Style Sheet for The Minnesota Archaeologist 2006

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Style Sheet for The Minnesota Archaeologist 2006
Acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page1
Cultural Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 2
General Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 5
Geological Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 7
Journal Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 7
Raw Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 8
Guidelines for Text Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 9
Bibliographic Citations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .page 10
Acronyms:
AMS = accelerated mass spectrometry
AMSL = above median sea level
BLM = Bureau of Land Management
BWCAW = Boundary Waters Canoe Area
Wilderness
CADD = computer aided design and drawing
CCC = Civilian Conservation Corps
CmBD = centimeters below datum
CmBP = centimeters below paleosurface
CmBS = centimeters below surface
CRM = cultural resource management
DNR = Department of Natural Resources
DRG = digital raster graphics
ELT = environmental land type
fasl = fathoms above sea level
FERC = Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission
HABS = Historic American Buildings Survey
HAER = Historic American Engineering
Record
HRM = heritage resource management
INAA = instrumental neutron activation
analysis
IRRRB = Iron Range Research and
Rehabilitation Bureau
LLHSP = Leech Lake Heritage Sites Program
MAP = Museum Archaeology Program
(Wisconsin Historical Society)
MCR = misclassification rate
MHS = Minnesota Historical Society
MnDNR = Minnesota Department of Natural
Resources
MnDOT = Minnesota Department of
Transportation
MNI = minimum number of individuals
MnLMIC = Minnesota Land Management
Information Center
MnSAS = Minnesota Statewide Archaeological
Survey
MnSHPO = Minnesota State Historic
Preservation Office
MSPCRMP = Minnesota State Park Cultural
Resource Management Program
MSUM = Minnesota State University
Moorhead
MTHARS = Minnesota Trunk Highway
Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey
NISP = number of identified specimens
OHM = ordinary high-water mark
PIT = Passport in Time program
REE = rare earth element
SAS = Statewide Archaeological Survey
SHPO = State Historic Preservation Office
SIA = Society for Industrial Archaeology
SLRP = St. Louis River Hydroelectric Project
UMD = University of Minnesota at Duluth
UMN = University of Minnesota
UTM = Universal Transverse Mercator
WisDOT = Wisconsin Department of
Transportation
WPA = Works Progress Administration (19361940); later Work Projects Administration
1
Cultural Terms: Use period, phase, culture complex or cultural complex, focus, point; but Culture,
Composite, Complex, Series, Ware and Tradition with cultural names. Cultural, geological, and
lithic terms are not all capitalized as Chicago but have been determined from most-current use and
attitude in current professional journals as advised by professional authorities: cultural terms = D.
Schoenholz; geological terms = B. Erickson and A. Redline of the Science Museum of Minnesota;
lithic materials = K. Bakken. In some cases, specific cultural terms that have made their way into the
common literature as used by previous authors have been retained when referring to their work.
Cultural Time Periods in General and in Order:
Paleoindian (Early, Late) period
Archaic (Early, Middle, Late) period
Woodland(s) (Early, Middle, Late) period, but late Middle Woodland
Mississippian period
Contact period, pre-Contact period
Historic period
Fur Trade period or era
Victorian (Early, Late) period or era
But Specifically:
Initial Woodland, Terminal Woodland, Plains Woodland
Late Prehistoric Period (from Dobbs or Anfinson only)
