[Sekcija unutar Learn > Language lessons > Pronunciation] (h1) Language Lessons (h2) Pronunciation Most sounds of Vlaški/Žejanski (Vlashki/Zheyanski, also, Istro-Romanian) are very similar to those used in Croatian dialects spoken in the same area of Istria, and they can easily be represented using Croatian letters [link na Library: Vrzić 2009]: a, b, c, č, ć, d, đ, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, lj, m, n, nj, o, p, r, s, š, t, u, v, z, ž. With the exception of ć, lj, and nj, these sounds also exist in standard Romanian. Vlaški/Žejanski has three vowels sounds that are specific to it. In the spelling system adopted here, as well as in others discussed the Writing [link na sekciju Writing] section, these three special vowels are represented as å, â, and ę. They do not exist in Croatian dialects. The vowel â also exists in standard Romanian; it is similar to the English vowel sound pronounced between t and r in turf. The sound represented by the letter ę is very similar to the sound of a in English cat. The vowel sound å does not have a close equivalent in English; it is low rounded back vowel, similar to au in caught. (h3) The sounds of Vlaški/Žejanski The table below lists the most commonly occurring sounds in Vlaški/Žejanski and provides examples for each. The Modified Croatian Orthography [link na sekciju Writing] is used to write the sound and examples down. For those with a more specialized interest, the last column provides the technical notation for each sound, in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), for reference. Click on letters and words to hear them pronounced by a native speaker. Click here [link na pdf ove tablice] to print out the table for your reference. [Sva slova u prvom stupcu I parovi rijeci u drugom stupcu trebaju biti linkana na audiofileove. Audiofajlovi su imenovani po odgovarajucem slovu/rijecima, napr. a.mp3 i akmo-aduce.mp3. NB: Obje rijeci u stupcu Example se nalaze u istom audiofileu, znaci u drugoj koloni, sa svaki par rijeci, imamo samo jedan link.] Letter / Sound Example Sound in IPA a akmo (now), aduče (to bring) a å åb (white), ån (year) ɒ â ân (in), ârpa (stone) ə b bât (stick), bę (to drink) b c cire (to hold, to keep) ts č čirå (to eat dinner), čer (sky) tʃ ć ćå (away), ćåro (very) tŝ d dintru (out of, from), dinte (tooth) d e e (and, but), fečor (child, boy) e ę kadę (to fall), sęra (evening) æ f fini (to finish, to end), filj (son) f g grumb (ugly), gurę (mouth) g h hiti (to throw), hlåd (shadow) h i igręj (to play), Istrijån (Istrian) i j jo (I), ja (yes) j k kę (why), kå (horse) k l la (at, by), lucrå (to work) l lj ljepur (rabbit), ljej (to her) ʎ m måja (mother), månće (earlier, before) m n nęvu (snow), nono (grandfather) nj nj njive (field), ånj (years) ɲ o oklju (eye), opt (eight) o p pâre (bread), per (hair; pear) p r rušire (shame), råda (gladly) r s sâmânj (fair), såre (salt) s š ši (and), šti (to know) ʃ t tari (to wipe), tot (everything, all) t u ur (one), uskå (to dry) u v vir (wine), vęrę (summer) v z zi (day), ziče (to say) z ž živi (to live), žukå (to dance) ʒ (h3) More sounds of Vlaški/Žejanski Other sounds, not listed in the above table, occur in the language less frequently: In words borrowed from Croatian and Italian, a sound similar to the consonants in English judge is used, represented as đ in our spelling, e.g., Đermanije (Germany). In very rare examples of words borrowed from Italian, a sound similar to the sound of ds in English buds is used; it is represented as dz in our spelling, e.g., dzero (zero). As in other languages, the pronunciation of Vlaški/Žejanski varies slightly depending on where it is spoken. For example, many speakers from Šušnjevicę/Šušnjevica pronounce c and č, s and š, and z and ž in the same way. They use one or the other sound of each pair or a sound that's in between those two. Similarly, most speakers from Žejân/Žejane pronounce the sound g as a hoarser sound, /γ/ in a linguist's phonetic notation, used in many other languages, such as Castillian Spanish, Greek, Arabic or Dutch. To find information about a more detailed and technical account of the Vlaški/Žejanski sound system, click here [link na Library: Kovačec 1998].