COURSE SYLLABUS - Argosy University Dissertation Site

Argosy University
Ed.D. Organizational Leadership
Theory and Development of Motivation
Faculty Information
Faculty Name:
Contact Information:
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Short Faculty Bio:
Course description: This course covers the theory and development of motivation.
Major interest is placed on motivation, models, and strategies for enhancing motivation in
individuals and groups, variables affecting (and affected by) motivation and
environmental influences on motivation.
Course Pre-requisites: None
Required Textbook: Title: Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental
Deckers, L
Edition/Copyright: (3rd Ed.) 2010
Allyn & Bacon
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
(5th ed.). (2001).
American Psychological Association. Washington, D. C.:
(ISBN#: 1-55798-810-2)
Required Articles: Article information will be provided for each module as
Journal Articles (Articles not listed for specific modules are optional resources):
Gagne, M. & Deci, E. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of
Organizational Behavior, 26(4). 32 p.
Seo, M., Barrett, L. F., Bartunek, J (2004). The role of affective experience in work
motivation. Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 423-439.
Bowey, A. (2005). Motivation: The art of putting theory into practice. European
Business Forum, 20, 17-20. ISSN: 1469-6460
Ramlall, S. (2004). A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for
employee retention within organizations.
Journal of American Academy of
Business, Cambridge, 5, no. 1/2 (Sep 2004): p. 52-63, No. 653882471, copyright
Journal of American Academy of Business September 2004
Reis, D. & Pena, L. (2001). Reengineering the motivation to work. Management
Decision, 39(8), 666-675. ISSN: 0025-1747 Number: 259618571
Isaac, R. G., Zerbe, W. J., & Pitt, D. C.(2001). Leadership and motivation: The effective
application of expectancy theory. Journal of Managerial Issues. 13(2), 212-226.
ISSN: 1045-3695 Number 76143555, Copyright Pittsburg State University,
Department of Economics Summer 2001
Locke, E. and Latham, G. (2004).What should we do about motivation theory? Six
recommendations for the twenty-first century. Academy of Management Review,
29 (3), 388-403.
Argyris, C (1998). Empowerment: The emperor's new clothes. Harvard Business Review,
76(3), 98-105.
Hoffman, E. (1988). Abraham Maslow: Father of enlightened management. Training,
25(9), 79-82.
Quick, T. L (1988). Expectancy theory in five simple steps. Training and Development
Journal, 42(7), 30-32.
Klein, H. (1989). An integrated control theory model of work motivation. Academy of
Management Review, 14(2), 150-172.
Course length: 7.5 Weeks
Contact Hours: 45 Hours
Credit Value: 3.0
Program Outcomes:
1. Leadership in Teams: Given an organizational situation, identify strategies to develop,
maintain, motivate, and sustain self-managed teams using concepts, theories and techniques of
team leadership.
2. Collaboration in Teams: Given a case study or leadership situation, collect, assimilate,
disseminate, and maximize the views of team stakeholders in order to reach defensible goals
with minimal conflict.
3. Conflict: Given an organizational situation that requires interpersonal or interdepartmental
action, identify situations of conflict, diagnose the impact of both overt and covert behavior, and
develop a plan for conflict resolution using evidence-based methods.
4. Ethics: Given an organizational setting, identify ethical and dilemma-resolution
practices, and make evidence-based decisions that integrate personal, social, and
corporate responsibility.
5. Communication: Communicate orally and in writing to individuals and groups in a concise,
clear, organized, and well-supported manner using formats and technology relevant to the
organizational context.
6. Motivation: Given a leadership situation, identify workplace commitment
theories to incorporate influences and power as a leader to motivate
organizational stakeholders.
7. Research: Given an organizational need to evaluate and defend its actions or
potential actions, select, analyze, and apply the assessment techniques, research
methods, and/or statistical analyses needed to evaluate and defend those actions
based on evidence
8. Knowledge and Understanding of the Field: Demonstrate competency in
identifying and integrating the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, historical
trends, and key figures in the field of organizational leadership.
9. Change: Evaluate the impact of change on organizations, organizational
members, and other stakeholders and apply appropriate change models and
theories to facilitate successful change.
10. Global diversity: Analyze and evaluate the involvement of diversity in leadership
issues, with special attention to the implications of diversity for individuals,
organizations, and societies.
11. Interpersonal Effectiveness: Achieve personal development and demonstrate
positive relationship skills via effective communication, respect for others, and
awareness of their impact on others.
Course Objectives:
1. Given access to recommended texts and peer-reviewed journals, students will define,
through written assignments, and class discussions the concept of motivation and
identify the major historical developments and constructs of motivational theory.
