Psych. 956: Social Neuroscience Omri Gillath, Fall 2011 Office Hours: by appt. Tuesday 11-1, 518 Fraser W 4:00PM – 6:50PM in 327 Fraser Class Overview This course is designed to acquaint students with the Social Neuroscience approach as well as recent findings using this approach. The class will focus on particular social phenomena and (a) evaluate the utility of current social neuroscience research examining these phenomena and (b) consider future experimental designs using the Social Neuroscience approach to further inform our understanding of each phenomenon. Social (cognitive, affective) neuroscience lies at the intersection of two major domains: social psychology and neuroscience. As such, it seeks to explain social and emotional behavior at three levels of analysis: (1) Social, which includes descriptions of experience, behavior, and context; (2) Cognitive, which specifies information processing mechanisms; and (3) Neural, which specifies neural systems or substrates that instantiate the cognitive processes and the related social and emotional responses. After being acquainted with foundational concepts (multilevel analyses of behavior, converging evidence, the interaction of controlled and automatic processes), students will analyze findings in a number of core content domains (including emotions, emotion regulation, self, stereotyping, attitudes and beliefs, social decision making, cooperation, close relationships), focusing on neuroscience’s contribution beyond traditional methods. Course Structure Each week we will read and discuss several articles and/or chapters. Each time a different member of the class will be asked to facilitate the discussion and to present summaries of the papers for that week. The facilitator should prepare a presentation based on the readings to generate a class discussion on the articles (i.e., more than a simple “book report”). It is highly recommended that the facilitator go beyond the articles when organizing his/her presentations. As part of the presentation, students are responsible for gleaning the main points in the assigned readings and explaining how these readings are related to the material the class has read as a whole. Early in the quarter, I will present background material. Once everyone is familiar with social neuroscience and at least the outline of its origins and history, the other members of the seminar would take on increasingly active roles. I am hoping to learn a lot myself by thinking about class members’ questions and ideas. The readings for each week are under the week’s heading below. For example, for the first class the readings start with: “Gilbert’s (2002). Are psychology's tribes ready to form a nation?” paper. Everyone needs to read the reading, and the facilitator should at least glance at the supplemental material as well. Moreover, facilitators should bring at least one new scientific paper (2010/2011) relevant to the week’s topic, and refer to the comments class members posted. Grading and Assignments I would like you to submit, each week (by Tuesday at 12am), through BlackBoard, a brief written summary of your reactions to that week's readings, including any important questions, observations, ideas, hypotheses, and connections with other literatures. Of course, class attendance, providing good reports, and contributing effectively to discussions will also be important. Additionally, students will have to submit a paper and present its essence in the last class session. Your reaction notes or papers should focus on insights, conceptual connections, criticisms, hypotheses, and questions stimulated by the readings and our discussions. Although I encourage you to raise any questions that arise for you, I'd prefer that you not just ask, "What does the author mean by X?" and more often ask, "What are the implications of Idea X for Idea Y, of paper X for the arguments in paper Y, of data in paper X for an issue we discussed with respect to paper Y?" It’s also important to wonder whether one paper or argument is consistent or inconsistent with some other papers or arguments. Your reactions will be evaluated with respect to three factors: (a) whether they are generally submitted on time, (b) the quality of your writing (i.e., clarity, coherence, professionalism), and (c) the quality of your ideas (i.e., Do they reflect careful reading and thoughtful consideration of the issues? Do they have the potential to generate productive discussion? Do they suggest new directions for research that could actually be pursued?). Because you will be exchanging ideas with other members of the seminar, I encourage you to read their comments (on BlackBoard) before coming to class. This will help you get a feel for what is likely to come up for discussion and perhaps allow you to formulate ideas, answers, further questions, etc. in response. This should make the quality of our discussions better. Schedule of Classes August 24th: What Social Neuroscience Is and What (if) Do We Need It For? A brief overview by Gillath. Readings (Week1): 1. Gilbert, D. (2002). Are psychology's tribes ready to form a nation? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 3. 2. Klein, S. B., & Kihlstrom, J. F. (1998). On bridging the gap between socialpersonality psychology and neuropsychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 228-242. 3. Cacioppo, J., T., Berntson, G. G., Lorig, T. S., Norris, C. J., Rickett, E., & Nusbaum, H. (2003). Just because you're imaging the brain doesn't mean you can stop using your head: A primer and set of first principles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 650-661. 4. Harmon-Jones, E., & Beer, J. S. (2009). Introduction to social and personality neuroscience methods. In E. Harmon-Jones & J. S. Beer (Eds.), Methods in social neuroscience (pp. 1-9). Guilford Publications: New York. 5. Ochsner, K.N., & Lieberman, M. D. (2001). The emergence of social cognitive neuroscience. American Psychologist, 56, 717-734. Supplemental: 6. Griffin, D. W. & Ross, L. (1991). Subjective construal, social inference, and human misunderstanding. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 319359. 7. Wegner, D. M., & Gilbert, D. T. (2000). Social psychology – The science of human experience. In H. Bless & J. P. Forgas (Eds.), The message within: The role of subjective experience in social cognition and behavior. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. 8. Decety, J. & Keenan, J. P. (2006). Social Neuroscience: A new journal. Social Neuroscience, 1, 1-4. August 31st: Basic principles (Week 2) 1. Gilbert, D. T. (1999). What the mind's not. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual process theories in social psychology. New York: Guilford. 2. Vul, E., Harris, C., Winkielman, P., & Pashler, H. (2009). Puzzlingly high correlations in fMRI studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 274-290. (http://edvul.com/voodoocorr.php) 3. Kihlstrom, J. F. (2007). Social Neuroscience: The Footprints of Phineas Gage (unpublished manuscript). 4. Cacioppo, J. T. & Berntson, G. G. (2005). Analysis of the social brain through the lens of human brain imaging. In Cacioppo, J. T. & Berntson, G. G. (eds.) Social Neuroscience (pp. 1-17). New York: Psychology Press. 5. Todorov, A., Harris, L.T., & Fiske, S.T. (2006). Toward socially inspired social neuroscience. Brain Research, 1079, 76-85. Supplemental: 6. Wegner, D. M., & Bargh, J. A. (1998). Control and automaticity in social life. In D. T. Gilbert & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, Vol. 1 (4th ed.) (pp. 446-496). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 7. Berntson, G. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2005). Multilevel analysis: Physiological and biochemical measures. In Eid, M. & Diener, E. (Eds.), Handbook of multimethod measurement in psychology. (pp.157-172). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 8. Cacioppo J. T. & Berntson, G. G. (2006). A bridge linking social psychology and the neurosciences. In Lange, P.V. (Ed.) Bridging social psychology. (pp 91-96). Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. September 7th: Beliefs & Expectancies (Week3) 1. Gilbert, D. T. (1991). How mental systems believe. American Psychologist, 46, 107-119. 2. Lane, J. D., & Wegner, D. M. (1995). The cognitive consequences of secrecy. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 69, 237-253. 3. Lieberman, M. D., Ochsner, K. N., Gilbert, D. T., & Schacter, D. L. (2001). Do amnesics exhibit cognitive dissonance reduction? The role of explicit memory and attention in attitude change. Psychological Science, 12, 135-140. 