Key Area 1.6 - Genetic Engineering Exercise 4 1. In 1997 the USA planted 8.2 million hectares of land with genetically engineered crops. By 1998, this had increased to 20.5 million hectares. What was the percentage increase in the area sown between 1997 and 1998? A 12.3% B 66% C 150% D 166.7% 1 2. Genetic engineering can be used to alter bacterial cells in order to produce human insulin. The stages in the process are: 1. insulin gene extracted from a human cell 2. bacteria divide and produce large quantities of human insulin 3. plasmid is removed from bacterial cell and ‘cut’ open 4. insulin gene is inserted into bacterial plasmid. The correct sequence of these stages is A 1, 3, 4, 2 B 1, 3, 2, 4 C 3, 4, 2, 1 D 3, 1, 2, 4 1 3. The table below shows the relationship between planting density and the mass of seed harvested for a trial cereal crop. Planting density (number of plants per square metre) Mass of seed harvested (grams per square metre) 4 60 8 86 16 104 32 77 128 22 The reason a low mass of seed was harvested when the planting density was 128 plants per square metre was A less disease at high planting densities B more nutrients available C more competition for light and nutrients D less space for weeds 1 4. The table below shows the relationship between planting density and the mass of seed harvested for a cereal crop trial. Planting density (number of plants per square metre) Mass of seed harvested (grams per square metre) 4 60 8 86 15 105 32 77 128 21 What is the percentage increase in mass of seed harvested as planting density increases from 4 to 14 plants per square metre? A 45% B 75% C 90% D 105% 1 5. a) Arrange the following stages of genetic engineering in the correct order. Stage number 1 2 3 4 5 Description of stage Bacterial cell produces insulin Insulin gene inserted into plasmid Plasmid removed from bacterial cell Plasmid inserted into bacterial cell Insulin gene removed from human chromosome 1 b) Give one advantage of genetic engineering. 1 6. The diagram below shows a genetically engineered bacterial cell. bacterial chromosome gene from another organism (a) Name the type of molecule found in a bacterial chromosome. 1 (b) The bacterium was genetically engineered to produce a particular substance. Name one example of a substance which can be produced in this way and describe its use. 1 7. Labelled diagrams may be included where appropriate. Genetic engineering uses bacteria to produce human insulin. Describe the stages involved in this process. Items 8 and 9 refer to the accompanying diagram which shows the genetic material of a bacterium. 8. Which structure is the chromosome? A B C D 1 2 4 6 1 9. Which structure is a plasmid? A B C D 2 3 4 7 1 10. Other than insulin, name another product made through genetic engineering. 1 3 Items 11, 12 and 13 refer to the following list of procedural steps employed during a genetic engineering experiment. 1 2 3 4 5 6 host cell allowed to multiply required DNA fragment cut out of appropriate chromosome duplicate plasmids formed which express ‘foreign’ gene plasmid extracted from bacterium and opened up altered plasmid inserted into bacterial host cell DNA fragment sealed into plasmid 11. The correct order in which these steps would be carried out is A 2,4,6,5,1,3 B 2,4,5,6,3,1 C 4,6,2,5,3,1 1 D 4,6,2,5,1,3 12. A special enzyme that acts as biochemical ‘scissors’ would be used during steps A B C D 2 and 4 2 and 6 4 and 5 4 and 6 1 13. A special enzyme that acts as biochemical ‘glue’ would be used at stage A B C D 2 4 5 6 1 14. Insulin produced by genetic engineering is given to people who would otherwise suffer A B C D haemophilia reduced growth diabetes mellitus internal blood clotting 1 15. The first of the accompanying diagrams shows two preparatory stages carried out during the process of genetic engineering. Which part of the second diagram shows a later stage in the process? 1 (19) Exercise 5 Research Task Research genetically modified organisms and find out about one that interests you. You must include a picture/photograph of the organism and how it benefits us. Exercise 6 (optional) Discussion Research the pros and cons of genetically modified organisms. You should decide whether you are for or against genetic engineering. Come to class with some evidence to support your view and you teacher will facilitate a discussion in your classroom to hear everyone’s views and opinions.