College: Development Studies
School: Social Sciences
Department: Political Science/International Relations
Programmes: Political Science
Course Code: POS 423
Course Title: Civil-Military Relation
Units: 3
Course Lecturer: Dr. Duruji, Moses and Mr. Ugochukwu Abasilin
Semester: Omega
Time: Monday 12-2 PM, Wednesday 11-12 NOON
Location: Inter Rel. Lab. Che. C 28
Brief Overview of Course
At least since Plato, scholars and policymakers alike have grappled with this most vexing problem
of the modern state: who guards the guardians? How can a society raise an armed force to protect
itself from external enemies when that same force can turn its guns inwards and conquer the
society it is supposed to serve? There is no logical reason why those with guns should obey those
without them. So why is it that some militaries willfully submit to democratic civilian control and
others don’t?
This paradox of civilian control animates this course. We will start with an inquiry into the
domestic and external factors which shape civilian control over the military and cause its overt
breakdown or military intervention. We will then explore the ‘relative autonomy’ of the military in
transitional democracies which it exercises through its influence or ‘prerogatives’ in issue areas
ranging from the constitution to defense policy. Finally, we will scrutinize the linkages between
civil-military relations and important external outcomes like war and nuclear deterrence.
Throughout the course, the emphasis will be on doing comparative politics: applying theories to
cases, and using cases to test theories. We will focus especially on the rather bewildering case of
Nigeria which has cycled between military and civilian rule since independence in 1960, and
continues to struggle with democratization 15 years after the transition to fourth republic in 1999
Course Objectives/Goals
 At the end of this course students are expected to:
 Understand the theoretical explanation for civil-military relations
 Understand the structure of the military institution, their constitutional role and process of
military deployment
 Understand why some militaries submit to civil control, whereas others do not.
 Understand the historical elements of the Nigerian military and the explanation for its
meddling in Nigerian political process
 Acquire the necessary knowledge needed to expertly analyze political state and its
military institution as well as the behaviour of the military.
Methods of Lecture delivery/Teaching Aids
Lecture Delivery Method
The method of teaching is participatory. The teacher outlines the major points of discourse on
the topic, whereas students are encouraged to raise probing questions that are to be trashed in
Teaching Aids
The teaching aid employed is the overhead projector where PowerPoint’s slides of the weekly
topics are displayed on the screen during contact hours
Class Meetings
There will be two hours of lectures every week and an hour of tutorials. ATTENDANCE TO
STUDENTS. . A desire to do well at the end of the semester demands a responsibility on the
part of registered students to attend classes regularly. Should situations that makes it inevitable
to be absent in classes, must be so reported to the lecturers in charge.
Lecture Outline
Module One: Introduction
Week 1: The Military Institution
Week 2: What are CMR and the CMR Problematic?
Week 3: Dependent Variables of CMR
Module Two: Theories of CMR
Week 4: Institutional Theory of Samuel Huntington
Week 5: Convergence Theory of Morris Janowitz
Week 6: Other Theories of CMR (Structural, Principal- Agent, Occupational and Concordance)
Module Three: Civil- Military Interface
Week 7: The Military-Industrial Complex
Week 8: Factors that lead to Military Intervention in Politics
Week 9: Theories of Military Intervention in Politics
Module Four: Nigerian Civil-Military Relation
Week 10: Military Intervention in Nigeria: Designed or Reactive
Week 11: Impact of Military Intervention in Nigerian
Week 12: CMR in the Fourth Republic
Structure of the Programme/Method of Grading
1. Continuous Assessment i.e. Term Paper……......…………….10%
Periodic tests……………………...10%
2. End of Semester Examination………………………………..70%
Ground Rules & Regulation
Attendance is compulsory for all registered students
Admission into classes 15 minutes after commencement will not be permitted
Side talking or chatting during classes will not be tolerated
Students must maintain rapt attention and silence during class session
No students shall leave the class during lectures without the permission of the lecturer
Topics for Term Paper
1. In what ways has the involvement of the military in Nigerian politics affected military
professionalism in the country?
2. Compare and contrast the views of the two classic theorist of civil-military relation of
Samuel Huntington and Morris Janowits.
3. In what ways has military-industrial complex, particularly in American influenced global
Students Activity
Students are free to choose any of the questions above and do a term paper of between 10- 15
