THE PAST SIMPLE (REGULAR VERBS) Spelling Rules Add –ed to the base form of most verbs start started finish finished watch watched Add only –d when the base form ends in an –e. live lived dance danced If the verbs ends in a consonant +y, change the y to i and add –ed spy spied fry fried dry dried If the verb has one syllable and ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant, double the final consonant and add –ed (Don’t double the final w or x). stop stopped clap clapped rob robbed If the verb has two syllables, and the final syllable is stressed, double the final consonant and add –ed (except travel- travelled) admit admitted occur occurred permit permitted Pronunciation of final –ed After unvoiced sounds such as p, k, f, s, , and the final -ed is pronounced like t as in the word cat. Note that the -e remains silent. After voiced sounds such as b, , g, v, z, , , m, n, ŋ, l, and r the final -ed sound is pronounced like d as in good. Note that the -e remains silent. The final -ed is also pronounced like the d in good after all vowel sounds. Note that the -e remains silent. For verbs ending in d and t the final -ed is pronounced id as in the final two letters of the word did. Note that here the -e is not silent and this final -ed sound adds another syllable to the end of the verb.