1. The most abundant chemical group of minerals are A.oxides B.native elements C.silicates D.sulfides
2. Gangue is A.valuable ore minerals B.a type of igneous rock C.sedimentary particles D.waste minerals
E.strategic minerals
3. Electrons have a ? charge. A.positive B.negative C.neutral
4. Aragonite and dolomite are A.halides B.carbonates C.oxides D.silicates E.phosphates
5. Feldspars and quartz are types of A.oxides B.native elements C.silicates D.sulfides E.sulfates
6. Most rocks within the Earth are A.metamorphic B.sedimentary C.igneous
7. ? are formed from ?. A.minerals, rocks, minerals
8. The most common element in the Earth’s crust is A.calcium B.sodium C.silicon D.aluminum E.oxygen
9. Talc, asbestos and graphite are obtained from ? rocks. A.metamorphic B.sedimentary C.igneous
10. Anions have a ? charge. A.negative B.positive
11. The study of landforms is A.sedimentology B.stratigraphy C.geomorphology D.seismology
12. ? rocks are the main source of many nonfuel minerals. A.metamorphic B.sedimentary C.igneous
13. ? rocks form by “solid state reactions” in response to changes in temperature, pressure and the chemical
environment. A.igneous B.sedimentary C.metamorphic
14. ? are gaps in the rock record. A.conformities B.unconformities C.both conformities and unconformities
represent gaps in the rock record
15. Isotopes of a particular element would have a different number of A.protons B.neutrons C.both protons
and neutrons may vary
16. Which of the following would be classified as a strategic mineral? A.manganese B.platinum C.cobalt
D.chromium E.all of the above are strategic minerals
17. ? rocks include intrusive and extrusive rocks. A.metamorphic B.sedimentary C.igneous D.all of the above
include intrusive and extrusive rocks
18. Earth magnetism is believed to be caused by movement in the Earth’s A.crust B.mantle C.core D.all of
these layers in the Earth generate Earth magnetism
19. ? dating would be used for dating 100 million year old volcanic rocks. A.carbon-14 B.potassium-argon
C.both carbon-14 and potassium-argon dating could date 100 million year old volcanic rocks
20. Index fossils A.give an indication of ancient ecologies B.are used for stratigraphic correlation C.give an
indication of plate tectonic configurations D.represent the soft parts of ancient organisms E.represent the
