15.0 Animal Growth & Production 15.1 Physiological needs MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Parasites rob animals of ____ and ____ which are essential for growth and weight gain. a. water, nutrients b. nutrients, energy c. energy, strength d. muscle, hormones 2. 2. Good ____ is desirable in those animals being raised for food. a. disposition b. fat c. muscling d. tone 3. 3. The term ____ is defined as all of the cartilage solidifying to the end of the bone and the bone stops growing. a. fossilizing b. osteoporosis c. elongation d. ossification 4. Bone meal is a good source of: a. minerals b. carbohydrates c. vitamins d. protein 5. Cereal grains are a good source of: a. minerals b. carbohydrates c. vitamins d. protein 6. When a student shows at a fair, which one of the following practices should not be observed? a. animal is feed and watered regularly b. fresh bedding is distributed daily c. waste material is removed daily d. grooming of animal is left until it is showtime MATCHING Match the definition with the correct prenatal growth stage below. A. organs fully develop _______ 7. embryonic stage B. fertilized egg begins to divide and form a mass _______ 8. fetal stage of cells that attach to the uterine wall C. the blastula begins to grow and cells begin to _______ 9. ovum stage change and take on different characteristics COMPLETION 10. An increase in the size of cells is called ____________________ and ____________________ is an increase in the number of cells. 11. The blastula develops into three distinct layers, which are ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________. 12. The process of differentiated tissue developing into organs is called ____________________. 13. The ____________________ and ____________________ are proportionally larger at the time of birth than any other time. SHORT ANSWER 14. Fat tissue serves what two purposes? 15. Name two factors which have an effect on the growth rate of an animal. 16. Identify two physical changes which may happen to an animal as it ages. 17. What is the name of the first milk from the mother and why is it important to the newborn animal? 18. Why is it beneficial to castrate male animals that are being raised for slaughter? 19. How is the physiological age of an animal determined? 15.2 Health Control MULTIPLE CHOICE 20. What is the term for microorganisms which cause disease? a. antibiotics b. infections c. pathogens d. toxins 21. Bacterial infections are usually treated by using a class of drugs known as ____. a. penicillin b. antibiotics c. vaccinations d. antigens 22. The most difficult to treat of the disease-causing agents are ____. a. pathogens b. viruses c. protozoa d. bacteria 23. Single celled organisms which cause disease in animals are ____. a. viruses b. antibodies c. protozoa d. penicillin 24. Which system of an animal’s body helps to protect it from pathogens? a. endocrine b. immune c. respiratory d. digestive 25. Sanitation is important because: a. relieve stress b. prevent disease c. saves money d. all the above 26. Manure should be cleaned from buildings: a. daily b. weekly c. monthly d. immediately after an animal defecates 27. Feed should be provide to animals: a. on the ground b. old grease barrel c. nonporous container/feeder d. old insecticide container 28. A carcass must be buried at least: a. two feet deep b. four feet deep c. six feet deep d. eight feet deep 29. In preventing diseases in a feedlot, which of the following would be the most important? a. rotate pasture b. separate larger animals from the smaller ones c. trim hoofs of animals d. dispose of manure 30. Sam Jones observes that his cattle have the same disease they had two months ago. At that time, he treated the animals with the proper medication. These animals are still on the same pasture. Which one of the following recommendations might help solve his problem? a. give the animals more medication b. use a good pasture rotation c. call the veterinarian d. quarantine the diseases animals COMPLETION 31. ____________________ diseases are caused by other living organisms and ____________________ diseases are caused by genetic defects or malnutrition. 32. The most common pathogen which has over 2,000 different species is ____________________. 33. Viruses cause disease by using up material in the cell which the cell needs to ____________________ and ____________________. 34. The membranes at the body openings of an animal secrete a viscous watery substance called ____________________. 