BSC 2011 Spring 2000 What follows is a list of concepts, ideas, and

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BSC 2011
Spring 2000
What follows is a list of concepts, ideas, and vocabulary that you should know for the
comprehensive section of the final. It is meant as a guideline only. My advice is to
spend some quality time reviewing your class notes, figures, and handouts (as well
as selected problems from the problem sets), and then use this guide to decide how
well you have studied.
DO NOT STUDY FROM THESE SHEETS! They contain many more questions than
answers. The answers should be in your notes. If they are not, ask me about them,
or at least borrow notes from a classmate.
The best way to reach me is by e-mail ([email protected]). You can also call me in
my office (644-9833) or stop by (Conradi 201a).
Unit 1
the elements and processes of the central dogma and how they relate to one another
what is different and what is similar between DNA and RNA (consider structure and
function)
the difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes and how these differences
influence control of gene expression (remember mRNA processing)
mechanisms of control of gene expression
Prokaryotes - the operon model, major features (promoter, operator, structural
genes, regulatory gene, regulatory protein, signal molecule, RNA polymerase)
the difference between induction and repression
the difference between positive and negative mechanisms of control of
gene expression
how and why regulation of gene expression differs between Prokaryotes and
Eukaryotes
variety of mechanisms of control of gene expression in Eukaryotes
how sequential, coordinated control of gene expression is achieved - as in amphibian
metamorphosis and insect molting/metamorphosis
how gametes are specialized for their roles in fertilization and early development
the major features of fertilization in the sea urchin
major features of cleavage stage of embryo development, and of the blastula
the role of morphgens in pattern formation in embryos
how cells move and how they communicate during development
recognize classic experiments demonstrating cell communication during
development
what processes contribute to the determination of the fate of a cell
the major phases of the cell cycle and what occurs during each
the stages of mitosis and what occurs during each
the differences between processes and outcomes of meiosis and mitosis (be able to
recognize whether a cell is undergoing mitosis or meiosis given the haploid
chromosome number)
the difference between chromosome, chromatid, homologous pair
synapsis, crossing over
Some vocabulary you should know:
totipotent
euchromatin / heterochromatin
gene amplification
animal / vegetal pole
centromere
morphogen
genetic code
kinetochore
centrosome ( same as MTOC)
mitotic spindle
cytokinesis
UNIT 2
theory of blending inheritance
what are mono- and dihybrid crosses and what are the expected ratios of
phenotypes and genotypes from these crosses
be able to define and distinguish among the following terms:
gene
dominant
homozygous
genotype
cross
locus
recessive
heterozygous
phenotype
punnet square
allele
hemizygous
karyotype
test
Mendel's laws
how and when to apply the addition and product rules of probability to problems in
patterns of inheritance
effects of the following on patterns of inheritance (i.e. expected phenotypic and
genotypic ratios):
partial dominance (incomplete dominance and co-dominance)
more than 2 possible alleles at a locus (e.g. human ABO blood groups)
polygenic inheritance (multiple loci affecting a single trait)
sex linkage (X-linkage, Y-linked traits)
linkage - non-independence in assortment of alleles at different loci
why are some loci linked
difference between coupling and repulsion
crossing over, be able to recognize recombinant and parental types
relationship between crossing-over and map distance
epistasis (how is this similar to and different from dominance?)
pleiotropy (how is this similar to and different from linkage?)
be able to do problems similar to #6-22, 30, 31, 37-41 from the problem set
genetic determination of human ABO blood groups
different kinds of mutation
consequences of mutation
definition and consequences of aneuploidy, non-disjunction ( in autosomal and sex
chromosomes)
techniques for diagnosing genetic abnormalities
UNIT 3
what is the theory of evolution?
theories of inheritance before Darwin , i.e. Essentialism and Special creation
contributions of geology and comparative vertebrate anatomy to development of the
theory of evolution
contributions of Lamark, Buffon, Malthus, Lyell to the theory of evolution by natural
selection
Darwin's evidence for evolution / natural selection
Hardy-Weinberg (HW) rule and the population genetics definition of evolution
gene pool, allele, phenotype, and genotype frequencies
be able to do problems 1-10 on the population genetics problem set
conditions required for HW equilibrium to be maintained
the mechanisms of evolution: genetic drift (founder effects and bottlenecks),
mutation (why is this an uncommon mechanism of evolution?), migration, natural
selection, non-random mating
the effects of assortative mating on genotype frequencies
natural selection, fitness, and adaptation and the relationships among them
definitions of and differences between directional, stabilizing, and disruptive selection
(be careful about genotype vs phenotype)
the paradox of variation
evidence for the existence of genetic variation in natural populations
mechanisms that maintain genetic variation in natural populations (4 genetic
mechanisms and 3 patterns of selection)
phenotypic plasticity
what is a cline and what mechanisms can cause clines?
how can a reciprocal transplant experiment be used to distinguish between
alternative explanations for a cline?
morphological and biological species concepts and the advantages and
disadvantages of each
Pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms of reproductive isolation
instantaneous speciation and mechanisms that cause this kind of speciation
how gradual speciation proceeds and mechanisms of gradual speciation (how are
they alike and how are they different?)
the definitions of these words: Phylogeny, polyploidy, gene fixation, endemic
One student asked me to construct a table showing how to distinguish positive and
negative control and induction and repression in the regulation of gene expression.
Here it is for anyone who might find it helpful:
Induction
Negative Control
Positive Control
an inducer (or signal
molecule) causes the
operon to turn on by
binding to the repressor
and making it inactive
an inducer binds to an
activator protein causing
the rate of transcription to
be enhanced
Repression
a co-repressor (signal
molecule) turns the operon
off by binding to a repressor
and making it active
a signal molecule inactivates
an activator protein by binding
to it- thus transcription is no
longer enhanced
For those who prefer the non-tabular explanation:
The difference between positive and negative control is the effect of the
REGULATORY PROTEIN when it is bound. In negative control, the bound protein
STOPS transcription and in positive control, the bound regulatory protein
ENHANCES transcription.
The difference between induction and repression is the effect that the SIGNAL
MOLECULE has on transcription. In induction, the presence of the signal molecule
(e.g. lactose for the lac operaon) turns transcription on or turns it up. In repression,
the signal molecule (e.g. tryp in the tryp operon) causes transcription to be turned off
or turned down.
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