(France, 1880's)
Pointillism is a style of painting in which small distinct points of primary colors create
the impression of a wide selection of secondary and intermediate colors.
The technique relies on the perceptive ability of the eye and mind of the viewer to
mix the color spots into a fuller range of tones
Main Representatives:
Notable Artists
Chuck Close
Henri-Edmond Cross
John Roy
Georges-Pierre Seurat
Paul Signac
Maximilien Luce
(France, 1850’s)
Realism in the visual arts is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life,
without embellishment or interpretation. The term is also used to describe works of
art which, in revealing a truth, may emphasize the ugly or sordid.
The popularity of realism grew with the introduction of photography - a new visual
source that created a desire for people to produce things that look “objectively real”.
Main Representatives:
Gustave Courbet
Jean-Franзois Millet
Rosa Bonheur
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
Edouard Manet
Edgar Degas
Friedrich Wasmann
Friedrich von Amerling
Ferdinand Georg Waldmuller
Adolf Menzel
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema
William Holman Hunt
Thomas Woolner
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
William Morris
Simeon Solomon
Evelyn de Morgan
Thomas Eakins
Winslow Homer
(France, 19th)
Impressionism is a movement in painting that originated in France in the late 19th
century. Impressionist painters were considered radical in their time because they
broke many of the rules of picture-making set by earlier generations. They found
many of their subjects in life around them rather than in history, which was then the
accepted source of subject matter.
The style of impressionist painting has several characteristic features. To achieve the
appearance of spontaneity, impressionist painters used broken brushstrokes of
bright, often unmixed colors. This practice produced loose or densely textured
surfaces rather than the carefully blended colors and smooth surfaces favored by
most artists of the time. The impressionists also simplified their compositions,
omitting detail to achieve a striking overall effect.
Main Representatives:
Frédéric Bazille
Gustave Caillebotte
Mary Cassatt
Paul Cézanne
Edgar Degas
Armand Guillaumin
Édouard Manet
Claude Monet
Berthe Morisot
Camille Pissarro
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Alfred Sisley
(Late 19th - Early 20th Century)
Expressionism developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Expressionism was opposed to academic standards that had prevailed in Europe.
Landmarks of this movement were violent colors and exaggerated lines that helped
contain intense emotional expression. Application of formal elements is vivid, jarring,
violent, or dynamic.
Main Representatives:
Vincent van Gogh
James Ensor
Edvard Munch
Oskar Kokoschka
Egon Schiele
Marc Chagal
Salvador Dali
Henri Matisse
Amadeo Modigliani
Pablo Picasso
Paul Gauguin
(United States and Europe, 2000’s)
Hyperrealism is a genre of painting resembling a high resolution photograph.
The term is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United
States and Europe that has recently developed since the early 2000s.
Hyperrealist painters and sculptors use photographic images as a reference source from
which to create a more definitive and detailed rendering.
Main Representatives:
Robert Bechtle
Jacques Bodin
Claudio Bravo
Ian Hornak
Jorge Izquierdo
Luding Meng
Rob Milliken
Bert Monroy
Ron Mueck
Goran Mustapic
Alicia St. Rose
Glennray Tutor
Luciano Ventrone
Paul John Wonner