35. White blood cells called ____________________ trap and destroy antigens in the blood. Other white blood cells called ____________________ create “memory cells” to provide immunity to certain diseases within an animal. FILL IN THE BLANK: Write the correct answer on the line provided using the word bank below. Parasite Rotation Injury Temperature Disease Disinfectant 36. 37. control is necessary to prevent chilled animals in the winter or heat strained animals in the summer. of pastures is an approved practice with all classes of livestock. 38. A by the physical cleaning. should be used to kill any residual microorganisms that are not removed 39. Manure, urine, bedding and unused feed should not be allowed to accumulate in the animal’s pen. These can be breeding grounds for and organism. 40. Excessively wet or damp areas due to poor drainage can led to disease or by animals or humans. due to slippage SHORT ANSWER 41. List two methods antibiotics use to fight bacteria. 42. Describe how bacteria cause disease in an animal's body. 43. Who developed the process of vaccination and how does it work? 44. Explain the two types of immunity. 15.3 Reproduction Practices MULTIPLE CHOICE 45. The dividing of embryos to produce more than one genetically identical individual is called ____. a. b. c. d. embryo transplant fertilization artificial insemination cloning 46. Sperm quality is determined by ____. a. number b. motility c. shape d. all of the above 47. The life of sperm is only about ____ days. a. 1 to 2 b. 2 to 3 c. 3 to 4 d. 4 to 5 48. The process of sperm from the male entering the female by direct contact between the animals is known as: a. artificial insemination b. natural breeding c. natural selection d. all the above 49. All of the following are limitations of natural breeding except: a. slower genetic improvement of the breed b. cost of maintaining sires c. possibility of passing on poor traits or diseases to offspring d. requires special equipment 50. Artificial insemination is considered undesirable by some stockmen because it: a. lessons sire costs b. helps control disease c. improves sire market d. requires trained technicians TRUE/FALSE 51. Females have to be monitored closely to determine when they are ready for mating. 52. Artificial insemination is less labor-intensive than natural mating. 53. Extenders also provide protection to the sperm during the freezing procedures. 54. The estrus cycle is a chain of events that occur as certain hormones are released. 55. Breeders would greatly prefer to produce almost all male calves. COMPLETION 56. The meticulous records that are kept of a sire’s offspring yield data called ____________________. 57. Injections of ____________________ can cause female farm animals to come into estrus. 58. ____________________ refers to the activity of the sperm and ____________________ refers to the shape of the sperm. 59. The process of ____________________ synchronization is accomplished through the use of artificial hormones that stimulate the ovary into follicle development. 60. Sperm cells are analyzed and sorted using a flow _________________________. 15.4 Biotech in growth & repro MULTIPLE CHOICE 61. Documentation of the first successful use of artificial insemination was in ____. a. 1680 b. 1780 c. 1880 d. 1980 62. ____ is used as a protectant prior to freezing semen. a. Glucose b. Vaseline c. Plasma d. Glycerin 63. Frozen sperm is stored at temperatures of approximately ____. a. –320ºF b. –250ºF c. –150ºF d. –100ºF 64. According to legend, the first people to use artificial insemination were the ____. a. Greeks b. Egyptians c. Arabs d. Chinese 65. The successful transfer of embryos from one female to another became widespread during the ____. a. 1960s b. 1970s c. 1980s d. 1990s 66. Bull semen can be sorted into X and Y chromosomes with a(n) ____ accuracy. a. 50–65% b. 65–85% c. 85–95% d. 100% 67. The chromosome sorting process works because ____. a. more dye clings to sperm with the X chromosome b. the Y chromosome is larger c. more dye clings to the sperm with the Y chromosome d. the sperm with the X chromosome has less motility 68. Bull semen has been successfully stored for as long as ____ years. a. 5 b. 10 c. 30 d. 40 69. The first genetically altered calf clones were produced in ____. a. 1994 b. 1996 c. 1998 d. 2000 70. Several methods of gene ____ are currently being used by scientists to change the structure of an organism. a. mixing b. matching c. marking d. manipulation 71. The first high order animal to be cloned was a ____. a. cow b. dog c. sheep d. horse 72. Which of the following is not a benefit of semen evaluation: a. prevents use of semen with slow motility b. prevents use of semen with low morphology c. gender preselection d. prevents the use of semen with undesirable genetic traits 73. Which livestock species would preselect males because they grow faster: a. beef and swine b. sheep and dairy c. swine and dairy d. beef and sheep 74. What is the benefit of bST? a. enhance meat production in beef b. enhance meat production in sheep c. enhance milk production in dairy d. enhance milk production in sheep TRUE/FALSE 75. The technology of artificial insemination added little to animal agriculture. 