Handout # 3- 1 Facilitator: Ana Guisela Chupina, Ph.D. Multiculturally Infused Teaching and Learning: A Workshop for Faculty in Diverse Disciplines Alliant International University Edward T. Hall’s Conception of Culture According to Context High Context Low Context Time Polychronic Loose schedules, flux, multiple simultaneous activities. Last-minute changes of important plans. Time is less tangible. Monochronic Tight schedules, one event at a time, linear. Importance of being on time. Time is more tangible (e.g., it is spent, it is wasted, and it is “money”). Space & Tempo High-Sync Synchrony, moving in harmony with others and with nature, is consciously valued. Social rhythm has meaning. Low-Sync Synchrony is less noticeable. Social rhythm is underdeveloped. Reasoning Comprehensive Logic Knowledge is gained through intuition, spiral logic, and contemplation. Importance of feelings. Linear Logic Knowledge is gained through analytical reasoning (e.g., the Socratic method). Importance of words. Verbal Messages Restricted Codes Elaborate Codes “Shorthand speech,” reliance on nonverbal and Verbal amplification through extended talk or contextual clues. Overall emotional quality more writing. important than meaning of particular words. Little reliance on nonverbal or contextual cues. Economical, fast, efficient communication that is Doesn’t foster cohesiveness but can change satisfying, slow to change; fosters interpersonal rapidly. cohesiveness and provides for human need for Provides for human need to adapt and change. social stability. Stress on argument and persuasion; being direct. Stress on social integration and harmony; being polite. Handout # 3- 2 High Context Low Context Social Roles Tight Social Structure Individual’s behavior is predictable; conformity or role expectations. Loose Social Structure Behavior is unpredictable; role behavior expectations are less clear. Interpersonal Relations Group is Paramount Clear status distinctions (e.g., age, rank, and position), strong distinctions between insiders and outsiders. Human interactions are emotionally based, person oriented. Stronger personal bonds, bending of individual interests for sake of relationships. Cohesive, highly interrelated human relationships, completed actions chains. Members of group are first and foremost. Individual is Paramount Status is more subtle; distinctions between insiders and outsiders are less important. Human interactions are functionally based; approach is specialized. Fragile interpersonal bonds due to geographic mobility. Fragmented, short-term human relationships, broken action chains when relationship is not satisfying. Individuals are first, groups come second. Social Organization Personalized Law and Authority Customary procedures and whom one knows are important. Oral agreements are binding. In face of unresponsive bureaucracies, must be an insider or have a “friend” to make things happen (e.g., going through the “back door”). People in authority are personally and truly responsible for actions of every subordinate. Procedural Law and Authority Procedures, law and policies are more important than whom one knows. Written contracts are binding. Policy rules, unresponsive bureaucracy. People in authority try to pass the buck. Impersonal. Legal procedures. Source: Bennett, C. I. (2003). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson.