2012_2014 Discover, Understand and Appreciate Do teenagers and tradition go together? Mini Album of Folk Costumess comenius Mini Album Folk Costumes Poland: In the past there were 4 types of folk costumes in Cieszyn Silesia and each of them was specific for ethongraphic groups living in the area. People stopped using 2 of them in the 19 th century but 2 others are still worn in the region. These costumes are: Cieszyn and highlanders folk costumes. Cieszyn folk costume Cieszyn folk costume is also known as Silesian folk costume was worn in the majority of the lowland part of Cieszyn Silesia around the towns of Cieszyn, Skoczów, Bielsko and Frysztat. The male folk costume was worn only to the second half of the 19 th century, whereas the female costume became more and more popular and spread even in the highland parts of the region, e.g. Brenna, Górki, Ustroń, Wisła or Jabłonków. Previously in this area the costumes of Silesian highlanders prevailed. Nowadays Cieszyn folk costume, especially the women’s one, is worn by some women during important local and church holidays. Cieszyn women’s folk costume This costume was rich in elements of jewellery and very elegant. There were a few elements of the costume: Czepiec – on her head a woman worn a lace cap with a decorative part, which covered forehead; a headscarf was worn over czepiec – they were worn only by married women Kabotek – a short, waist-length blouse with puffed sleeves reaching to the elbow Żywotek – a kind of corset on straps; it was richly decorated with decorative patterns, silk threads, sequins, beads forming a colourful mosaic. Żywotek was sewn together with an ankle-length skirt which could be 5 metres wide. Fortuch – an apron which repalced skirt and consisted of front and back aprons Cieszyn women’s folk costume is also famous for its jewellery. A set of jewellery of a wealthy woman consisted of: Orpant – a piece of jewellery consisting of four chains attached to braces of żywotek Pas – a belt, the most valuable part of the jewellery, usually silver. It consists of small silver plates joined by a chain Hoczki – metal items with small wholes, which enabled żywotek to be laced up Cieszyn men’s folk costume The costume was elegant and consisted of the following elements: Kłobuk – a black stiff and tall hat with a wide brim Koszula – a white linen shirt Bruclek – a navy blue or black linen waistcoat worn over a shirt Szpyncer – a kind of short coat worn on colder days over a bruclek Galaty – a blue/dark blue linen trousers; they were usually narrow and were held up by a leather belt which was wound around the waist several times Poloki – elegant leather boots usually worn by rich men Folk costume of Silesian highlanders This costume is characteristic for highlanders living in Cieszyn Silesia in the following towns or villages: Wisła, Istebna, Koniaków, Jaworzynka, Piosek, Bukowiec, Nydek. It is still used by highlanders in important moments of their lives, e.g. church holidays, marriage and outstanding local events. The specific parts ot the costume were made of linen or wool – materials that were available for highlanders. Women’s costume There were a few elements of the costume which were called similarly as the elements in Cieszyn folk costume: Czepiec – on her head a woman worn a lace cap with a decorative part, which covered forehead; a headscarf was worn over czepiec – they were worn only by married women Ciasnocha – a long underskirt which served as underwear Kabotek – a short, waist-length blouse with puffed sleeves reaching to the elbow Fortuch – a kind of knee-lenth skirt Modrziniec – an ankle-length blue apron worn over fortuch Kyrpce – leather shoes Men’s costume Kłobuk – a black sometimes beige or greyish hat Koszula – a white linen shirt Bruclek – a black or red woollen waistcoat worn over a shirt Gunia – a kind of woollen coat worn during colder days and winter Nogawice – woollen trousers Kyrpce – leather shoes Czech Republic Moravian folk costumes Moravian folk costumes belong to folk traditions. Wealth and fertility of the region are reflected in decorations of the costumes. Each town and village has a unique one. Men´s traditional folk costumes Men´s folk costumes consist of wide black hat, a vest with a row of bottons, a collar and embriodery. The shirt is made from four upright parts and has wide sleeves. It was tied by a lace around wrists and a neck. Lether trousers reached the knees and men wore high black boots, blue stockings and a handkerchief which was put into the pocket. Klobouk – a black hat Kordula – a vest Flór – a black