pages of font 12 double spaced A-4 paper on Times New Roman. The deadline for submission
is February 10, 2015. Submission after this date shall not be accepted.
Alignment with Covenant University Vision/Goals
This course aligns with the university’s core values of Capacity building in the sense that
students who are exposed to the course shall be knowledge of one of the fundamental issues
that is of importance to the Nigeria political system The course is more apt given the
philosophy of the school that intends to produce world changers and being abreast with the
issues that shape political processes in the continent.
Contemporary Issues/Industry Relevance
This course is relevant to the professional development of the students offering the programme
of political science and policy and strategic studies. Civil -Militay relations examines
contemporary issues that affect the life of people in the continent. Good grasps of the issues
through exposure to the course equips the student to align in government and international
institutions that abound all over the world working on improving civilians and the men in
Reading List
Claus Von Clausewitz, On War, Book 8, chap. 6, pp. 603-610.
Samuel P. Huntington, The Soldier and the State, pp. 1-18, 30-54, 59-79, 80-97.
Samuel E. Finer, The Man on Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics, pp. 23-30.
Michael C. Desch, “Threat Environments and Military Missions,” in Diamond and Plattner eds.
Civil-Military Relations and Democracy, pp: 13-27.
Peter Fever, “An Agency Theory Explanation of American Civil-Military Relations during the Cold
War,” mimeo. Duke University (November 1997): 1-5, 51-66.
Claude E. Welch, “Civilian Control of the Military: Myth and Reality,” In Welch, ed. Civilian Control
of the Military: Theory and Cases from Developing Countries, pp. 1-41.
Rebecca L. Schiff. “Civil-Military Relations Reconsidered: A Theory of Concordance,” Armed Forces
& Society, 22.1 (Fall 1995): 7-24.
Samuel Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies, pp. 1-59, 78-92.
Samuel E. Finer, The Man on Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics, pp. 86-139.
Recommended: Charles J. Dunlap, Jr., “The Origins of the American Military Coup of 2012,”
Parameters (Winter 1992-93): 1-13.
Barry Buzan, “Peoples, States and Fear: The National Security Problem in the Third World,” in
Edward E. Azar and Chung-in Moon eds. National Security in the Third World: The Management
of Internal and External Threats, pp. 14-41.
Alexander Wendt and Michael Barnett, “Dependent State Formation and Third World
Militarization,” Review of International Studies, 19 (1993): 321: 347.
Eric Nordlinger, Soldiers in Politics: Military Coups and Governments, pp. 65-95.
William R. Thompson, “Regime Vulnerability and the Military Coup,” Comparative Politics, 7. 4 (Jul.,
1975): 459-487.
Donald Horowitz, “The Question of Motive,” in Coup Theories and Officers’ Motives: Sri Lanka in
Comparative Perspective, chap. 1.
Shirin-Tahirkheli, “The Military in Contemporary Pakistan,” Armed Forces and Society (1980): 639-653.
Stephen P. Cohen, op. cit, pp. 105-117.
David Pion-Berlin, “Military Autonomy and Emerging Democracies in South America,” Comparative
Politics, 25.1 (Oct. 1992): 82-103.
Richard Kohn, “How Democracies Control the Military,” Journal of Democracy, 8. 4 (October 1997):
Donald Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict, chap. 13, pp. 526-562.
James T. Quinlivan, “Coup-proofing: Its Practice and Consequences in the Middle East,”
International Security, 24.2 (Fall 1999): 131-165.
Jack Snyder, “The Cult of the Offensive and Civil-Military Relations: 1914 and 1984,” International
Security (Summer 1984): 108-46.
Movie: Dr. Strangelove or How I Stopped Worrying and Learned to Love the Bomb (1964).
Scott Sagan and Kenneth Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate Renewed, pp. 49-55, 72-75,
88, 124, 133-141.
Other Reading Materials
Janowitz M (1964) The Military in the Politicl Development of New Nations: A
Comparative Analysis. Chicago: University Press
Nwankwo A (1986) Civilianized Soldiers: Army- Civilian Government for Nigeria.Enugu:
Fourth Dimension
Nwankwo A (1990) Retreat of Power: The Military in Nigeria’s Third Republic. Enugu:
Connaughton Richard (2001) Military intervention and Peacekeeping: The Reality.
Hamshire: Ashgate Publishing Ltd
Liebenow J Gus (1986) African Politics: Crisis and Challenges. Indiana: Indian University
Adekanye Bayo (1999) The Retired Military as Emergent Power Factor in Nigeria.Ibadan:
Heinemann Books (Nig) PLC
Oluleye, James (1985) Military Leadership in Nigeria 1966 – 1979. Ibadan University Press
Adekson J ‘Bayo (1981) Nigeria in Search of a Stable Civil Military System.Colorado:
Westview Press
Osaghae, Eghosa, The Crippled Giant
Joseph,Leo,Nigeria:Shadow of a Great Nation
Diamond,Larry,Jonathan Harthlyn,Juan J Linz and Seymour Martin Lipset (2000) Democracy in
Developing Countries. Colorado: Lynne Rienner.
Related flashcards

Political science

34 cards

Democratic socialism

40 cards

Types of organization

26 cards

Create Flashcards