4. Rainville, P., Carrier, B., Hofbauer, R. K., Bushnell, M. C., & Duncan, G. H. (1999). Dissociation of sensory and affective dimensions of pain using hypnotic modulation. Pain, 82, 159-171. Supplemental: 5. Wager, T. D., Rilling, J. K., Smith, E. E., Sokolik, A., Casey, K. L., Davidson, R. J., et al. (2004). Placebo-induced changes in FMRI in the anticipation and experience of pain. Science, 303(5661), 1162-1167. 6. Kim, H., Somerville, L. H., Johnstone, T., Polis, S., Alexander, A. L., Shin, L. M., et al. (2004). Contextual Modulation of Amygdala Responsivity to Surprised Faces. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1730-1745. 7. Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., Costantini-Ferrando, M. F., Alpert, N. M., & Spiegel, D. (2000). Hypnotic visual illusion alters color processing in the brain. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1279-1284. 8. Sawamoto, N., Honda, M., Okada, T., Hanakawa, T., Kanda, M., Fukuyama, H., et al. (2000). Expectation of pain enhances responses to nonpainful somatosensory stimulation in the anterior cingulate cortex and parietal operculum/posterior insula: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 7438-7445. September 14th: Self (Week4) 1. Baumeister, R. F. (1998). The self. In D. T. Gilbert & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology, Vol. 2 (4th ed.) (pp. 680-740). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 2. Decety, J., Chaminade, T., Grezes, J., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2002). A PET exploration of the neural mechanisms involved in reciprocal imitation. Neuroimage, 15, 265-272. 3. Farrer, C., Franck, N., Georgieff, N., Frith, C. D., Decety, J., & Jeannerod, M. (2003). Modulating the experience of agency: a positron emission tomography study. Neuroimage, 18, 324-333. 4. Feinberg, T. E., Schindler, R. J., Flanagan, N. G., & Haber, L. D. (1992). Two alien hand syndromes. Neurology, 42, 19-24. 5. Wegner, D. M. (2003). The mind's best trick: How we experience conscious will. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 65-69. Supplemental: 6. Turk, D. J., Heatherton, T. F., Kelley, W. M., Funnell, M. G., Gazzaniga, M. S., & Macrae, C. N. (2002). Mike or me? Self-recognition in a split-brain patient. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 841-842. 7. Ramachandran, V. S. (1995). Anosognosia in parietal lobe syndrome. Consciousness & Cognition, 4, 22-51. 8. Kelley, W. M., Macrae, C. N., Wyland, C. L., Caglar, S., Inati, S., & Heatherton, T. F. (2002). Finding the self? An event-related fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 785-794. 9. Klein, S. B., Loftus, J., & Kihlstrom, J. F. (1996). Self-knowledge of an amnesic patient: Toward a neuropsychology of personality and social psychology. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 125, 250-260. September 21st: Self-Referent Effect/Self-Perception (Week5) 1. 2. 3. 4. Symons, C. S., & Johnson, B. T. (1997). The self-reference effect in memory: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 371-394. Ochsner, K.N., Beer, J.S., Robertson, E.A., Cooper, J., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Kihlstrom, J. F., & D’Esposito, M. (2005). The neural correlates of direct and reflected self-knowledge. Neuroimage, 28, 797-814. Mitchell, J. P., Banaji, M. R., & Macrae, C. N. (2005). The link between social cognition and self-referential thought in the medial prefrontal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 1306-1315. Vogeley, K., & Fink, G. R. (2003). Neural correlates of the first-personperspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 38-42. Supplemental: 5. 6. 7. 8. Keenan, J. P., Wheeler, M. A., Gallup, G. G., Jr., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2000). Self-recognition and the right prefrontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 338-344. Kelley, W. M., Macrae, C. N., Wyland, C. L., Caglar, S., Inati, S., & Heatherton, T. F. (2002). Finding the self? An event-related fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 785-794. Uddin, L. Q., Davies, M. S., Scott, A. A., Zaidel, E., Bookheimer, S. Y. et al. (2008). Neural basis of self and other representation in autism: An fMRI study of self-face recognition. PLoS ONE, 3, e3526. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003526 Jacques, P. L., Conway, M. A., Lowder, M. W., & Cabeza, R. (2011). Watching my mind unfold versus yours: an fMRI study using a novel camera technology to examine neural differences in self-projection of self versus other perspectives. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 1275-1284. September 28th: Self-Control (Week6) 1. Arnsten, A. F. (1998). The biology of being frazzled. Science, 280(5370), 1711-1712. 2. Gehring, W. J., Himle, J., & Nisenson, L. G. (2000). Action-monitoring dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychological Science, 11, 1-6. 3. Carter, C. S., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Botvinick, M. M., Noll, D., & Cohen, J. D. (1998). Anterior cingulate cortex, error detection, and the online monitoring of performance. Science, 280(5364), 747-749. 4. Gehring, W. J., & Knight, R. T. (2000). Prefrontal-cingulate interactions in action monitoring. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 516-520. 5. McClure, S. M., Laibson, D. I., Loewenstein, G., & Cohen, J. D. (2004). Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards. Science, 306(5695), 503-507. Supplemental: 6. Wegner, D. M., Broome, A., & Blumberg, S. J. (1997). Ironic effects of trying to relax under stress. Behavior Research & Therapy, 35, 11-21. 7. Botvinick, M. M., Cohen, J., & Carter, C.S. (2004). Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: An update. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 539-546. 8. Bush, G., Luu, P., & Posner, M.I. (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4, 215-222. 9. Brass, M., & Haggard, P. (2007). To Do or Not to Do: The Neural Signature of SelfControl. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 9141-9145. October 5th: Emotions (Week7) 1. 2. 3. 4. Levenson, R. W. (1999). The Intrapersonal Functions of Emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 481-504. Phan, K. L., Wager, T., Taylor, S. F., & Liberzon, I. (2002). Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: a meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI. Neuroimage, 16, 331-348. Baxter, M. G., & Murray, E. A. (2002). The amygdala and reward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 563-573. Ochsner, K. N., Feldman Barrett, L. (2001). A multiprocess perspective on the neuroscience of emotion. In T. J. Mayne & G. A. Bonanno (Eds.), Emotions: Current issues and future directions (pp. 38-81). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Supplemental: 5. Anderson, A. K., & Phelps, E. A. (2002). Is the human amygdala critical for the subjective experience of emotion? Evidence of intact dispositional affect in patients with amygdala lesions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 709-720. 6. Calder, A. J., Keane, J., Manes, F., Antoun, N., & Young, A. W. (2000). Impaired recognition and experience of disgust following brain injury. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 1077-1078. 7. Hamann, S. B., Ely, T. D., Hoffman, J. M., & Kilts, C. D. (2002). Ecstasy and agony: activation of the human amygdala in positive and negative emotion. Psychological Science, 13, 135-141. 8. Knutson, B., Adams, C. M., Fong, G. W., & Hommer, D. (2001). Anticipation of increasing monetary reward selectively recruits nucleus accumbens. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, RC159. 9. Sharot, T., Riccardi, A. M., Raio, C. M, & Phelps, E. A. (2007). Neural mechanisms mediating optimism bias. Nature, 450, 102-106. October 12th: Emotion Regulation (Week8) 1. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271-299. 2. Ochsner, K. N., Ray, R. D., Cooper, J. C., Robertson, E. R., Chopra, S., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Gross, J. J. (2004). For Better or for worse: Neural systems supporting the cognitive down- and up-regulation of negative emotion. Neuroimage, 23, 483-499. 3. Beauregard, M., Levesque, J., & Bourgouin, P. (2001). Neural correlates of conscious self-regulation of emotion. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 1-6. 