Geology 364: Plate Tectonics

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Geology 4800/7800 Review
(Review Homeworks 1 through 3 and Labs 1 and 2!!)
I.
Plate Tectonics
A. Framework of Plate Tectonics
1. Defining an Euler Poles
2. Know Euler’s Theorem for motion on a sphere
3. Know the necessary parameters (data) to determine an Euler pole
4. Know how to calculate the position of an Euler pole given
two points defining an arc on a sphere
5. Know how to use the law of cosines and law of sines for a sphere
6. Define a great circle
7. Define a small circle
8. Describe a transform fault
9. Understand the relationship between the isochron velocity (Viso) and the true
plate velocity
8. Define sea floor spreading
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
II.
Plate Motions
Define the term triple junction
Give an example of an unstable triple junction
Know the naming convention used in defining triple junctions
Be able to solve triple junction vector problems (i.e. Homework #1)
Seismology
A. Earthquake Seismology
1. Know what P waves and S waves are, what their particle motions look like, and which travels
faster.
2. Understand the meaning of Fermat's principle, Snell's law, and the Law of Reflection.
3. Know two definitions for the ray parameter.
4. Know the difference between SV and SH waves.
5. Know the two different types of surface waves
6. Know what the difference between group and phase velocity is, and what dispersion is.
7. Be able to sketch fault geometries from "beach ball" plots and vice versa.
8. Be able to sketch and identify all of the phases in Fig 4.15
9. Know how to solve for a focal mechanism using first motions
10. Know the relationship between wavelength, velocity, period, and frequency
11. Given a three component seismogram, be able to locate it (determine distance, azimuth, and
approximate depth)
B. Refraction Seismology
1. Be able to diagram and explain what causes a triplication in a travel time curve.
2. Be able to derive the travel time equation for a direct wave, head wave, and reflected wave for a
single layer velocity model
3. Be able to define and derive and equation for the cross-over distance
4. Be able to begin to derive the travel time equation for a head wave traveling along a dipping
interface
5. Be able to solve for the dip when given the forward and reverse velocities (and V1)
6. Know the travel time equation for an N-layer model
7. Be able to derive the travel time equation for a 2 or 3 layer over half space
8. Be able to interpret a velocity model (i.e what do the velocities mean)
9. Design an refraction experiment given a target depth
C. Reflection Seismology
1. Define the terms: NMO, DMO, CDP, CMP, Static Correction, Migration, Shot Gather, and Statio
Gather
2. Derive the equation for the NMO correction
3. Derive the equation for the DMO correction
4. Describe the process of CDP/CMP stacking
5. Know what a rolling and fixed spread is and how to design a seismic reflection experiment
6. Know the travel time equation for an N-layer model
7. Be able to convert two-way travel time to depth
8. Be able to solve for the Velocity and Depth of a reflector given a hyperbolic move-out formula
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