4th course plan

Stamelos George., Ethnology of Education, 4th course
4th COURSE: Society - Social Stratification - Social Organization - Population Marginalization - Delinquency - Derogation (second part)
3rd Course Plan
2nd Objective: to connect the remaining terms of this section (3rd course) with the
term “Society”
A. Social Stratification
(1) Traditional societies based on kinship
(2) Modern societies based on the position at the production process
(1) a. The Indo-European societies on the basis of three classes:
- Those who were praying (special relationships with higher powers)
- Those who were fighting (protection and supremacy of a society)
- Those who were working.
(1) b. Societies without a state: kinship is determinative (“natural inequality”)
(2) State societies: hierarchy of functions.
(3) we should not forget the ideological and imaginary classification
Warning: because of (2) the importance of education is increased (level, type, class).
B. Social organization
A “simple” definition: internal differentiation of human societies (i.e. not a simple
collection of subjects)
A more scientific definition:
Social organization: consists of social units, more or less stable, more or less
institutionalized, which have relations subjected to an
arrangement (hierarchy, meaning of “power”).
Social organization: kinship, territory, etc.
Social units: kinship groups, rural communities, etc.
Warning: Social Organization is both evolving and changing.
C. Population
o Key factor for a society. Ensures its continuity and strength.
Stamelos George., Ethnology of Education, 4th course
o Key evidence for the “health” of a society: birthrate indicator (for the simple
reproduction of population should be 2.01 children per woman)
o Societies that cannot be reproduced alone or are weakened and extinguished or
are looking elsewhere to be reproduced (immigrants – immigration policies)
o The birth rate is 1.28 (about 35% below the limit of simple reproduction)
o Demographic crisis from the 80s onwards.
o Today, in primary school, are nearly half the children compared to 1970.
D. Derogation- Delinquency - Marginalization
Derogation: non-correspondence with the rule
Delinquency: no respect to the rule
Marginalization: a major violation of the rule.
Overall: Derogation < Delinquency < Marginalization
Note 1: we may have marginalization without having delinquency
Note 2: a major social problem that the Derogation and Delinquency does not
necessarily lead to Marginalization.
3rd Objective: to integrate the educational system in the Society
The compulsory part of the educational system also aims at socialization
Socialization: the process of social reproduction of a community. From the side of the
community, socialization is the transfer of social heritage and culture
of the community from one generation to the other. It is the process of
social production of the new generation. From the side of the
individual, socialization means the internalization of behavior rules,
actions and the value system of a community. Socialization is divided
into primary and secondary, active and passive. Education is a process
of socialization.
Contradiction in Greece today: on one hand, school, a social institution of the State,
socializes all children that are there (Greeks and
immigrants), and on the other hand, state and society
continue to integrate in “us” in terms of “blood”.
Thus, a pupil, child of immigrants, discovers at the end
of high school that doesn’t belong to “us” for which
was socialized!
Stamelos George., Ethnology of Education, 4th course
Risk 1: the rejection of a group of young people living in Greece but are not
considered as Greeks. There is the risk to be led to the margin and hatred (as a
result of rejection).
Risk 2: under the pressure of reality, the granting of Greek citizenship in a large
proportion of immigrants by the Greek state, while they are not accepted by
the Greek society (see the corresponding example of France).
Some questions
1. Why is “kinship” so important primarily in “traditional” societies?
2. Why the importance of education is increased in modern societies?
3. Give an example to show that the type of education has a role in “modern”
4. Give an example to show that the class of education has a role in “modern”
5. Give an example from the Greek reality to show that social organization is
6. With what political measures the birth rate could be improved in Greece?
7. Give a modern example to justify the importance of the population.
8. Give an example of “derogation”.
9. Give an example of “delinquency”.
10. Give an example of “marginalization” that is not “delinquency”
11. Finally, a foreign pupil should or shouldn’t lift the Greek flag and why?
12. For the teaching profession, the existence of immigrants is a positive or
negative development?
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