late prehistoric for all others
Holocene
mid-Holocene
Cultural Terms
Alberta Complex
Allamakee phase [NE Iowa]
Altern Mound
Angelo Punctate(d) pottery
Arvilla Complex
St. Croix Ware
St. Croix Stamped Series
St. Croix Comb-stamped
Avonlea point
Besant point
Bird Lake Ware
Blackduck ceramics
Early Blackduck
Black Sand phase [Illinois]
Praire phase [Wisconsin variant]
Prairie Bossed
Prairie Corded Stamped
Prairie Cordmarked
Prairie Incised
Prairie Linear Stamped
Prairie Punctated
Bradbury Brook site
Brainerd ceramics
Horizontal Corded
Reed Stamped
Plain
Cord-wrapped-Object stamped
Angled stamp
Cambria ceramics
Caribou Lakes Complex
Ceramic/Mound Stage (of Woodlands
Tradition)
Clam River Ware
Co-Influence Sphere Model
Danker Shouldered point
Dunken point
Durst point
Eastern Archaic (Early, Middle, Late)
Eastern Triangular point
Elk Lake Culture
Effigy Mound Tradition
Eastman phase [SW Wisconsin]
2
Keyes phase [NE Iowa]
Fox Lake Horizontal-Cordmarked ceramics
Fox Lake Verticle-Cordmarked
fluted point pattern
Gibson
Gull Lake Net-impressed
Hanna point
Hanneford Ware
Havana Hopewell Tradition
Havana Ware
Havana Broad-Trailed
Havana Cordmarked
Havana Cord-wrapped-stickimpressed
Havana Plain
Havana Zoned Dentate Stamped
Naples Ovoid Stamped
Naples Straight Dentate
McGregor phase [NE Iowa]
Trempealeau phase [SW Wisconsin]
High Island mound group
HiLo Point
Hopewell Interaction Sphere
Howard Lake focus [Havana-related,
Minnesota]
Indian Isle phase [SW Wisconsin]
Prairie Incised
Initial Middle Missouri ceramics
Kathio Focus
Kathio Series
Lake Benton Vertical-Cordmarked Ware
Lake Forest Archaic
lanceolate point pattern
La Moille Thick
Large Corner-notched Point System
Laurel ceramics, Laurel Ware
Linn Ware
Lane Farm Cord-impressed
Lane Farm Stamped
Levsen Dentate Stamped
Levsen Stamped
Linn Cord-wrapped-stick
Spring Hollow Cordmarked
Spring Hollow Plain
Llano
Madison Triangular point
Madison Ware
Madison Cord-impressed
Madison Fabric-impressed
Nininger Cord-wrapped-stickimpressed
Madison Plain
Madison Punctated
Bremmer Triangular Punctated
Malmo, Malmo-Kern [Havana-related,
Minnesota]
Manker point
Mill phase [SW Wisconsin]
Milleville phase [SW Wisconsin]
Monona Stemmed
Northeastern Plains Village Ceramics
Ogechie Series
Old Copper Culture, artifacts
Onamia Series
Oxbow point
Paleoindian point
Parkdale Eared point
Pelican Lake point
Plains Archaic (Early, Middle, Late)
Plains Side-notched
Plains Village component
Plano
Pokegama Smooth [Havana-related]
Prairie Archaic (Early, Middle, Late)
Prairie Side-notched
Psinomani
Red Wing locality
Ryan phase [NE Iowa]
Marion Thick Ware
Spring Hollow Incised
Samantha point
Sandy Lake
Cordmarked
Smooth
Stamped
Scottsbluff
Selkirk Composite
Alexander Fabric-impressed ceramics
(SK)
Cemetery Point Corded Ware (SK)
Clearwater Lake Complex (SK)
3
Clearwater Lake Punctate(d) (SK)
Fox Valley Stemmed point (SK)
Francois Punctate(d) (SK)
Kame Hills Complex (SK)
Kisis Complex (SK)
McKean Complex (SK)
Nipawin Horizontal (SK)
Pehonin Complex (SK)
Sturgeon Falls Fabric-impressed
ceramics (SK)
Shield Archaic
Small Side-notched Point System of the
Northern Plains
Snake River Incised [Havana-related,
Minnesota]
Snyder’s point
Sorg focus
Sorg Banded Dentate
Sorg Banded Trailed
Sorg Zoned Dentate
St. Croix Stamped Series
Steuben Expanding-stem(med)
Sturgeon Punctated
Vach Trailed [Havana-related]
Waskish Vertical, Punctate
Weaver focus [Illinois]
Waubesa Contracting-stem(med)
Winnepeg River Complex
4
General Terms:
1. Terms of more than one element spelled open here should not be hyphenated when found as an
adjective term preceding a noun unless so indicated.
2. See Raw Material List for spellings and capitalization of all specific raw materials.
A-horizon (B, C etc.)
A.D.; B.C.; B.P.