76. Only a limited number of dairies depend on artificial insemination for impregnating milk cows. 77. All the processes used in improving efficiency of reproduction involve biotechnology. 78. When using the embryo transfer process, some embryos may be frozen for implantation at a later date. 79. When using artificial insemination, several females can be bred from one ejaculation. 80. Biotechnology allows the production of many offspring from a superior male or female. 81. It is predicted that cloned animals will never be commercially feasible. 82. One of the goals of the Agriculture Research Service has been to provide livestock producers the ability to predetermine the sex of offspring. 83. When experimenting with dye for identifying sex chromosomes, the X sperm always glows brighter. 84. Bovine somatotropin (BST) is a naturally occurring hormone of cattle. 85. A transgenic animal is one that has been cloned so that there is a duplicate of that animal. 86. The earliest method of livestock improvement was probably by selection. MATCHING Match the following biotechnology terms. _______ 87. insulin _______ 88. bovine somatotropin _______ 89. porcine somatotropin _______ 90. Ice-minus A. increased milk production B. increased meat production in swine C. genetically engineered frost retardant D. genetically engineered E. coli Directions: Write the corresponding letter to the right description in the line provided. A. Chemical messengers produced by cells in one part _______ 91. 29. Biotechnology of an organism and are transported to another region with the animal where they bring about physiological responses. 92. 30. Embryo Transfer B. Process of removing and/or inserting genetic _______ material in order to change an organism’s trait. _______ 93. 31. Vaccines C. Manipulation of living organisms to make new or improved products. _______ 94. 32. Growth Hormone D. The transfer of viable embryos from a high quality donor female into a lower quality more maternal recipient female. _______ 95. 33. Genetic Engineering E. Substances that contain live, modified, or dead organisms or their products that is injected into an animal in attempt to protect the host from a disease caused by that particular organism. COMPLETION 96. ____________________ was used to do the first gene splicing. 97. Breeders can take advantage of naturally-occurring mutations to make ____________________ in plants and animals. 98. Another method of inserting DNA is through the use of ____________________ or small rings of DNA from bacteria. 99. During the embryo transfer process, an average of ____________________ embryos are collected with each flush. 100. ____________________ percent of newborn pigs in the United States are produced through artificial insemination. SHORT ANSWER 101. Explain why historians say artificial insemination was used hundreds of years ago. 102. Discuss the drive to determine sex in animal production. 103. Name the term used for designing new varieties of plants and animals. 104. Define mutations and give an example in cattle. 105. What is recombinant DNA? 106. What does BST stand for and what does it do for cattle? 107. Describe artificial insemination (AI). 108. What is the main advantage of embryo transplant in cattle? 109. Describe the two methods of cloning. 110. How was Johnson able to separate sperm even though he could not see them with the naked eye? 111. List some of the endless possibilities in agriculture that can be brought about by genetic sequencing. 15.5 Careers in Growth & Production MULTIPLE CHOICE 112. A(n) ____ has responsibility for collecting semen or flushing embryos from donor cows. a. b. c. d. animal husbandry worker lab assistant plant breeder animal technician TRUE/FALSE 113. The financial rewards of most jobs are usually tied to the amount of preparation required to succeed on those jobs. 114. A manufacturing technician job requires an associate’s degree. 115. An instrument calibration technician job requires a master’s degree in engineering. 116. A good marketing sales department is the lifeline of any company. 117. A market research analyst determines the best price at which to market a product. 118. The education requirement of a market research analyst is an associate’s degree in marketing.