# Key Area 6: Genetic Engineering

```Key Area 1.6 - Genetic Engineering
Exercise 4
1. In 1997 the USA planted 8.2 million hectares of land with genetically
engineered crops. By 1998, this had increased to 20.5 million
hectares.
What was the percentage increase in the area sown between 1997
and 1998?
A
12.3%
B
66%
C
150%
D
166.7%
1
2. Genetic engineering can be used to alter bacterial cells in
order to produce human insulin.
The stages in the process are:
1.
insulin gene extracted from a human cell
2.
bacteria divide and produce large quantities of
human insulin
3.
plasmid is removed from bacterial cell and ‘cut’ open
4.
insulin gene is inserted into bacterial plasmid.
The correct sequence of these stages is
A
1, 3, 4, 2
B
1, 3, 2, 4
C
3, 4, 2, 1
D
3, 1, 2, 4
1
3. The table below shows the relationship between planting
density and the mass of seed harvested for a trial cereal
crop.
Planting density
(number of plants
per square metre)
Mass of seed
harvested
(grams per
square metre)
4
60
8
86
16
104
32
77
128
22
The reason a low mass of seed was harvested when the
planting density was 128 plants per square metre was
A
less disease at high planting densities
B
more nutrients available
C
more competition for light and nutrients
D
less space for weeds
1
4. The table below shows the relationship between planting
density and the mass of seed harvested for a cereal crop
trial.
Planting density
(number of plants
per square metre)
Mass of seed
harvested
(grams per
square metre)
4
60
8
86
15
105
32
77
128
21
What is the percentage increase in mass of seed
harvested as planting density increases from 4 to 14
plants per square metre?
A
45%
B
75%
C
90%
D
105%
1
5. a) Arrange the following stages of genetic engineering in
the correct order.
Stage number
1
2
3
4
5
Description of stage
Bacterial cell produces insulin
Insulin gene inserted into plasmid
Plasmid removed from bacterial cell
Plasmid inserted into bacterial cell
Insulin gene removed from human
chromosome
1
b) Give one advantage of genetic engineering.
1
6. The diagram below shows a genetically engineered bacterial
cell.
bacterial
chromosome
gene from
another
organism
(a) Name the type of molecule found in a bacterial
chromosome.
1
(b) The bacterium was genetically engineered to
produce a particular substance.
Name one example of a substance which can be
produced in this way and describe its use.
1
7. Labelled diagrams may be included where appropriate.
Genetic engineering uses bacteria to produce human
insulin. Describe the stages involved in this process.
Items 8 and 9 refer to the accompanying diagram which shows the
genetic material of a bacterium.
8. Which structure is the chromosome?
A
B
C
D
1
2
4
6
1
9. Which structure is a plasmid?
A
B
C
D
2
3
4
7
1
10. Other than insulin, name another product made through genetic
engineering.
1
3
Items 11, 12 and 13 refer to the following list of procedural steps
employed during a genetic engineering experiment.
1
2
3
4
5
6
host cell allowed to multiply
required DNA fragment cut out of appropriate chromosome
duplicate plasmids formed which express ‘foreign’ gene
plasmid extracted from bacterium and opened up
altered plasmid inserted into bacterial host cell
DNA fragment sealed into plasmid
11. The correct order in which these steps would be carried out is
A 2,4,6,5,1,3
B 2,4,5,6,3,1
C 4,6,2,5,3,1
1
D 4,6,2,5,1,3
12. A special enzyme that acts as biochemical ‘scissors’ would be used
during steps
A
B
C
D
2 and 4
2 and 6
4 and 5
4 and 6
1
13. A special enzyme that acts as biochemical ‘glue’ would be used
at stage
A
B
C
D
2
4
5
6
1
14. Insulin produced by genetic engineering is given to people who would
otherwise suffer
A
B
C
D
haemophilia
reduced growth
diabetes mellitus
internal blood clotting
1
15. The first of the accompanying diagrams shows two preparatory
stages carried out during the process of genetic engineering.
Which part of the second diagram shows a later stage in the process?
1
(19)
Exercise 5
Research genetically modified organisms and find out about one that
interests you.
You must include a picture/photograph of the organism and how it
benefits us.
Exercise 6 (optional)
Discussion
Research the pros and cons of genetically modified organisms.
You should decide whether you are for or against genetic engineering.
Come to class with some evidence to support your view and you teacher
will facilitate a discussion in your classroom to hear everyone’s views and
opinions.
```
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