4. Quirk, G. J., & Beer, J. S. (2006). Prefrontal invovlement in the regulation of emotion: Convergence of rat and human studies. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16, 723-727. 5. Gross, J. J. (1998). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224-237. Supplemental: 6. Wegner, D. M., & Gold, D. B. (1995). Fanning old flames: Emotional and cognitive effects of suppressing thoughts of a past relationship. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 68, 782-792. 7. Beer, J. S., Heerey, E. A., Keltner, D., Scabini, D., & Knight, R. T. (2003). The regulatory function of self-conscious emotion: insights from patients with orbitofrontal damage. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 594-604. 8. Ochsner, K. (2007). How thinking controls feeling: A social cognitive neuroscience approach. In P. Winkielman & E. Harmon-Jones (Eds.), Social Neuroscience (106136). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. 9. Anderson, M. C., Ochsner, K. N., Kuhl, B., Cooper, J., Robertson, E., Gabrieli, S. W., et al. (2004). Neural systems underlying the suppression of unwanted memories. Science, 303(5655), 232-235. 10. Barrett, L. F., Gross, J., Christensen, T. C., & Benvenuto, M. (2001). Knowing what you're feeling and knowing what to do about it: Mapping the relation between emotion differentiation and emotion regulation. Cognition & Emotion, 15, 713-724. 11. Taylor, S. F., Phan, K. L., Decker, L. R., & Liberzon, I. (2003). Subjective rating of emotionally salient stimuli modulates neural activity. Neuroimage, 18, 650-659. October 19th: Personality & Individual Differences (Week9 – Different hours?) 1. Canli, T., Sivers, H., Whitfield, S. L., Gotlib, I. H., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2002). Amygdala response to happy faces as a function of extraversion. Science, 296(5576), 2191. 2. Canli, T., Desmond, J. E., Zhao, Z., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2002). Sex differences in the neural basis of emotional memories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U S A, 99, 10789-10794. 3. Davidson, R. J. (2000). Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: brain mechanisms and plasticity. American Psychologist, 55, 1196-1214. 4. Knutson, B., Momenan, R., Rawlings, R. R., Fong, G. W., & Hommer, D. (2001). Negative association of neuroticism with brain volume ratio in healthy humans. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 685-690. 5. DeYoung, C. G., & Gray, J. R. (2009). Personality Neuroscience: Explaining Individual Differences in Affect, Behavior, and Cognition. In P. J., Corr, & G. Matthews, (Eds.) The Cambridge handbook of personality psychology (pp. 323– 346). New York: Cambridge University Press. Supplemental: 6. Knutson, B., Wolkowitz, O. M., Cole, S. W., Chan, T., Moore, E. A., Johnson, R. C., Terpstra, J., Turner, R. A., & Reus, V. I. (1998). Selective alteration of personality and social behavior by serotonergic intervention. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 373-379. 7. Luu, P., Collins, P., & Tucker, D. M. (2000). Mood, personality, and selfmonitoring: negative affect and emotionality in relation to frontal lobe mechanisms of error monitoring. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 129, 43-60. 8. Mather, M., Canli, T., English, T., Whitfield, S., Wais, P., Ochsner, K., Gabrieli, J., & Cartensen, L. (2004). Amygdala responses to Emotionally Valenced Stimuli in Older and Younger adults. Psychological Science, 15, 259-263. 9. Sheline, Y. I., Barch, D. M., Donnelly, J. M., Ollinger, J. M., Snyder, A. Z., & Mintun, M. A. (2001). Increased amygdala response to masked emotional faces in depressed subjects resolves with antidepressant treatment: an fMRI study. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 651-658. 10. Ochsner, K. N., Ludlow, D., Knierim, K., Hanelin, J., Ramachandran, T., & Mackey, S. (2006). Neural correlates of individual differences in pain related fear and anxiety. Pain, 129, 69-77. October 26th: Interpersonal Relationships (Week10) 1. Gillath, O., Bunge, S. A., Shaver P. R., Wendelken, C., & Mikulincer, M. (2005). Attachment-style differences in the ability to suppress negative thoughts: Exploring the neural correlates. Neuroimage (Special Issue - Social Cognitive Neuroscience), 28, 835-847. 