Dear Emily, I would like to suggest the inclusion of “language” in the list, not only because it is one of the cultural aspects of a country, but mainly due to the fact of many Americans do not know the language spoken in Brazil, since even in the US census it is found that Brazilians speak Spanish. This cross-cultural comparison is based on the bibliography listed below in the current document. It was considered that any attempt to describe an entire culture always runs the danger of building up a stereotype. People are individuals and common sense should tell us that we will not find an absolutely “typical Brazilian” as described in this board. The following simply intends to present certain attitudes or characteristics that are likely to be experienced when dealing with someone from Brazil. Brazil Beliefs / Ethics Decision Making Leadership Family Emotions Image / Style Formality What defines the subject position in society is the social class, together with education and the family background Decision-making takes time; value placed on the needs and interests of the group A patriarchic style of leadership prevails, with a strong respect for the authority who commands the organization Family and friendship play a major role in both social and business interactions. Children participate in most adult activities. Adult children are expected to live at home until marriage The United States Individual initiative and personal achievement emphasized; one’s achievements, not age or status, determine one’s position in society Since business is often fast-paced, quick decisions may result; some decisions may not be final Hierarchical; managers delegate; look to supervisors for decisions; executives seek responsibility and accept accountability Family second to work; children are largely independent Significant displays and expressions of emotions; Brazilians seldom makes business decisions based solely on analysis Displays of emotion are best avoided in business; tough in business Fashion, appearance and surroundings are important and provide visual cues as to status. The more status, more formal the clothes are. Informal out of work environment Appearance is important to the individual in the U.S.; formal clothing appropriate for formal occasions Tendency to act informally, avoiding rigidity Titles are often downplayed; very informal Social Interaction Time Orientation Work / Leisure Communication Style Conflict / Confrontation Social relationships are critical and often take precedence over tasks and accomplishments Polychronic and not fixated on rigid schedules; time is seen as flexible and fluid; schedules and plans can be quicly changed or completely ignored; belief in the relativity of time; the clock waits for people, instead of people wait for the clock Work is a means to survive, not of satisfaction; vacation is an automatic right Use of underlying meanings; entire context is considered as part of the communication; diplomatic instead of direct; use of hand movements Tendency of avoiding conflict and attempting to please the other party; belief in the efficacy of mediating interventions, of quest for a common solution which will benefit all Self-reliant; identify as an individual; quick casual relationships Punctuality valued and respected; “time is money”; deadlines firm; one thing at a time, though need to multi-task also important Lives to work; leisure time is reward for hard work; money is end in itself; vacation is “earned” Explicit, verbal and direct; meaning close to surface; concise; lack of eye contact can signify boredom Meet problems and conflicts head on; assertive, but give benefit of the doubt; “fair play” important Bibliography: Decision-Making: An Anglo-Brazilian Comparison. Managing Across Cultures: Issues and Perspectives. Joynt P. and F. Warner. London, International Thomson Business Press.2002 Intercultural Management in Brazil – Sempre dá um Jeito. Anna Irene Meyer. 2006 Dimensões da Cultura Brasileira na Visão dos Expatriados. SIEGRID GUILLAUMON DECHANDT (Universidade Federal da Bahia) & TANIA CASADO (Universidade de São Paulo) Managing in the global economy. Richard M. Steers, Luciara Nardon. 2005. The Brazilian puzzle: culture on the borderlands of the Western World. David J. Hess, Roberto da Matta. 1995 Communicating with Brazilians: when “yes”means “no”. Tracy Novinger. 2003.