Part 2 Evolution Study Guide Speciation 1. Speciation is when a group of organisms _______________ alike and can _________________ to produce _____________ offspring. 2. What is needed from a gene pool to form a new species? 3. What is a group that can but rarely interbreeds within a species and varies in characteristics? 4. What are the 3 things that are needed for a new species to be formed? - - 5. What are the 3 main mechanisms of isolation that lead to new species? - - 6. What type of isolation is caused by a physical barrier? Give an example. 7. What type of isolation is caused by differing mating signals? Give an example. 8. What type of isolation is caused mating in different seasons? Give an example. 9. What is it called when speciation occurs slowly? 10. What is it called when speciation occurs in bursts with long periods between? Early Life 11. The theory that the living comes from nonliving is ….. 12. What is the modern day, widely accepted theory that all living things come from other living things? 13. Identify the 3 scientists that helped disprove spontaneous generation and describe their experiment. - 14. When was Earth formed? 15. What types of cells were formed first? They were followed by what type of cells .5 billion years later? - - 16. Using the information above, scientists developed the Endosymbiotic Theory which states…… 17. What was missing from primitive Earth’s atmosphere that modern life requires? 18. What is it called that we divide history into significant time periods? 19. What are subdivisions of eras? 20. What is it called when an event causes many things is disappear at the same time? Give 2 examples that could cause it. - - - 21. What is the change in hereditary features in a species over time? Hominids Evolution 22. What are the 5 primate adaptations? 23. What are the 2 additional hominid adaptations? - - 24. What is the ability to walk on 2 legs called? 25. What are the 2 main benefits of this type of movement? - - 26. What is free rotating digit on hand (easily touch other fingers)? 27. What is the benefit in this type of thumb? 28. What is it when the dental pattern is in a similar arrangement? 29. Why are the teeth different? 30. What was the “Southern Ape” and how long ago did they exist? - - 31. Describe them: - - - 32. Who was the “handy man” and how long ago did they exist? - - 33. What were they the 1st to do? 34. Describe them. 35. Who was the “upright man” and how long ago did they exist? - - 36. What were they the 1st to do? 37. Describe their lifestyles. - - - 38. Describe them. - - 39. Which hominid lived 200,000-300,000 y.a.? 40. Were they direct ancestors of the modern human? 41. What were they the 1st to do? 42. Describe them. - - - 43. Which hominids were the 1st to be direct ancestors to modern humans and when did they live? - 44. Describe their lifestyles. - - 45. What characteristics are similar to modern humans? - - - - 46. What is the scientific name for modern humans and what does it mean? - Geographic Timeline 47. What are the 4 “ages” and list the corresponding period. - - - - 48. List the 4 eras and match them to all their periods. - - - - 49. What period and era are we living in? 50. What is the largest era?