Altithermal period
aluminum (Al)
Alundum
American Bottom
Arcadia Ridge Archaeological District
artwork(s)
Assiniboine
bifacial core technology
Big Woods, the
bioturbation
bipolar
body sherds
bone knapping
bone work, working
Border Lakes region
bottom-feeders
bowfin
burnt bone
by-products
14
C date
campsite(s)
Canadian Shield
canvasback duck
catalog, cataloguing
catlinite
Central Deciduous Lakes region
cesium (Cs)
chalcedony
chert
chipped stone
chromium (Cr)
clamshell
cleithra
comb-stamped [adj]
comb stamping
compass
compel, compelling
contact, precontact, postcontact
copper mining [n], but copper-mining [adj]
copper work
copper working
cordmarked
cord-roughened
cord roughening
cord-wrapped
cord-wrapped-stick
core-flake technology
core reduction [n], but core-reduction [adj]
cottontail rabbit
crisscross
cross mends
cross-reference
cross sections
cuesta
cutmarks
database
data set
data sheet
downcutting
downriver
drawdown (s)
Driftless Area
edge modification
edge-modified
epipedon
endscraper
escarpment
Euroamerican
europium (Eu)
fabric-impressed
field map [n], but field-mapped [v or adj]
field notes
field walker(s)
field school
fieldwork
findspot
finescreen
fine-grained [adj before nouns only]
fire-cracked rock
fish bone
flintknapper, flintknapping
5
floodplain
follow-up (n, adj)
footwear
forb
freehand
freeze-dried
freshwater [adj]
fur-trading [adj]
geoarchaeological
geologic
Glacial Lake Agassiz, Lake Agassiz
gray
Great Depression
Great Plains
grit-tempered
ground stone
ground truth [v]ground-truthing
Gunflint Range
hammerstone
hand-held
hazelnut
heat-treated [adj before nouns only]
heat treatment
hide worker, hide working
hinge fracture [n], but hinge-fracture [adj]
Historical Records Survey for Minnesota
[WPA, 1930s, report 1941 84 pp.]
horizontal-corded
hunter-gatherer [n, adj]
Hypsithermal period
in-house
interglacial
iron ore [n], but iron-ore [adj]
krotovina
labeled
Lake Winnibigoshish
Lake Winnipegosis, Manitoba
layoff [n], but lay off [v]
lanthanum (La)
largemouth bass
life-style
limestone
lithic workshop [n], but lithic-workshop [adj]
man-made
mapmaker, mapmaking
Mesabi Range
meltwater
mesic
MHS Institutional Archives (Archives)
Midwest
mineralogic
Mississippi Headwaters, Headwaters
Mississippi River headwaters
Mississippi River valley
Mississippi Valley
mollisol, mollic
Mound Builder Theory, but mound builder(s),
mound-builder [adj]
multidirectional
multi-use
muskellunge
near-rim sherd, near-rim
net-impressed
non-chipped stone
North American Grasslands [Borchert 1950]
north central
North Shore [Superior]
northeastern plains
Northern Plains
northwestern
Northwestern Archaeological Survey (NAS)
[Hill and Lewis, 1880s]
northwestern plains
obsidian
offsite
Ojibwe
onsite
outwash
Paleoindian
parallel-sided
Phase I (or II or III) mitigation
pipestone
plains, but Great Plains
Pleiades
Pleistocene (early, middle, late)
postglacial
postmold
prairie-forest border
Prairie Lake region
prehistoric
projectile point
protohistoric
Psammentic Eutroboralf soil
quarter-section
Quetico-Superior Underwater Research Project
rare earth element (REE)
raw material analysis
red clay
6
resorbed
rim sherd(s)
rights-of-way
Red Wing locality
Rochester Till Plain
run-off
samarium (Sm)
sandstone, but e.g. Hixton Silicified Sandstone
sand-tempered
seawater
Second World War, World War II, WWII
semi-aquatic
sheetwash
shell-tempered
short-lived
side-notched
siltstone
slopewash
smallmouth bass
Solum
south central
southwestern
step fracture [n], but step-fracture [adj]
stoneworking
streambed
subconoidal
subadult
subfamily
tercentenary
terrigenous
thermoluminescence dating
