an hour of tutorials. ATTENDANCE TO LECTURES AND TUTORIALS ARE COMPULSORY FOR ALL REGISTERED STUDENTS. . A desire to do well at the end of the semester demands a responsibility on the part of registered students to attend classes regularly. Should situations that makes it inevitable to be absent in classes, must be so reported to the lecturers in charge. Lecture Outline Module One: Introduction Week 1: The Military Institution Week 2: What are CMR and the CMR Problematic? Week 3: Dependent Variables of CMR Module Two: Theories of CMR Week 4: Institutional Theory of Samuel Huntington Week 5: Convergence Theory of Morris Janowitz Week 6: Other Theories of CMR (Structural, Principal- Agent, Occupational and Concordance) Module Three: Civil- Military Interface Week 7: The Military-Industrial Complex Week 8: Factors that lead to Military Intervention in Politics Week 9: Theories of Military Intervention in Politics Module Four: Nigerian Civil-Military Relation Week 10: Military Intervention in Nigeria: Designed or Reactive Week 11: Impact of Military Intervention in Nigerian Week 12: CMR in the Fourth Republic Structure of the Programme/Method of Grading 1. Continuous Assessment i.e. Term Paper……......…………….10% Periodic tests……………………...10% Attendance………………………..10% 2. End of Semester Examination………………………………..70% Ground Rules & Regulation Attendance is compulsory for all registered students Admission into classes 15 minutes after commencement will not be permitted Side talking or chatting during classes will not be tolerated Students must maintain rapt attention and silence during class session No students shall leave the class during lectures without the permission of the lecturer Topics for Term Paper 1. In what ways has the involvement of the military in Nigerian politics affected military professionalism in the country? 2. Compare and contrast the views of the two classic theorist of civil-military relation of Samuel Huntington and Morris Janowits. 3. In what ways has military-industrial complex, particularly in American influenced global conflicts. Students Activity Students are free to choose any of the questions above and do a term paper of between 10- 15 pages of font 12 double spaced A-4 paper on Times New Roman. The deadline for submission is February 10, 2015. Submission after this date shall not be accepted. Alignment with Covenant University Vision/Goals This course aligns with the university’s core values of Capacity building in the sense that students who are exposed to the course shall be knowledge of one of the fundamental issues that is of importance to the Nigeria political system The course is more apt given the philosophy of the school that intends to produce world changers and being abreast with the issues that shape political processes in the continent. Contemporary Issues/Industry Relevance This course is relevant to the professional development of the students offering the programme of political science and policy and strategic studies. Civil -Militay relations examines contemporary issues that affect the life of people in the continent. Good grasps of the issues through exposure to the course equips the student to align in government and international institutions that abound all over the world working on improving civilians and the men in uniform. Reading List Claus Von Clausewitz, On War, Book 8, chap. 6, pp. 603-610. Samuel P. Huntington, The Soldier and the State, pp. 1-18, 30-54, 59-79, 80-97. Samuel E. Finer, The Man on Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics, pp. 23-30. Michael C. Desch, “Threat Environments and Military Missions,” in Diamond and Plattner eds. Civil-Military Relations and Democracy, pp: 13-27. Peter Fever, “An Agency Theory Explanation of American Civil-Military Relations during the Cold War,” mimeo. Duke University (November 1997): 1-5, 51-66. Claude E. Welch, “Civilian Control of the Military: Myth and Reality,” In Welch, ed. Civilian Control of the Military: Theory and Cases from Developing Countries, pp. 1-41. Rebecca L. Schiff. “Civil-Military Relations Reconsidered: A Theory of Concordance,” Armed Forces & Society, 22.1 (Fall 1995): 7-24. Samuel Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies, pp. 1-59, 78-92. Samuel E. Finer, The Man on Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics, pp. 86-139. Recommended: Charles J. Dunlap, Jr., “The Origins of the American Military Coup of 2012,” Parameters (Winter 1992-93): 1-13. Barry Buzan, “Peoples, States and Fear: The National Security Problem in the Third World,” in Edward E. Azar and Chung-in Moon eds. National Security in the Third World: The Management of Internal and External Threats, pp. 14-41. Alexander Wendt and Michael Barnett, “Dependent State Formation and Third World Militarization,” Review of International Studies, 19 (1993): 321: 347. Eric Nordlinger, Soldiers in Politics: Military Coups and Governments, pp. 65-95. William R. Thompson, “Regime Vulnerability and the Military Coup,” Comparative Politics, 7. 4 (Jul., 1975): 459-487. Donald Horowitz, “The Question of Motive,” in Coup Theories and Officers’ Motives: Sri Lanka in Comparative Perspective, chap. 1. Shirin-Tahirkheli, “The Military in Contemporary Pakistan,” Armed Forces and Society (1980): 639-653. Stephen P. Cohen, op. cit, pp. 105-117. David Pion-Berlin, “Military Autonomy and Emerging Democracies in South America,” Comparative Politics, 25.1 (Oct. 1992): 82-103. Richard Kohn, “How Democracies Control the Military,” Journal of Democracy, 8. 4 (October 1997): 140-153 Donald Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict, chap. 13, pp. 526-562. James T. Quinlivan, “Coup-proofing: Its Practice and Consequences in the Middle East,” International Security, 24.2 (Fall 1999): 131-165. Jack Snyder, “The Cult of the Offensive and Civil-Military Relations: 1914 and 1984,” International Security (Summer 1984): 108-46. Movie: Dr. Strangelove or How I Stopped Worrying and Learned to Love the Bomb (1964). Scott Sagan and Kenneth Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate Renewed, pp. 49-55, 72-75, 88, 124, 133-141. Other Reading Materials Janowitz M (1964) The Military in the Politicl Development of New Nations: A Comparative Analysis. Chicago: University Press Nwankwo A (1986) Civilianized Soldiers: Army- Civilian Government for Nigeria.Enugu: Fourth Dimension Nwankwo A (1990) Retreat of Power: The Military in Nigeria’s Third Republic. Enugu: Fourth Connaughton Richard (2001) Military intervention and Peacekeeping: The Reality. Hamshire: Ashgate Publishing Ltd Liebenow J Gus (1986) African Politics: Crisis and Challenges. Indiana: Indian University Press Adekanye Bayo (1999) The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria.Ibadan: Heinemann Books (Nig) PLC Oluleye, James (1985) Military Leadership in Nigeria 1966 – 1979. Ibadan University Press Adekson J ‘Bayo (1981) Nigeria in Search of a Stable Civil Military System.Colorado: Westview Press Osaghae, Eghosa, The Crippled Giant Joseph,Leo,Nigeria:Shadow of a Great Nation Diamond,Larry,Jonathan Harthlyn,Juan J Linz and Seymour Martin Lipset (2000) Democracy in Developing Countries. Colorado: Lynne Rienner.