PUNCTUATION 1/ Video Highlights

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PUNCTUATION 1/ Video Highlights!
ENDMARKS:
Period (used for):
>abbreviations
>end of sentences
Question mark (used when):
>asking a question
>showing sarcasm/ disbelief
>NOT used in statements like
“I wonder…”
Exclamation point
>Use these ONLY when necessary.
>These are to end a sentence with
extreme emotion.
MIDDLE OF THE SENTENCE MARKS:
The COMMA has 4 main uses:
Use #1: To separate
items in a list.
Provide an example
of
Use #1:
Use #2: To separate
introductory clauses
and/or phrases
Do not use commas to separate a list when we are listing a bunch of
adjectives that each belong to a different category and are all positioned
right before their noun!
Interjection: a phrase that shows strong emotion.
Clauses: these word groupings HAVE a subject and a predicate and can
stand alone OR lean on a complete sentence for support.
 Independent Clauses- they are “INDEPENDENT”- meaning they
can STAND ON THEIR OWN! They are otherwise known as
COMPLETE SENTENCES!!!
 Dependent Clauses: these have a subject and predicate but
CANNOT stand alone. They “depend” on help from another
independent clause (complete sentence).
Phrases: these groups of closely related words DO NOT have both the
subject and predicate- and they usually function as a single unit in a
sentence.
Provide an Example
of Use #2:
Use #3: Isolate
interrupting words or
phrases.
Commas can be used to interrupt a sentence already in progress.
Types of interrupters:
 nouns of direct address: words that are used to specifically address
the person being spoken to.
 Appositive phrase: a word or phrase that restates or elaborates on
another noun in the sentence.
 Non-restrictive clauses: a dependent clause that elaborates on a
noun in a sentence but IS NOT crucial to understanding what’s
going on.
 THE FOLLOWING INTERRUPTER DOES NOT GET A SENTENCE!
 Restrictive clauses: used when the noun that’s being referred to
needs the clause in order to make it’s meaning clear… these are
ESSENTIAL tidbits so NO COMMA is needed w/ these.
Example of Use #3:
Use #4: Vary the
pace/ tone of a
sentence for STYLE.
Example of Use #4:
You can use a comma to connect 2 complete thoughts if you use a
conjunction. (comma, conjunction). This is ONLY when connecting 2
complete thoughts (independent clauses.)
The Semi colon uses:
1. Use a semicolon when connecting 2
complete (and balanced) thoughts
(independent clauses) and you DO
NOT want to use a conjunction.
Give an example of using a semi colon
properly according to #1:
2. See if you should use one by giving
your sentence the FURTHERMORE
test.
3. Use a semi colon to separate items in
a list that already contain commas.
>The semi colon REPLANCES the conjunction!!!
>Both sides of the semi colon MUST be able to stand
alone!!
If you can use the word “furthermore” in the spot where
the semi-colon would go, and it makes sense, then you
know that you are supposed to use it! (both sides are
balanced!)
Ex:
Colon Uses:
1. can link 2 independent clauses (complete
sentences)
2. When in doubt about whether or not to
use a colon, give your sentence the “AND
HERE IT IS” or “AND HERE THEY ARE”
test.
when a colon IS used, it ALWAYS comes after a
complete sentence (indep. Clause).
If you can say this, after an independent clause, and
what follows MAKES SENSE- than you can use a
colon!
Example of a properly used colon:
PUNCTUATION II VIDEO HIGHLIGHTS:
Dashes
1. They interrupt a sentence to introduce a
dramatic element.
2. Do NOT overuse these!! If you think that
you might want/ need to use one, give it
the test
HYPHENS: 4 uses
1. compound words
Ex:
2. turn word groups into adjectives
Ex:
3. write #s
Ex:
4. show line breaks
Ex:
Apostrophe rules!
1. If the word DOESN’T end in an “s” then just
add the ‘s
2. If the word is SINGULAR and ENDS IN AN
“S”, you STILL just add an ‘s
3. If the word is PLURAL and ends in an “s”,
you simply add an apostrophe to the end of
the word!
4. Use an apostrophe to pluralize letters.
5. Use an apostrophe to pluralize numbers.
Ex:
See if you can say “OH YOU ARE GOING TO LOVE
THIS, ARE YOU READY, BECAUSE HERE IT IS”
before adding the dash. If this makes sense- dash
away!
Ex:
Ex:
Ex:
Ex:
Ex:
6. In the case of contractions v. possessives,
(ie. Its v. it’s) you must determine whether
the word is being used as a possessive or a
contraction. (it’s = contraction for it is.)
Parenthesis
1. NEVER put a comma before an opening parenthesis. (You may, however, use one
AFTER as needed.)
2. It does not matter what goes inside the parenthesis.
3. Put the period INSIDE the parenthesis IF it is a complete sentence INSIDE the parenthesis.
Put the period OUTSIDE if the parenthesis is in the middle of a sentence.
Quotation Marks: when to use!
Direct
this is word for word what someone else
Quotes
has said or written. (note- if you are
paraphrasing, you do NOT use quotes!)
Writing titles Use them for songs, poems, magazine
articles, and short stories.
Defined
Surround a word or phrase that is being
words/
defined or specifically referred to as a
phrases
word.
Sarcasm or
When you want to highlight your word
irony
for impact.
Ex:
Ex:
Ex.
Ex:
Rules for quotation marks and other forms of punctuation!
1. Never put another form of punctuation after an opening quotation mark.
2. commas come BEFORE direct quotations.
3. commas and periods go INSIDE the closing quotation mark.
4. Colons, semi-colons, and dashes are ALWAYS placed outside quoted material.
5. Question marks and exclamation points can either go inside the quotes or outside. To
decide, look at the quoted material separate from the rest of the sentence and decide:
>if the quoted material needs the mark, it goes inside.
>if it is the SENTENCE that needs it- than it goes outside!
A few last marks…
1. BRACKETS- used with an editorial comment, which is a piece of information that the
writer wants to include in a direct quotation that ISN’T part of the quotation.
(commentary/ explanation.)
2. The SLASH- this is used for 3 purposes>to separate lines of poetry
>to show a choice
>to write fractions
3. Ellipses (…) ONLY 3! No more, no less! These are used for 3 purposes:
>to indicate omitted text
>when trailing off
>long pauses
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