altered hard parts of organisms
21. The study of rock layers is A.petrology B.petrography C.stratigraphy D.paleontology E.sedimentology
22. Shale and limestone are types of ? rocks. A.metamorphic B.sedimentary C.igneous
23. The fundamental rock unit used in mapping is the A.bed B.member C.formation E.supergroup
24. Seismology is the study of A.fossils B.mountain-building C.earthquakes D.volcanoes E.landslides
25. Most rock-forming minerals are A.oxides B.sulfides C.silicates D.native elements E.sulfates
26. A good index fossil should occur during a ? biostratigraphic interval of time. A.short B.long
27. Ka represents ? of years in the radioisotopic time scale. A.thousands B.millions C.billions
28. The atomic nucleus has a ? charge. A.positive B.negative C.neutral
29. Ions are A.charged atoms B.atoms with no mass C.ions are charged atoms with no mass
30. In ? bonding, electrons are shared between atoms. A.covalent B.metallic C.ionic D.electrons are shared
between atoms in each of the above bonding types
31. A "key bed" A.has economic significance used in mapping C.key beds may be useful for
mapping or may be of economic significance
32. Pyrite and galena are A.sulfides B.sulfates C.phosphates D.carbonates E.halides
33. Which of the following is an amphibole? A.augite B.olivine C.mica D.hornblende E.all of the above are
34. Stratification is most characteristic of ? rocks. A.igneous B.metamorphic C.sedimentary
35. Polarity reversals are preserved in ? rocks. A.igneous B.sedimentary C.polarity reversals may be
preserved in either igneous or sedimentary rocks
36. In ?, the tetrahedra may be isolated or form single chains, double chains, sheets, or frameworks.
A.oxides B.sulfides C.silicates D.native elements E.sulfates
37. ? rocks are made from magma. A.sedimentary B.metamorphic C.igneous
38. Magnetite and hematite are ? minerals. A.oxide B.sulfide C.carbonate D.silicate E.sulfate
39. Which of the following is an agent of erosion? A.gravity C.wind D.water E.all of the above are
agents of erosion
40. ? of the critical minerals that the United States needs must be imported. A.a few B.some C.most
41. ? dating techniques yield dates in years before present. A.relative B.absolute C.both of these dating
techniques yield dates in years before present
42. A dike cutting across sedimentary layers would be ? than the sedimentary layers. A.older B.younger cannot determine which would be younger by this information
43. ? was a Scottish gentleman farmer who formulated the concept of "uniformitarianism". A.Lyell
B.Darwin C.Playfair D.Hutton E.Steno
44. Calcite is a ? mineral. A.oxide B.sulfide C.carbonate D.silicate E.sulfate
45. Jovian Planets are ? than Terrestrial Planets. A.smaller B.larger
46. The study of rocks is termed A.petroleum geology B.palynology C.paleontology D.geophysics
47. Quartz is ? in oceanic and mantle rocks. A.common B.rare
48. ? are sheet silicates that are common in continental rocks. A.olivines B.pyroxenes C.amphiboles D.micas
49. More remote galaxies have ? speeds of recession. A.slower B.faster C.galaxies always have the
same speed of recession
50. The Earth’s crust is relatively ? compared to the other Earth layers. A.thin B.thick
51. Jovian Planets have ? moons than Terrestrial Planets. A.fewer B.more
52. Based on the latest Hubble Data, it is believed that the universe is about ? years old. A.4.6 million
B.4.6 billion C.13.7 million D.13.7 billion E.19.2 billion
53. The Earth is about ? billion years old. A.2.4 B.3.1 C.4.04 D.4.4 E.4.6
54. Graphite and diamond are A.oxides B.sulfides C.carbonates D.silicates E.native elements
55. Actualism is related to the concept of A.superposition B.original horizontality C.original lateral
continuity D.cross-cutting relationships E.uniformitarianism
56. Chemical reactions are due primarily to action of the atom’s A.protons B.neutrons C.electrons D.all of the
above equally influence chemical reactions
57. Which of the following is not a Jovian Planet. A.Jupiter B.Saturn C.Uranus D.Neptune E.Pluto
58. Particle size, shape and arrangement define a rock’s A.structure B.texture C.both texture and structure
refer to particle size, shape and arrangement
59. Matching rock units is termed A.chronology B.petrology C.seismology D.paleogeography E.correlation
60. Depletion time is the time it takes to use up about ? percent of the reserves of a mineral at a given rate of
use. A.10 B.20 C.30 D.40 E.80
61. Acid mine drainage is typically produced in mining ? minerals. A.silicate B.oxide C.halide D.sulfide
62. Traditionally, paleontology and stratigraphy have been used primarily for studies of ? geologic time.
A.relative B.absolute C.both relative and absolute geologic time may be established by means of
paleontology and stratigraphy
63. Which of the following may be used as a key bed? A.volcanic ash layer B.glacial deposit C.limestone bed
D.all of the above may be used as key beds
64. ? Jovian planets have ring systems. A.few B.several C.all
65. The Earth's ? is made of iron and nickel. A.crust B.mantle C.core D.all of the above are made of iron and
66. Salt is a common A.halide B.carbonate C.oxide D.silicate E.sulfide
67. ? have one sulfur and four oxygen atoms. A.sulfides B.sulfates C.phosphates D.carbonates E.halides
68. Environmental geology often employs geologists B.geomorphologists C.hydrologists
D.geophysicists E.environmental geology may employ all of the above scientists
69. ? Planets are silica-rich. A.Terrestrial B.Jovian C.both Terrestrial and Jovian planets are silica-rich
70. In ? bonding, electrons are shared. A.ionic B.covalent both ionic and covalent bonding, electrons are
71. The ? consists of olivine-rich silicates. A.crust B.outer core C.inner core D.mantle
72. Chemical behavior is primarily determined by the number of A.neutrons B.protons C.electrons
73. Mineral reserves must have a good ? in order to be mined at a profit. A.quantity B.quality C.location
order to be mined at a profit, mineral reserves must have good quantity, quality and location
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