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It is situated the north-west of continental Europe. It is an island separated from Britain by the
Irish Sea. It is divied into two parts. Northern Ireland and Irish Republic.
Northern Ireland
It is a part of U.K and a part of monarchy (the head is Queen). The national falg is St.
Patrick’s cross (red cross in white field). The capital is Belfast. Other city is Londonderry.
N.I. is bigger part of the province of Ulster. Mountains are Sperrin Mts. in the west. The
biggest like of the U.K. is Lough Neagh. The biggest river of the British Isles is Shannon.
Climate is oceanic (humid). There are small differences in temperatures (Gulf Stream).
Irish Republic
It is a parilamentary democracy with president as the head of state. The national flag is the
tricolour of green, white and orange. The capital is Dublin. It lies on the river Liffey.
The oldest inhabitants were the Celts (Irish is still first official language - of Celtic origin). In
the 5th century St. Patrick brought Christianity and he became the Patron Saint of Ireland. The
shamrock is the symbol of Ireland. In 1541 Henry VIII. became King of Ireland. In 1840 was
terrible famine struck Ireland (potato crops failed). The many Irish left the country (political,
Interesting places
Small country with beautiful scenery. Tourism is very important for Ireland.
Dublin - beautiful architecture mostly from 18th century, terraced houses, many churches
The national flag is blue with white diagonal cross. National symbol is a thistle. Patron Saint
of Scotland is St. Andrew. National instrument is bagpipes and national sport is golf. They
wear national costumes. It is a skirt with wollen check. Whisky is water of life.
It is situated to the north of England. There live about 5 million people. Mostly live in Central
belt near the capital Edinburgh. Glasgow is the largest and busiest industrial town. Glasgow
lies on the river Clyde. Aberdeen is chief fishing port.
Climate is mild.
Scotland is land of mountains, moorlands, valleys and plain with many islands of the coast.
The Scottish Highlands are the most mountainous area of whole G.B. The Grampian Mts.
with Ben Nevis are the highest.
Rivers are the Clyde, Tweed and Dee.
Lakes are Loch Lomond and the biggest is Loch Ness.
The oldest inhabitants were the Picts and the Celts. In 1603 Scotland was united with England
by James VI. of Scotand.
Interesting places
The Scottish Highlands - are some of the most magnificent scenery in Europe.
Loch Ness - the home of mysterious monster Nessie.
Edinburgh - Edinburgh castle most visited property in Britian
- Holyrood House - the official residence of the Queen in Scotland.
The national flag is green and white with red dragon. National symbol is a daffodil. Patron
Saint of Wales is St. David. National instrument is harp and national sport is rugby.
It is a part of G.B. It is situated to the west of England. The capital of Wales is Cardiff. It lies
on the river Taff. Other cities are Swansea and Newport. Swansea is an important port and
Newport is an industrial town.
There are 3 national parks. Snowdonia, Brecon Beacons and the Pembrokeshire Coast.
Snowdonia lies in the north-west. The highest mountain range in Wales is Snowdon. Brecon
Beacons is heart of south Wales. The Pembrokeshire Coast is bird lovers‘ paradise.
Rivers are the Severn and the Wye. The longest river is Usk.
In the 6th century St. David and other Europeans brought Christianity. In the 11th century the
Normans came. Edward I. built many castles, the biggest of them is Caernarfon. In 1536
Henry VIII. brought Wales under the English parlament.
Interesting places
North Wales - with the impressive castles built by English kings.
- people in Wales speak mostly English but in the north they speak also Welsh
which is of Celtic origin
Cardiff - St. David’s Hall
- National Museum of Wales
- Welsh Folk Museum