thin section [n], but thin-section [adj]
thong-paddled (Neumann)
thumbnail scraper(s)
time frame
tool kit
toolmaker, toolmaking
totaled
trace element [n], but trace-element [adj]
tri-state
Upper Great Lakes
Upper Midwest
Upper Mississippi, Upper Mississippi River
Upper Mississippi Valley
upriver
use wear [n], but use-wear [adj]
walkover [n, adj], but walk over [v]
ware (but Ware when used with proper noun, as
Madison Ware)
waterfowl
watershed
Western Aspen Area
Western Upland province
White-tailed deer
woodworking
workshop
workstations
xertic
Geological Terms:
Animikian Formation
Anoka Sand Plain
Bagley Outwash Plain
Bemidji Sand Plain
Cedar Vally Formation, but formation
Cummingsville Member, but member
Des Moines drift
Des Moines lobe
St. Louis sublobe
Driftless Area
Galena Formation, but formation
Golden Valley Formation
Holocene (Early, Middle, Late)
Ice Age (last one only; use “ice age(s)” for
earlier episodes)
Little Ice Age
Menahga Soil Series
Oneota Formation
Ordovician age (Upper, Middle, Lower)
Pleistocene era
Prairie du Chien group
Rainy-Superior lobe
Rapid Member [Cedar Valley Formation]
Shakopee Formation
Spillville Formation
Waconia-Waseca moraine
Wapsipinicon group
Wisconsin glaciation (Early, Middle, Late)
Prairie du Chien Terrace, but Terrace
Journals:
The Minnesota Archaeologist
The Wisconsin Archeologist
7
Raw Materials List:
agate
agatized wood
algal chert
Alma Quartzite
Animikie Silicates
Arcadia Quartzite
arenaceous chert
argillite
argillite-quartzite
baked shale
Barron County Pipestone or Cooperite (Barron
Silicified Siltstone)
Bayport Chert
Bijou Hills Quartzite
Bijou Hills Silicified Sediment
Biwabik Silica
Brandon Flint
brown chalcedony
Burlington Chert
Cathead Chert
Cedar Valley Chert
Cedar Valley Jasperoid
chalcedony
Cobdon/Gondola Chert
Cochrane Chert
drusy quartzite
felsite
fired brick
fossilized wood
Fusulinid Chert
Galena Chert
gold chalcedony
Grand Meadow Chert
green recrystallized chert
Gunflint Silica
Hixton Quartzite
Hudson Bay Lowland Chert
jasper
Jasper Taconite
Jaspilite
Kakabeka Chert
Kakabeka Quartzite
Knife Lake Siltstone
Knife River Chalcedony
Knife River Flint
Lake of the Woods Chert
Lake of the Woods Rhyolite
Lake Superior Agate
light brown chalcedony
Maquoketa Chert
metamorphosed siltstone
Moline Chert
Moss Agate
Natural Brick
Nehawka Flint
obsidian
Oneota Chert
oolitic jasper
Pebble Chert
petrified wood
porcellanite
porous quartzite
Powder River Chert
Prairie du Chien Chert
pseudoquartzite
quartz
quartzite
recrystallized rhyolite
Red River Chert
rhyolite
Root River Chert
Selkirk Chert
Shakopee Chert
Shell Rock Chert
silicified shale
silicified wood
siltstone
Silver Hill Quartzite
Silver Mound Quartzite
Sioux Conglomerate Jasper
Sioux Quartzite
Swan River Chert
taconite
Taconite Jasper
Tongue River Silica
Tongue River Silicified Sediment
waxy brown chert
West Patricia Chert
8
Guidelines for Text Style:
1. Use “” for defined terms instead of italics.
2. No abbreviations (%, &, etc.) in text or
table/figure titles, but okay in parentheses or
tabular matter.
3. Use comma in numbers over 999 (4, 356)
except in dates; then do not use comma under
10,000 (9999 B.P.).
4. Spell out one through nine; integers for
other. Exception 1: use integers for all
measurement expressions (...1 x 1 meter
square). Exception 2: spell out all numbers
beginning a sentence.
5. Spell out all ordinal numbers (seventeenth
century).
6. Do not hyphenate adjectives formed with
measurement numbers (20 mile hike).
7. Use m for meter, g for gram, cm for
centimeter etc. including as the last word in a
sentence (optional).