collar Koženky – leather trousers Holínky – high black boots Women´s traditional folk costumes Women´s folk costumes were comprised of a bodice called kordulka which reached the waist. The main decoration of the bodice was a pleated ribbon lining the neckline. It was red and decorated with embroidery. Sleeves were tied with red ribbons and the collar was lined by embroidery or lace. The skirt was pleated and ruched. It was made from canvas. Kordulka – a bodice Rukávce – sleeves Pentle – ribbons Tacle – a collar Kanafas – canvas Romania ROMANIAN TRADITIONAL FOLK COSTUMES The structure of Romanian traditional clothing has remained unchanged throughout history and can be traced back to the earliest times. The basic garment for both men and women is a shirt or chemise, which is made from hemp, linen or woollen fabric. This was tied round the waist using a fabric belt, narrow for women and wider for men. The cut of this basic chemise is similar for men and women. In the past those worn by women usually reached to the ankles while men's shirts were shorter and worn over trousers or leggings made from strips of fabric. Women always wear an apron over the chemise. This was initially a single piece of cloth wrapped round the lower part of their bodies and secured by a belt at the waist, as is still seen in the east and south east of Romania. In Transylvania and the south west of Romania this became two separate aprons, one worn at the back and one at the front. Men's traditional clothing throughout Romania comprises a white shirt (cămasă), white trousers, hat, belt, waistcoat and or overcoat. Local differences are indicated by shirt length, type of embroidery, trouser cut, hat shape, or waistcoat decoration. In most areas shirts are worn outside trousers, which is the older style. This is a basic Balkan man's costume largely uninfluenced by fashions from west or east. Hungarian and Saxon men living in Romania wear trousers with a more modern cut often made of dark material rather than white. This reflects their closer ties, and more frequent communication, with the west. The outer garments worn by both men and women are similar, the main differences being in cut and decoration which depend mainly on the region of provenance. These garments are usually made of sheepskin, or felted woollen fabric, and decorated with leather appliqué and silk embroidery. Traditional clothing worn on workdays and festivals used to be similar, the main difference being that the festive dress, especially those worn for weddings was more richly embroidered. In the past the headwear worn by the bride was especially ornate with specific local styles. In poorer areas basic clothing with little or no embroidery has always been worn. The various pieces of costume have gone out of use at different times during the 20th century. The first item to disappear in many areas were leather peasant sandals (opinci), although these could be seen in poorer villages again in the years just after the communist regime fell. In most rural areas men's traditional trousers were replaced by modern factory made trousers by mid century and in the post communism years jeans has become universally common. Traditional over garments became an expensive luxury, new garments only being purchased by people living in the very wealthy villages. More recently the traditional jacket makers in many areas have died with few new artisans being trainer to carry on their craft. However if you look closely in the more remote areas some older people still wear items of traditional clothing. This can be for women a gathered black skirt or dark wraparound with a blouse of local cut either with or without a leather waistcoat. In Oaş and Maramureş even young girls often wear the local fashion costume on Sundays. This is normally made from brightly coloured material, in Oaş a dress, in Maramureş a skirt. Added to the local costume is the latest fashion in blouses and footwear such as white lacy blouses in Maramureş and platform shoes or stilettos, in both regions. Men usually have "western " trousers or jeans but may have a local shirt, or local shaped hat, although unfortunately the universal trilby is fast replacing these. Certain items of costume, specific to occupations, are still worn, for example men working in the forestry industry wear the wide leather belts (chimir), usually now over a T-shirt and jeans. Men's traditional fur hats (caliciulă) are still worn in winter in rural areas, and women usually wear a printed woollen scarf, and often a traditional straw hat over this when