Chemistry 100 Final Study Guide

Chemistry 100 Final Study Guide
Chapter 1: Introduction
a. Physical vs. Chemical properties
1) List 2 physical and 1 chemical property of magnesium.
b. Units of measurement
1) Can you distinguish between metric and U.S. units of measurement?
2) What is 0.000000568 in scientific notation? What is 4.63 x 107 in regular notation?
c. Density
1) What is the density of a 37g block of metal that takes up 15mL of volume?
Chapter 3: Atomic Structure
a. Historical Perspective
1) List the major scientific accomplishments of the following scientists:
(i) Michael Faraday
(ii) Joseph Thomson
(iii) Robert Millikan
(iv) Ernest Rutherford
(v) Neils Bohr
(vi) Erwin Schrodinger
b. Isotopes
1) Define an isotope and give an example of several isotopes for hydrogen.
c. Structure of the atom
1) Name the 3 main parts of an atom, and indicate where in the atom they’d be found.
2) For the element sodium: how many energy levels? How many sublevels? What orbitals? How many
3) Write the full electron configuration of silicon.
d. Electron configurations and trends on the Periodic Table
1) Locate each of the following on the Periodic Table: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals,
halogens, noble gases, metals, non-metals.
Chapter 5: Chemical bonds
a. Electron-dot structures
1) Draw the electron-dot structure of an oxygen atom.
b. Octet Rule and Ions
1) What charge of ions do magnesium, chlorine and nitrogen form?
c. Ionic compounds
1) Name the following compounds: AlBr3, CaS, Na3N
d. Covalent compounds
1) Name the following compounds: SO2, PCl3, CH4
e. Polyatomic molecules
1) Name and write the formula for the 6 –ate polyatomic molecules we discussed.
f. Electron-dot formulas for molecules
1) Write the electron-dot formula for each of the 6 –ate polyatomic ions we discussed.
g. VSEPR Model and Molecular shape
1) Draw the electron-dot formula of ammonia (NH3) and state its VSEPR shape.
h. Molecule polarity
1) Which of the VSEPR molecule shapes are polar and which are non-polar?
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Intramolecular and Intermolecular forces
1) What is the main type of intramolecular and intermolecular force in each: water, NCl, SO2, CH4
Chapter 6: Chemical Quantities
a. Atomic mass & formula mass
1) What is the atomic mass of phosphorus? What is the formula mass of phosphorus trichloride?
b. The mole: Avogadro’s number and molar mass
1) What is Avogadro’s number?
2) What is the molar mass of carbon dioxide?
c. Chemical Equations
1) Balance the following equation: iron (III) oxide is combined with carbon to form carbon dioxide and iron
2) Balance the following equation: sodium carbonate reacts with potassium chlorate to form sodium chlorate
and potassium carbonate.
d. Molar proportions
1) Balance the following equation: nitrogen gas combines with hydrogen gas to form ammonia gas (NH 3).
How many moles of hydrogen gas do I need to make 6 moles of ammonia? If I begin with 14.2g of nitrogen
gas, how many grams of ammonia will form?
Chapter 7: Acids and Bases
a. Definitions and Characteristics
1) Name 2 characteristics of an acid and 2 characteristics of a base.
b. Strong vs. Weak
1) What makes an acid or base “strong” or “weak”?
c. Acid-base neutralization reactions
1) Write and balance: calcium hydroxide and carbonic acid (H2CO3) react in an acid-base neutralization
reaction. Name both products.
d. The pH scale
1) Do the following pH values represent acid, base or neutral? 9.3, 5.4, 7.0
2) How many times more acidic is blood (pH 7.4) than ammonia (pH 11.4)?
e. pH Calculations (2 decimal places)
1) What is the pH of a solution with a hydrogen ion concentration of 5.7 x 10 -3M?
2) What is the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution with a pH of 12.4?
f. Acids and bases in your life
1) We discussed 3 examples of how acids affect you and 3 more of bases in your life. Name them.
Chapter 8: Oxidation and Reduction
a. Definitions
1) Define oxidation and reduction.
b. Assigning Oxidation Numbers
1) Using the rules discussed in lecture, assign oxidation numbers to each element in the following: CH4, CO2,
carbonite polyatomic ion
c. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
1) Write and balance the following equation: acetylene gas (C2H4) reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide
and water. Is this a redox reaction? If so, what is being oxidized, what is being reduced, and what are the
oxidizing and reducing agents?
d. Oxidation and reduction in your life
1) We discussed many examples of common redox reactions. Name 4, and indicate what is being oxidized or
reduced in the reaction.
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Chapter 9: Organic Chemistry
a. Know the prefixes for naming carbon compounds
1) What prefix would be assigned to the following carbon chains: 3 carbons, 5 carbons, 2 carbons
b. Be able to recognize molecules of the following: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, amines, esters, amides,
carboxylic acid
c. Be able to draw and name molecules of the following: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, amines
d. Be able to draw molecules containing amide, ester or carboxylic acid groups
e. Characteristics of organic molecules
1) Which of the molecule types above are saturated and which are unsaturated?