8. Citations for specific parts of articles or
books use “:chap.” or “:fig.” or “:table” but
“:623-640” (for pages). When quoting material
in line or block, [ ] in original become ( ); [ ]
are reserved for comments from current author,
e.g. [sic]. Drop ellipses preceding introductory
¶ in block quotes or before opening words of
quote in run-ins, but retain for missing material
preceding subsequent ¶s. Appropriate
punctuation closed up at end of sentence before
3 ellipses: end?#.#.#./end.#.#.#.
9. Hyphenate “-like” words for proper nouns
and words with more than three syllables, but
close up everything else (Alberta-like, but
chertlike).
10. Use terminal comma except in author
citations (including title credits).
11. See Chicago 7:39-41 for capitalization of
generic terms used with topographic place
names:
Hudson River
Hudson River valley
Hudson and Mississippi rivers
the Rivers Hudson and Mississippi
Mississippi Headwaters
Mississippi River headwaters
12. Apply system of #11 above to geological
terms as well, but not political – e.g. countries.
13. Page numbers must be included in all
direct quotation citations but are optional in
other text references – author’s preference.
Use “Author year:xx-xx.”
14. Hyphenate more, little, best, long, etc. (non
ly adverbs) with adjectives or participles (not
other adverbs) before noun only (Chicago
Table 6.1): ...best-loved person, ...moreeducated employees; but: ...person best loved
for his..., ...employees were most educated
when... Exception 1: do not hyphenate if
another descriptor is included: ...very best
loved person, ...imminently more educated
employee. Exception 2: high- and lowshould be hyphenated after the noun as well:
...presentation was high-powered. Exception 3:
omit hyphen if adjective or participle modifies
a proper noun or a noun phrase… late
Pleistocene era river; … early Middle Archaic
point…
15. It is okay to start a sentence with an
acronym if the referent is clear and has been
previously spelled out at least one time in the
same article.
16. No comma after second element in address
when there are only two elements:
…in London, England in the year…
…at 12 North Grant Street, London,
England, in the year…
17. Use comma after introductory phrases of
more than four words.
18. B.C. and B.P. numbers precede the letters,
A.D. numbers follow the letters
300 B.C.
3000 B.P.
9
A.D. 400
19. Zoological families (Artiodactyla) are
capitalized but referent terms are not
(artiodactyl).
20. Multiple text citations should be left in
order as author provided. (Chi. 15.27)
21. Use “et al.” with three or more authors in a
text citation.
Bibliographic Citations:
1. Personal communications should be cited in
the text in parentheses only.
2. Report titles, theses, and dissertations are in
italics unless the word “unpublished” is used.
The End of an Era. M.A. thesis,
Department of Anthropology,
University of Minnesota, Duluth.
Hills. M.A. thesis, Department of
Geology, University of Iowa, Des
Moines. Unpublished.
3. “Paper presented at...” titles are not in
italics.
4. Capitalize all words over three letters long
in titles.
5. When a volume in a multivolume work is
named:
The Mississippi River and Its Source.
Minnesota Historical Society
Collections, Vol. 7.
6. When a volume in a multivolume work is
unnamed:
Minnesota Historical Society
Collections, Volume 7.
8. Use “Publication No. XX” when possible
(see 7 above example), but number can be
eliminated as long as date is provided. Don’t
spell out “No.”
9. Use commas between all authors cited in a
single reference, including only two.
10. Reports, series, occasional publications, or
reprint series all as 7 above except use “,
Volume XX.” For reprint series.
11. Where italic terms (eg., species) show up
in italic titles, leave terms in italic and
underline as well.
12. Shorten authors names to initials only and
close up: Anfinson, S.F.
Other Examples:
(report without series title) Year. Title.
Report No. xx, Department of Cultural
Investigation, Chippewa National Forest,
Duluth.
(second or later editions) Year. Title. 4th
edition.
Year. Title. Revised
and expanded edition.
(editor instead of author) Harmon, A.T.
(editor)
(newspaper, no author) Newspaper Name.
Year. Month, Day.
(newspaper, author) Author. Year. Article
Title if Possible. Newspaper Name. Month,
Day. / or Month. Day pp. xx-xx.
7. Titles in a series are italicized but the series
is not:
The Minnesota River. Minnesota
Archaeological Society Occasional
Publications No. 13, Minneapolis.
10
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