BSC 2011 Spring 2000 What follows is a list of concepts, ideas, and vocabulary that you should know for the comprehensive section of the final. It is meant as a guideline only. My advice is to spend some quality time reviewing your class notes, figures, and handouts (as well as selected problems from the problem sets), and then use this guide to decide how well you have studied. DO NOT STUDY FROM THESE SHEETS! They contain many more questions than answers. The answers should be in your notes. If they are not, ask me about them, or at least borrow notes from a classmate. The best way to reach me is by e-mail ([email protected]). You can also call me in my office (644-9833) or stop by (Conradi 201a). Unit 1 the elements and processes of the central dogma and how they relate to one another what is different and what is similar between DNA and RNA (consider structure and function) the difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes and how these differences influence control of gene expression (remember mRNA processing) mechanisms of control of gene expression Prokaryotes - the operon model, major features (promoter, operator, structural genes, regulatory gene, regulatory protein, signal molecule, RNA polymerase) the difference between induction and repression the difference between positive and negative mechanisms of control of gene expression how and why regulation of gene expression differs between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes variety of mechanisms of control of gene expression in Eukaryotes how sequential, coordinated control of gene expression is achieved - as in amphibian metamorphosis and insect molting/metamorphosis how gametes are specialized for their roles in fertilization and early development the major features of fertilization in the sea urchin major features of cleavage stage of embryo development, and of the blastula the role of morphgens in pattern formation in embryos how cells move and how they communicate during development recognize classic experiments demonstrating cell communication during development what processes contribute to the determination of the fate of a cell the major phases of the cell cycle and what occurs during each the stages of mitosis and what occurs during each the differences between processes and outcomes of meiosis and mitosis (be able to recognize whether a cell is undergoing mitosis or meiosis given the haploid chromosome number) the difference between chromosome, chromatid, homologous pair synapsis, crossing over Some vocabulary you should know: totipotent euchromatin / heterochromatin gene amplification animal / vegetal pole centromere morphogen genetic code kinetochore centrosome ( same as MTOC) mitotic spindle cytokinesis UNIT 2 theory of blending inheritance what are mono- and dihybrid crosses and what are the expected ratios of phenotypes and genotypes from these crosses be able to define and distinguish among the following terms: gene dominant homozygous genotype cross locus recessive heterozygous phenotype punnet square allele hemizygous karyotype test Mendel's laws how and when to apply the addition and product rules of probability to problems in patterns of inheritance effects of the following on patterns of inheritance (i.e. expected phenotypic and genotypic ratios): partial dominance (incomplete dominance and co-dominance) more than 2 possible alleles at a locus (e.g. human ABO blood groups) polygenic inheritance (multiple loci affecting a single trait) sex linkage (X-linkage, Y-linked traits) linkage - non-independence in assortment of alleles at different loci why are some loci linked difference between coupling and repulsion crossing over, be able to recognize recombinant and parental types relationship between crossing-over and map distance epistasis (how is this similar to and different from dominance?) pleiotropy (how is this similar to and different from linkage?) be able to do problems similar to #6-22, 30, 31, 37-41 from the problem set genetic determination of human ABO blood groups different kinds of mutation consequences of mutation definition and consequences of aneuploidy, non-disjunction ( in autosomal and sex chromosomes) techniques for diagnosing genetic abnormalities UNIT 3 what is the theory of evolution? theories of inheritance before Darwin , i.e. Essentialism and Special creation contributions of geology and comparative vertebrate anatomy to development of the theory of evolution contributions of Lamark, Buffon, Malthus, Lyell to the theory of evolution by natural selection Darwin's evidence for evolution / natural selection Hardy-Weinberg (HW) rule and the population genetics definition of evolution gene pool, allele, phenotype, and genotype frequencies be able to do problems 1-10 on the population genetics problem set conditions required for HW equilibrium to be maintained the mechanisms of evolution: genetic drift (founder effects and bottlenecks), mutation (why is this an uncommon mechanism of evolution?), migration, natural selection, non-random mating the effects of assortative mating on genotype frequencies natural selection, fitness, and adaptation and the relationships among them definitions of and differences between directional, stabilizing, and disruptive selection (be careful about genotype vs phenotype) the paradox of variation evidence for the existence of genetic variation in natural populations mechanisms that maintain genetic variation in natural populations (4 genetic mechanisms and 3 patterns of selection) phenotypic plasticity what is a cline and what mechanisms can cause clines? how can a reciprocal transplant experiment be used to distinguish between alternative explanations for a cline? morphological and biological species concepts and the advantages and disadvantages of each Pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms of reproductive isolation instantaneous speciation and mechanisms that cause this kind of speciation how gradual speciation proceeds and mechanisms of gradual speciation (how are they alike and how are they different?) the definitions of these words: Phylogeny, polyploidy, gene fixation, endemic One student asked me to construct a table showing how to distinguish positive and negative control and induction and repression in the regulation of gene expression. Here it is for anyone who might find it helpful: Induction Negative Control Positive Control an inducer (or signal molecule) causes the operon to turn on by binding to the repressor and making it inactive an inducer binds to an activator protein causing the rate of transcription to be enhanced Repression a co-repressor (signal molecule) turns the operon off by binding to a repressor and making it active a signal molecule inactivates an activator protein by binding to it- thus transcription is no longer enhanced For those who prefer the non-tabular explanation: The difference between positive and negative control is the effect of the REGULATORY PROTEIN when it is bound. In negative control, the bound protein STOPS transcription and in positive control, the bound regulatory protein ENHANCES transcription. The difference between induction and repression is the effect that the SIGNAL MOLECULE has on transcription. In induction, the presence of the signal molecule (e.g. lactose for the lac operaon) turns transcription on or turns it up. In repression, the signal molecule (e.g. tryp in the tryp operon) causes transcription to be turned off or turned down.