working in the fields in the summer. Description Blouse (ie) with gathered neck (cămaşă încreţită), with a wide rectangular strip of red woollen embroidery across the shoulder (altiţă), and vertical stripes (râuri) on the front and sleeves. Underskirt (poale) with a row of co-ordinating embroidery on hem. Wrap round skirt (fota) made of a single width of black woven woollen material, with a wide woven border on the front, and hem with geometric motifs in gold and silver thread, and a narrow row of motifs above this on the back Narrow woven fabric belt (brâu) with woven motifs in red and gold thread Description Waist length sheepskin jacket (pieptar), decorated with black embroidery on front, pockets and along seams Straight shirt with gussets (cămaşă cu barburi), with yellow embroidery on hem, sleeve ends and round neck, and outlining the front seams of the gussets in a characteristic 'M' shape. Wide leather belt (chimir) Description Chemise with yoke (cămaşă cu platcă) and square neck. Sleeves are gathered at the shoulders and wrists, with frilled cuffs and frills on yoke and shoulders. They are decorated with white embroidery and open work, with a narrow row of black, and blue embroidery on the cuff gathers. Sheepskin pieptar edged with appliqué leather decoration and decorated with embroidery in red, blue, yellow and green wool and inset with small pieces of mirrors and studs. Striped aprons (zadii) made of a single width of woven wool with horizontal red, blue, green and black stripes. A beaded necklace (zgardane) made of several rows of small multicoloured beads threaded onto strings. HUNGARIAN SZÉKELY FOLK COSTUMES IN TRANSYLVANIA Like the entirety of Hungarian folk culture, Hungarian folk costume amalgamates Eastern and Western influences, yet at the same time the results of its own internal development make it characteristically Hungarian. The Eastern origin of certain articles of clothing can be indicated not only by their names but much more by their straight-lined cut. This makes the task of sewing and piecing together easier, but almost completely eliminates waste and helps considerably to save on the basic material, which was difficult to obtain. This ancient method of cutting must have been reinforced by the coming and settling of the Cumanians and Jazygians, and later on by a century and a half of Turkish rule. Garments with this type of cut have survived almost until this day (suba, guba, szűr, certain kinds of shirts and gatyas, etc.). At the same time the curvilinear cut must have come from the west and became increasingly popular along with the diffusion of manufactured and factory-made materials. Besides their cut, Hungarian folk costumes are also characterized by their colourful appearance. This is a relatively recent development, since a few centuries ago the natural colours of the materials dominated (white, yellowish, brown). The folk costumes that flourished in the last century were predominantly red, although blue was also much worn while the older people used the darker colours. With the spread of various types of broadcloth, darker colours became predominant in men’s wear. All of the above, together with the typical head and foot wear (boots), comprise the characteristic elements of the Hungarian folk costumes of the past one hundred years, which, though they differ by region, yet have much in common. The specific folk costume of our region is called székely costume, as the subgroup of the Hungarian people living in this area are the székelys. Székely folk costumes, although similar in their basic elements, still differ in many details. Their common feature is that they themselves produced a significant part of the basic materials for their clothing until recently. The girls braid their two braids from three to four strands of hair, while married women tie a bonnet with frills (csepesz) on their hair, more recently a kerchief. Hair is pinned up in a knot. The blouses of women, made of linen, have a frilled collar and narrow cuffs; linen and cambric petticoats are generally worn. In the summer they wear a tight vest over the shirt, decorated with beading or braid and edged with colourful velvet. Their skirts were made of homespun material, with stripes of black, brown, red, and blue. This was later replaced by a cotton skirt(rokolya). A woollen or cotton apron of a different colour is always tied in front of it. In the winter they wore a sheepskin vest (bundamellény) or a szokmány or kurti (short coat), made of thick brown or gray homespun frieze. Feet were covered with soft-topped