UNIT 2: SELF AND OTHERS AREA OF STUDY 2: INTELLIGENCE AND PERSONALITY What makes me the unique person I am? Why isn’t everyone else like me? What does being intelligent mean? Does everyone think like I do? Questions such as these prompt exploration of the attributes equated with intelligence, and the traits associated with personality. In this area of study, students explore scientific ways of describing, measuring and classifying intelligence and personality. They analyse classic and contemporary theories of intelligence and personality, including the influence of genetic and environmental factors. They compare the research methods used in the development of these theories. Students study aspects of psychological research and may apply these to their own investigations. They consider associated ethical issues including the use of standardised psychological tests. OUTCOME 2 On completion of this unit the student should be able to compare different theories of intelligence and personality, and compare different methodologies used in the measurement of these. Key Knowledge 1. the concept of intelligence and factors that influence intelligence, including the interaction of genetic and environmental factors 2. classic and contemporary approaches to describing intelligence, including: a) Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences b) Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence c) Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of psychometric abilities d) Peter Salovey and John Mayer’s ability-based model of emotional intelligence 3. strengths and limitations of scientific methodologies used to measure intelligence, including: a) Intelligence Quotient (IQ) b) Stanford-Binet test c) Wechsler’s intelligence scales 4. the concept of personality, including characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviours of an individual, and the influence of genetic and environment factors 5. classic and contemporary theories of describing and classifying personality: a) psychodynamic including the work of Sigmund Freud b) trait theories including the work of Gordon Allport, Raymond Cattell (16 personality factor model), Hans Eysenck (PEN model), Paul Costa and Robert McCrae (NEO-PI/Five Factor model) c) humanistic including the person-centred theory of Carl Rogers 6. the use of personality and aptitude inventories in vocational selections and workplace settings: a) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) b) Holland’s Self-Directed Search 7. strengths and limitations of methodologies used to describe and classify personality, including the use of projective tests 8. research methods and ethics associated with investigations into intelligence and personality.