2) Which saturated carbon molecules are gas, liquid or solid at room temperature?
3) List common uses and where they’re found for each of the molecule types above.
Chapter 10: Polymers
a. Forming a polymer
1) Define a polymer. Define a monomer.
2) What are 3 conditions necessary to form a polymer?
3) Be able to recognize the monomer in a polymer.
b. Addition polymerization
1) What is addition polymerization?
2) Name and draw the monomer of each of the 6 addition polymers discussed in class. Give characteristics
and uses of each.
c. Condensation polymerization
1) What is condensation polymerization?
2) Name 3 examples of condensation polymerization.
d. Natural polymers
1) Name 4 examples of natural polymers.
2) Name and draw the monomer of rubber.
3) What is vulcanization? What conditions are necessary for this process? What products are made as a
Chapter 15: Biochemistry
a. Carbohydrates
1) List and briefly describe the 3 types of carbohydrates we discussed. Similarities and differences?
b. Fats
1) List 4 types of fats. What are 2 characteristics in general of fats?
c. Proteins
1) What are all proteins composed of?
2) Describe or draw the 4 levels of protein structure. What bonds characterize each type?
3) Describe how an enzyme works.
d. Nucleic acids
1) List the 3 necessary components of DNA and RNA (parts of a nucleotide).
2) List the 5 amine bases present in nucleic acids, and note which bond with each other.
3) Describe the process of DNA replication.
4) Describe the process of making a protein from a DNA template.
5) Briefly discuss 2 ways in which DNA can be used to give us information.
Chapter 16: Food Chemistry
a. Carbohydrates
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1) What are carbs broken down into within our bodies?
b. Fats
1) What are fats broken down into within our bodies? Is fat good or bad? How does our body transport and
store fats?
2) Discuss trans fatty acids. How are they different? Are they good or bad?
c. Proteins
1) What are proteins broken down into within our bodies? How can vegetarians get enough protein?
d. Minerals
1) What do we need iodine for? Calcium? Sodium? Iron? Phosphorus?
e. Vitamins
1) Which vitamins are fat soluble and which are water soluble? What does this mean?
f. Dietary fiber
1) Discuss characteristics of soluble and insoluble fiber. Which is more important?
g. Water
1) Why is water critical? What are some symptoms of dehydration?
h. Food additives
1) Name 2 food additives used to improve food storage.
2) Name 2 food additives used to improve nutrition.
3) Name 4 food additives used to improve taste.
4) Name 2 natural and 2 artificial food additives used to improve color.
i. Food poisons
1) Name 2 chemical and 2 biological food poisons.
j. Plant nutrients and fertilizers
1) What are the 3 essential plant nutrients? How does a label on a bag of fertilizer tell you how much of each
is contained in the fertilizer? Are fertilizers bad for the environment?
k. Pest control
1) What are the 2 categories of pest control? Give an example of each category, and discuss pros and cons.
l. Our perspective: Word of Wisdom
Chapter 17: Common Chemicals
a. Soap vs. detergent
1) Compare and contrast soap and detergent. What are similarities and differences? Is one better than
another? When might you use one and not the other?
b. Cleaners
1) Discuss the difference between regular bleach and “color-safe” bleach.
2) Name one acidic and one basic cleaning product.
c. Skin care
1) Define the following: surfactant, emollient, exfoliant (chemical and mechanical), humectant, exfoliant,
2) Define the difference between a sunscreen and a sunblock.
3) What do sunscreens and sunblocks protect against?
4) Name an ingredient that would act as a sunscreen, and one that would act as a sunblock.
5) What is SPF? Calculate the percent of UV rays you are protected from if you wear an SPF 20.
d. Hair care
1) Describe how the following work: hair perm, shampoo, conditioner, hair color, hairspray, depilatories
Chapter 19: Drug Chemistry
a. Curative Drugs
1) Discuss penicillin. How does it work? What are some problems associated with its use?
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2) Discuss 2 types of anti-cancer drugs and name an example of each.
b. Regulatory drugs
1) Discuss 1 hormone produced in the brain.
2) Discuss 1 hormone produced in the adrenals.
3) Discuss 1 hormone produced in the sex organs.
c. Preventative Drugs
1) Mental illness
(i) Be able to recognize the 3 main components of a neuron
(ii) Name a neurotransmitter, state what it is made from, and some actions it has in the body.
(iii) Discuss 2 ways drugs are used to prevent mental illness symptoms and discuss how they work.
2) Name one heart condition and suggest a drug to treat it. How does this drug work?
3) How does “the pill” prevent pregnancy, and how does it differ from DES and RU-486?
d. Analgesics and Anesthetics
1) Name an anesthetic and an analgesic. How does each work? Similarities and differences?
2) What does NSAID stand for?
3) What are some pros and cons associated with aspirin?
e. Recreational drugs.
1) Name a depressant, a stimulant, a narcotic and a psychedelic. How does each work? Are there any
legitimate uses of any of these recreational drugs?
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