boots, later on with shoes. Beginning with the end of the last century, young men who had served in the army began to wear short hair instead of the usual long hair (körhaj). A widerimmed felt hat, or in the winter a fur cap, was worn on the head. Formerly men’s shirts were without collar and cuffs, but these were replaced by linen shirts with collars and cuffs. Here the gatya, made of linen, became underwear at an early stage. The most characteristic garment of the Székely costume is the broadcloth hose (harisnya), made primarily of white wool, flapped (with the opening on the two sides) and very tight, on which the decoration indicates social standing. The ornamentation of the sleeveless, braided vest, worn over the shirt in the summer, conforms to that of the hose. A sleeveless leather vest was worn during most parts of the year. The body is protected from winter cold by a brown homespun coat (zeke, szokmány, cedele, bámbán) or by a long leather coat. During the last century the laced sandal was worn on weekdays, the boots for holiday footwear. Germany In Bavaria, there are many different traditional costumes, which differ in the region of Bavaria. In our region which is called Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern) but also in the Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) the women have a short or a long dress with pinafore made out of feastful material. It is called “Dirndl”. And the men wear leather trousers which are often combined with a hat. The most valuable detail of such a traditional hat is the “Gamsbart “ - consisting out of dark hairs of a chamois buck. You can spend out a few hundred euros for this authentic jewelry. It is used as an everyday dress primarily by older women in rural areas. Other women may wear it at formal occasions (much like a Scotsman wearing a kilt) and during certain traditional events. It is hugely popular also among young women at the time of a Volksfest, like the very famous “Oktoberfest” in Munich or the “Straubinger Gäubodenvolksfest”, although many women will only wear dirndl-style dresses, called Landhausmode, which may deviate in numerous ways and are often much cheaper. People, who are very associated with their tradition costumes, also wear it when they go to church service, on weddings or on religious occasions. In popular culture it is sometimes reported that the placement of the knot on the apron is an indicator of the woman's marital status. A knot tied on the woman's left side indicates that she is single, a knot tied on the right means that she is married, engaged or otherwise "taken", a knot tied in the front centre means that she is a virgin and a knot tied at the back indicates that the woman is widowed. Traditional costumes from lower Bavaria The more common Dirndls worn for the Oktoberfest, for example Portugal Portuguese Traditional Costumes The Alentejo REGION OF PORTUGAL: Southern Portugal SET CONSISTING OF: The costume consists of a skirt, a shirt, a scarf, a hat, socks, apron and shoes. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The costume of the Alentejo woman has no special features, however, during large farm chores, they showed up all dressed up as the work they were performing, the olive harvesting, weeding or harvesting. They also had the custom of wearing some kind of shorts with skirts, pinning him between the legs with a safety pin. Wore a red and yellow alloy cord, which they did and that held their skirts and stockings at once. The socks are usually brightly colored, leather shoes with laces, shirt striped cotton or the flowers, scarf and hat. Aveiro-Salineira REGION OF PORUGAL: Beira litoral Northeast Portugal SET CONSISTING OF: Long skirt and blouse with laces on sleeves. A colourful, fringed, long shawl drawn from left to right. A brown woven wool apron known as sergilha. Black varnished slippers, without socks, and a *canastra in her hand. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The Salineira is a traditional figure in Aveiro. She used to carry a canastra on her head (65 – 75 kg of sea salt), from boats to the warehouses. * Wicker basket. canastra Canastr a Northeast Portugal TRICANA SET CONSISTING OF: A shawl with a silk trimming A black skirt of embroidered silk, with roundness until the ankle; A silk and coloured scarf tied at the front and at the back; A white blouse of fine cotton, with mirror and lace; Handmade, lace-trimmed, cotton, white stockings; Black low-heeled clogs When the Tricana went to the Romaria (traditional party), she used to take the shawl folded in her arm. When she went to the church, she used to wear it round her shoulders. BACKGROUND INFORMATION "Tricana" was a quality of fabric, but later, the same word referred to the woman of the ordinary people who wore a garment made exactly with this fabric. The "Tricana" of 1870 was a woman whose parents were wealthy farmers, and tried to excel when she got dressed to go to any popular feast or to the church. It was the name by which a woman of the people in Coimbra region, but also in Aveiro, Ílhavo and Ovar was known until the beginning of the twentieth century. The Azores REGION OF PORTUGAL: The Azores islands SET CONSISTING OF: Women wear a sober black woollen costume which can be in dark blue. The costume consists of a cloak and hood with a serge skirt with rich trimmings on the lower half, a white pleated shirt with lace and inlays, an embroidered white linen apron, a bright headscarf of the same colour as the skirt and buckled. Men wear a black woollen suit comprised of onepiece pants with openings on the sides, a jacket trimmed in black, waistcoat, white linen shirt embroidered in blue, headdress made of black wool on the outside and red felt on the inside with flaps covering the back and black boots with red trimming Background information: The most distinguished of the Azorean costume is unquestionably the cloak and cap, worn by rich women of the Island of São Miguel, the closest to the European continent. The traditional Capote and Capelo date from the 18th century and are now only worn at traditional festivals. Once an important producer of tea, tobacco, pineapple and oranges, the Azores islands have turned to livestock and tourism as their principal means of income. Beira baixa REGION OF PORTUGAL: Castelo Branco; Centre East Portugal. SET CONSISTING OF: Women wear a black apron (with some traditional drawings); a yellow skirt; a red waistcoat and a white shirt; and some traditional clogs. Some people wear a white lace on their neck and a golden necklace with a traditional Portuguese heart. BACKGROUND INFORMATION “Beira Baixa” is constituted by 13 ”municipalities”. Castelo Branco district: Belmonte, Castelo Branco, Covilhã, Fundão, Idanha-a-Nova, Oleiros, Penamacor, Proença-a-Nova, Sertã, Vila de Rei, Vila Velha de Ródão. Coimbra district: Pampilhosa da Serra. Santarém district: Mação. Varina REGION OF PORTUGAL: Estremadura, West SET CONSISTING OF: Small round hat made of black velvet, and with a feather of the same colour; a colourful scarf placed beneath the hat; blouse with floral themes; a flannel plaid skirt; culottes; an apron with stripes or simple; two petticoats, one of cloth lined and the other with stripes and finally beneath the hat they had a black veil. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: “Varina” is the name given to the women who used to sell fresh fish in a “canastra”*door to door. * Wicker basket. canastra Canastr Madeira island REGION OF PORTUGAL: Archipelago of Madeira, west of Portugal SET CONSISTING OF: Generally speaking, women a multi-coloured striped skirt, a white blouse, a red bodice and a colourful head covering complete this traditional outfit. Men wear white suits with bright sashes and country caps called "barrete de orelhas" (woollen caps with ear flaps). Both men and women wear short sheepskin boots (botas de cano). Background information The origin and evolution of the Madeira traditional costume is not defined yet. It is thought that it had various influences either national or foreign (this includes the North of Portugal, Moors, Africa or Flanders). Regional dances often tell stories of day-to-day activities: the harvest and transportation of grapes (of wheat in Porto Santo) and other labours. The group dance to the sound of music played on native instruments such as the rajão, machete, braquinha and viola. The beat is always kept by a "brinquinho" an instrument that comprises of a stick covered with puppets that have castanets attached to their backs. Minho REGION OF PORTUGAL: Viana do Castelo (Minho) in the North of Portugal. Lavradeira costume SET CONSISTING OF: The base layer is a linen chemise, camisa, with blue floral satin-stitch embroidery on the front, the shoulders, upper sleeves and cuffs. There is a band of smocking at the top of the sleeve as well. The skirt, saia, is made of heavy wool or linen. If of wool, it has a background colour of either red or blue/green, with narrow stripes of other colours widely spaced. It may be left plain or it may have embroidery which matches the black part of the bodice. A kerchief is worn on the head. A similar scarf