2. Carter, C. S. (2004). Oxytocin and the Prairie Vole: A love story. In J. T. Cacioppo, & G. C. Berntson (Eds.), Essays in social Neuroscience. (pp 53-64). Boston: MIT Press. 3. Meaney, M. J. (2004). The nature of Nurture: Maternal Effects and Chromatin Remodeling. In J. T. Cacioppo, & G. C. Berntson (Eds.), Essays in social Neuroscience. (pp 1-14). Boston: MIT Press. 4. Eisenberger, N. I, Lieberman, M. D., & Williams, K. D. (2003). Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI Study of Social Exclusion. Science, 302, 290-292. Supplemental: 5. Goodall, J. (1986). Social rejection, exclusion, and shunning among the Gombe chimpanzees. Ethology and Sociobiology, 7, 227-236. 6. Singer, T., Seymour, B., O’Doherty, J. P., Stephan, K. E., Dolan, R. J., & Frith, C. D. (2006). Empathic neural responses are modulated by the perceived fairness of others. Nature, 439, 466-469. 7. Bartels, A., & Zeki, S. (2000). The neural basis of romantic love. NeuroReport, 11, 3829-3834. 8. Lemche, E., Giampietro, V. P., Surguladze, S. A., Amaro, E. J., Andrew, C. M., Williams, S. C. R., et al. (2006). Human attachment security is mediated by the amygdala: Evidence from combined fMRI and psychophysiological measures. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 623-635. 9. Gillath, O., Shaver, P. R., Baek J. M., & Chun, S. D. (2008). Genetic correlates of adult attachment style. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1396-1405. November 2nd: Stereotyping/Evaluative Categorization (Week11) 1. Amodio, D. M., Harmon-Jones, E., & Devine, P. G. (2003). Individual differences in the activation and control of affective race bias as assessed by startle eyeblink response and self-report. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 738753. 2. Golby, A. J., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Chiao, J. Y., & Eberhardt, J. L. (2001). Differential Fusiform Responses to Same- and Other-Race Faces. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 845-850. 3. McClelland, J. L., McNaughton, B. L., & O'Reilly, R. C. (1995). Why there are complementary learning systems in the hippocampus and neocortex: insights from the successes and failures of connectionist models of learning and memory. Psychological Review, 102, 419-457. 4. Milne, E., & Grafman, J. (2001). Ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions in humans eliminate implicit gender stereotyping. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, RC150:1-6. Supplemental: 5. Phelps, E. A., Cannistraci, C. J., & Cunningham, W. A. (2003). Intact performance on an indirect measure of race bias following amygdala damage. Neuropsychologia, 41, 203-208. 6. Phelps, E. A., O'Connor, K. J., Cunningham, W. A., Funayama, E. S., Gatenby, J. C., Gore, J. C., & Banaji, M. R. (2000). Performance on indirect measures of race evaluation predicts amygdala activation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 729-738. 7. Winston, J. S., Strange, B. A., O'Doherty, J., & Dolan, R. J. (2002). Automatic and intentional brain responses during evaluation of trustworthiness of faces. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 277-283. 8. Amodio, D. M. (2008). The social neuroscience of intergroup relations. European Review of Social Psychology, 19, 1-54. November 9th: Moral/Social Decision-Making (Week12) 1. 2. 3. 4. Monin, B., Pizarro, D. A., & Beer, J.S. (2007). Reason and emotion in moral judgment and decision-making: Different prototypes lead to different theories. In K. Vohs, R. Baumeister, & G. Lowenstein (Eds). Do emotions hurt or help decisions (pp.219-244)? New York: Russell Sage Foundation Publications. Greene, J. D., Sommerville, R. B., Nystrom, L. E., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J .D. (2001). An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science, 293, 2105-2108. Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Eslinger, P. J., Bramati, I. E., Mourao-Miranda, J., Andreiuolo, P. A., & Pessoa, L. (2002). The neural correlates of moral sensitivity: A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of basic and moral emotions. Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 2730-2736. Anderson, S. W., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1999). Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 1032-1037. Supplemental: 5. 6. 7. 8. Blair, R. J., & Cipolotti, L. (2000). Impaired social response reversal. A case of 'acquired sociopathy'. Brain, 123, 1122-1141. Rilling, J., Gutman, D., Zeh, T., Pagnoni, G., Berns, G., & Kilts, C. (2002). A neural basis for social cooperation. Neuron, 35, 395. Sanfey, A. G., Rilling, J. K., Aronson, J. A., Nystrom, L. E., & Cohen, J. D. (2003). The neural basis of economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. Science, 300(5626), 1755-1758. Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. (1998). The human amygdala in social judgment. Nature, 393, 417-418. November 16th: Intentions and Attributions (Week13) 1. Lieberman, M. D., Gaunt, R., Gilbert, D. T., & Trope, Y. (2002). Reflection and reflexion: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to attributional inference. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 199-249. [pp. 12-24]. 2. Blakemore, S. J., & Decety, J. (2001). From the perception of action to the understanding of intention. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 561-567. 3. Carr, L., Iacoboni, M., Dubeau, M. C., Mazziotta, J. C., & Lenzi, G. L. (2003). Neural mechanisms of empathy in humans: a relay from neural systems for imitation to limbic areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U S A, 100, 5497-5502. 4. Gallagher, H. L., & Frith, C. D. (2003). Functional imaging of 'theory of mind'. Trends in Cognitive Science, 7, 77-83. Supplemental: 5. Gallagher, H. L., Jack, A. I., Roepstorff, A., & Frith, C. D. (2002). Imaging the intentional stance in a competitive game. Neuroimage, 16, 814-821. 6. Meltzoff, A. N., & Decety, J. (2003). What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 358(1431), 491-500. 7. Mitchell, J. P., Heatherton, T. F., & Macrae, C. N. (2002). Distinct neural systems subserve person and object knowledge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science U S A, 99, 15238-15243. November 23rd – Thanksgiving break (or class on Personality & Individual Differences) November 30th: Motivation (Week14) Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2000). Motivational science: The nature and functions of wanting. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglarnski (Eds.), Motivational science: Social and personality perspectives (pp. 1–20). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. 2. Fishbach, A., & Ferguson, M. J. (2007). The goal construct in social psychology. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins & (Eds.). Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 490-515). Volume II. New York: Guilford Press. 3. Schultheiss, O. C., Wirth, M. M., Waugh, C. E., Stanton, S. J., Meier, E. A. & Reuter-Lorenz, P. (2008). Exploring the motivational brain: effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation in response to facial expressions of emotion. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3, 333-343. 4. Pessiglione et al. (2007). How the brain translates money into force: a neuroimaging study of subliminal motivation. Science, 316, 904. 1. Supplemental: 5. Dunning, D. (2001). On the motives underlying social cognition. In N. Schwarz & A. Tesser (Eds.) Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Volume 1: Intraindividual processes (pp. 348-374). New York: Blackwell. 6. Pyszcznski, T., Greenberg, J., & Goldenberg, J. L. (2003). Freedom versus fear: On the defense, growth and expansion of the self. In M. Leary & J. Tangney (eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 314-343). New York: Guilford Press. 7. Kuhl, J. & Kazén, M. (2008). Motivation, affect, and hemispheric asymmetry: Power versus affiliation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 456469. 8. Cain, C. K. & LeDoux, J. (2008). Emotional processing and motivation: In search of brain mechanisms. In A. J. Elliot (Ed.). Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation. (pp. 17-34). New York: Psychology Press. 9. Robinson, T. E. & Berridge, K. C. (2001). Incentive-sensitization and addiction. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 96, 103-114. December 7th Presentation of students’ studies, a final wrap up, and goodbyes. The instructor reserves the right to modify the syllabus.