Types of Argument Classical Argument: Matters for deliberation are argued; that is, issues that have more than one potential resolution. The speaker marshals evidence in part by knowing counter-positions. The speaker attempts to demonstrate superior reasoning by clear logic and excellent support. The speaker demolishes opponent’s position by superiority. Five Canons of Rhetoric (From Cicero) Invention-84 BC- defined invention as the “discovery of valid arguments to render one’s cause probable.” Methods to help invention are brainstorming, nut shelling, and graphic organizers. In journalism, a nut graph is a paragraph, particularly in a feature story, that explains the news value of the story. It is a contraction of the expression "in a nutshell" Arrangement like flowers, writer gets to decide. Classical writers used a house metaphor. For your opening, walk into portico. Get into main idea, open door to threshold. Pause or transition and enter dining room. Look at various courses in dining room. These are bits of evidence. Wash your dishes, say eloquent good bye and depart. Logic is one arrangement of ideas-from general to specific. Syllogism-all men are mortal, Socrates is a man, Socrates is mortal. Universally accepted and true so conclusion is inevitable. The sun rises everyday. This is Tuesday. The sun rose Tuesday. Bad rhetoric gathers support while leaving out major premise. Kate is a woman, of course she is wise. The premise all women are wise is missing. Major premise is arguable. Enthymeme is a syllogism with one of the major premises left out. Arrangement: Introduction-exordium weaves the web Narration-what leads to position Partition-angles or perspectives for deliberation on issue Confirmation-evidence for position Confutation-other side’s less informed position Peroration-final rhetorical move to assure audience of superiority Arrangement: Introduction establishes connection Narration of how speaker came to position. Fair statement of position and possible outcomes. Fair statement of opposing position and possible outcomes, as well as potential opportunities and limitations. Conclusion: rationale for adopting at least some part of a speaker’s position. Style –ornamentation or plain? Addition of figurative language; not added on but intricately a part of the meaning. Memory-memorize; know by heart Delivery-How something is physically presented. Elocution/pitch/volume/gesture/movement Rogerian Persuasion: Matters of deep disagreement or conflict are probed; that is, issues that have a history of lack of resolution. Or, a speaker feels that audience may be hostile to position. The speaker uses evidence and experience to explain position. The speaker attempts to move to action through mediation. Fallacies-Gaps in logic Ad hominem-the argument “to the man” rather than to the idea. Argues personality. He can’t do a good job in office because he is a Catholic. Bandwagon-the argument for group think. Everybody else get to. If it’s popular it must be correct. Non sequiter-an argument that does not follow from the premises advanced. It’s raining on her wedding day so the marriage doesn’t have a chance. Hasty generalizations-an argument that depends on thoughtlessness, too quick judgments from speaker and audience. The enemy is building up weapons, we must declare war now. Beg the Question-Get a job (to a protestor for peace) An argument that assumes a premise rather than proves it; We’re ready to fight because we’re Americans. Slippery Slope-an argument that suggests that one action will necessarily occasion another. When you don’t have Direct TV you get mad; when you get mad you play war games with Charlie Sheen. False cause and effect; no logic or evidence. Straw Man-create an argument you can easily knock down. Gas may be expensive, but beans are cheap. Red Herring- throw off from the subject. No, I don’t know anything about the Middle East, but look how cute my shoes are. Mud Slinging- irrelevant but may be true. He only reads trashy novels, so he can’t be president.