is worn on the shoulders for the Lavradeira costume. They come in various colours, but they have mostly the same design. The apron, avental, is hand-woven of thick wool; designs are formed by pulling small loops of yarn out, so that the design stands out from the background. It is double gathered in the same way as the skirt. There is a separate bodice, colete, which is always sewn in two parts. The upper part is of the major colour of the outfit, red, blue, or green, and the lower part is black. There is usually an ornament in the shape of a heart. A separate pocket, algibeira, is worn with this costume. It is embroidered and is in the form of a stylized heart. While this is decorative it has a practical purpose in carrying keys, wallets, handkerchiefs, etc. Backless slippers with a low heel, chinelas, are worn, or like many peasants all over Europe they often go barefoot. These may be plain or embroidered. Knit stockings are worn with the chinelas. There also exist stockings without feet, which may be worn when barefoot or with the slippers. The lavradeira costume is not complete without an abundance of gold jewellery. Background information: Bright and vivid colours are a peculiar feature of Portuguese national clothes. In Minho region women prefer bouffant long skirts made of striped or checkered. The red version is considered to be the 'happy' version, and is worn by younger women. The blue or green versions are worn in times of semi-mourning or other sadness, such as the absence of a loved one, and by older women. The red or blue costume was indifferently used by the girls, but when they married almost always said goodbye to red and started using only blue. There is usually a line of embroidery, trim or braid along the seam, and varying amounts of embroidery on the bodice. An amazing variety exists, from quite simple to very colourful and busy. http://folkcostume.blogspot.pt/2013/04/costume-de-lavradeira-viana-do-castelo.html Pauliteiro de Miranda REGION OF PORTUGAL: - Miranda; Northeast Portugal SET CONSISTING OF: Waistcoat in burel* (thick woollen cloth: tweed), embroidered with needlework retail, shirt (cotton or linen), cotton white skirts trimmed with English embroidery. Over the skirts: 4 scarves. Woollen socks, boots, hat trimmed with flowers and two wooden sticks. * Burel is a very durable wool-fabric whose production belongs to an old handicraft typical in the Portuguese mountains Serra da Estrela Background information Pauliteiros de Miranda is the name given to groups of 8 men who dance traditional rhythms of Miranda in northeast Portugal, Tras-os-Montes. One supposes that the use of these skirts by men has Celtic or Roman origins. The shape of this skirt and hat trimmed with flowers had also led to the analysis that this costume could have already been used in celebrations of summer solstice with markedly pagan roots. Nazaré REGION OF PORTUGAL: Nazaré, West Portugal SET CONSISTING OF: Nazarene woman Working women wore several petticoats: first a white one, above this 2 or 3 colourful flannel petticoats, a pocket, one cashmere or terylene petticoat, above all a dark-colour apron with pockets, a simple blouse, headscarf, shawl and mules. However, it was during the feast days that the Nazarene woman showed all her elegance as well as the richness of her family; wearing white under petticoat, above this, several colourful petticoats (the famous 7 full petticoats), covered by a satin apron artistically embroidered, a flowery blouse with lace sleeves, headscarf, black cape, varnish mules, and a gold chain and earrings. Nazarene man The men wore tartan shirts and tartan trousers with a black band wrapped around the waist and a black wool stocking-cap. In the working costume the fishermen wore tartan breeches, pleated and large, with wool strings on the hem, so that men could wear it loose, tight or tucked up, according to their needs. Neither the trousers nor the shirts had pockets and the personal objects were kept inside the stocking-cap. Usually the fishermen walked barefooted. Background information The feminine costume was used either for working or for festivity days, it reflects the woman’s personality, but it is also adapted to her daily work - preparation, selling and drying of the fish. Thus, being practical, functional and protector against the cold and the sea breeze, allowing, at the same time, free movements but keeping the women always covered and “decent”. The fishermen costume was adapted to the conditions of the sea, offering freedom of movements, being simultaneously light and warm.