WildlifeEcol/B & R (2003) Ch21

Wildlife Ecology
Revised 26August 2009
Bolen and Robinson Book (2003) - Ch. 21 - Conservation Biology and Wildlife Management
- formation of “The Wildlife Society” – 1937
- formation of “Society for Conservation Biology” – 1986
- know differences between wildlife management and
conservation biology (Table 21-1)
levels of conservation biology
o genetic diversity
o species diversity
o ecosystem diversity
Examples of Conservation Biology Interacting with Wildlife Management
Population Genetics
- inbreeding depression - we usually hear about this; too much inbreeding can be
detrimental (recessive detrimental genes turn up more frequently)
- outbreeding depression - detrimental to breed with animals not from that area - they
might not be adapted to local conditions
- e.g., ibex - humans did outbreeding, but young were born at the wrong
time of year - resulted in lost of ibex population in Tatra
Mountains of Czechoslovakia
- cheetahs - were inbred populations; must have went through bottleneck; all remaining
cheetahs have very similar genetics; abnormal sperm is common, low sperm count
- Florida panther - lower semen volume, abnormal sperm, reduced sperm motility; this
population is more inbred than populations out west
Wolves of Isle Royale (in Lake Superior)
- numbers went down, then back up
- they thought it was due to inbreeding, but now they are not really sure; reasons are
probably more complex -- read
Northern Spotted Owl
- need old growth forests
- see Fig. 21-4, pp.475- big controversy - logging vs owls
- mention Endangered Species Act
- mention island biogeography
- see 5 key principles on p. 476
Conservation in Other Lands
- Costa Rica - has set aside 12% of its land for national parks and wildlife reserves
Island Biogeography
- Species-Area Relationship
- larger locations are:
more likely to be colonized by new species
less likely to experience extinctions in their biota
- Distance
closer to mainland, more chance of species getting there
number of species reaching island decreases as distance from mainland
increases (know Fig. 21-7 -fig of island biogeography)
- Corridors
- see (and know) Table 21-3, p. 484
- corridors connect populations and habitats
- supposed to help gene flow, but can also allow the transmission of disease, predators,
exotics, etc.
Songbirds and Fragmented Forests
- edge vs interior - see Fig. 21-11 - in smaller areas, you have proportionately more edge and less
interior habitat
- wood warblers are interior species
- with fragmentation, more edge exists; cowbird parasitism is on the rise because they like open
areas (cowbirds are brood parasites on endangered Kirtland's warbler and other species)
Minimum Viable Population = MVP
- National Forest Management Act of 1976 - charged USFS to maintain "viable populations"
for all species of vertebrates living in the nation's national forests (so term MVP got publicity)
- MVP is not a magic number, but they use 50 for short-term survival (to limit inbreeding); 500
for long-term maintenance
- MVP for any given species in a given habitat is:
"the smallest isolated population having a 99% chance of
remaining extant for 1000 years despite the foreseeable effects of demographic,
environmental, and genetic stochasticity and natural catastrophes"
- mentions California condor, red-cockaded woodpecker (Hurricane Hugo destroyed nest trees and
habitat in S. Carolina)
Global Warming –read; Human Population - too high