Program outcomes 5, 6, 7, and 8
2. Given access to recommended texts and literature, students will define via written
assignments and class discussion the psychological, environmental, and cognitive
variables that impact motivation. Program Outcomes 5, 6, 7, and 8
3. Given access to recommended texts and peer-reviewed journals, students will
describe and analyze through written assignments how past motivation theories and
practices apply to today’s global organizational environments. Program Outcomes
5,6, 7, and 10
4. Given access to journals and texts that address culture, students conduct a literature
review and will identify through written product how country culture, gender and
ethnicity impacts motivation. Students will juxtapose major theories that describe
gender, country culture and ethnicity and their relationships to organizational culture
to the major constructs of motivation theory. Students will also identify and report on
the gaps in the motivation literature relative to diversity and identify opportunities for
new research. Program Outcomes 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10
5. Given the posit that “good human beings will generally need a good society in which
to grow (Maslow, 1970)”, students will develop a cognitive map of their
understanding of the relationships between internal motivation and exemplary
leadership practices; identifying good leadership skills and practices impact employee
motivation, and how each of these relationships yield organizational effectiveness.
Students will demonstrate through written analysis of their cognitive map how these
relationships are germane to multiple organizational settings. Program Outcomes
5,6,7,8 and 9
6. Given access to journal data bases, students will, through written assignments,
critically evaluate the historical and current motivation theories to their own
observations of motivational issues in the workplace and identity and articulate where
they see the gaps that are appropriate for new research, based upon their juxtaposition
of theory to practice. Program Outcomes 5,6,7,8, and 9
7. Given access to journal data bases, students will demonstrate their understanding,
through written analysis how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation impacts ethical
decision making in organizations. Program Outcomes 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9
Assignment Table
Module Chapters
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Quick, T.L,
Expectancy Theory
in Five Simple
Steps, Training and
Journal, v.42n7,
July 1988, p. 30-32
Klein, H. An
integrated Control
Theory Model of
Work Motivation,
Academy of
Review, v. 14n2,
April, 1989, p. 150172
1.Compare and contrast the
definition of motivation and of
emotion. (/ch1)
2. Must internal sources and
complementary in order for
motivation to occur? For example,
is it possible to motivate a person
with food if she is not hungry or
with food she does not like? Is it
possible to motivate an employee
with incentives (i.e., money, time,
status) if the employee does not
value those incentives. (Ch1)
Assignment 1: Biographical
Create a brief bio (one-half to
three-quarter page.)
Your bio may include information
about your professional or student
or extracurricular experience,
educational background, the
degree etc.
2. Give some examples of how
your evolutionary history and
personal history interact to
motivate behavior.(Ch2)
1. Provide examples of human
behavior for which the innate
components seem to predominate
over the learned components (refer
to figure 3.1 in the textbook).(Ch3)
2. What aspects of human
emotions appear to be more innate
and what aspects learned (refer to
figure 3.1 in the textbook).(Ch3)
Chapter 4
Chapter 7
Seo, M., Barrett, L.
F. , Bartunek, J.,
The role of
Discussion Question:
1. Alcohol and nicotine are
two legal drugs. What are
experience in work
Academy of
Review, 29, no. 3,
July 2004, p. 423439
the pros and cons of
legalizing other drugs,
such as marijuana,
cocaine, and heroin?
Consider that legalizing
drugs incorporates
motivation as a significant
variable in its design and
2. What are the motivational
issues that may challenge
“addictive behaviors” in the
workplace? (Ch4)
Assignment 3:
Choose a Research Article that
focuses on an addictive behavior
that you have experience with or
that may occur in the workplace.
Identify and articulate where you
see the gaps that are appropriate
for new research, based upon your
juxtaposition of theory to practice.
The research evaluation should be
conducted using the criteria
provided in the syllabus under
Critique of Journal Articles.
Discussion Questions:
1. Do you know anyone with
PTSD? What are the individual's
2 .What additional personality traits
and/or behaviors serve to buffer
individuals against stressors and
3. Provide two techniques that are
useful in combating stress in the
workplace (references should also
be provided) (Ch7)
4. Provide two physical illnesses
that develop as a result of stress.
(references should be provided
with your responses) (Ch7)
Assignment 4:
Conduct a brief literature review
that will identify how culture and
gender, and ethnicity impact on
behavior, stress, and motivation.
Chapter 8
Critical Thinking Discussion
1. How psychological needs cause
behavior is an example of the
mind-body (brain) problem. How
can psychological needs, entities of
the mind, cause behaviors, which
are entities of the body?
2. Describe the relationships to
organizational culture with the
major constructs of motivation
theory. (Program Outcomes 510)
Assignment 5:
Basic Assumption: Good
human beings will generally
need a good society in which to
grow (Maslow, 1970)
Students will develop a
cognitive map of their
understanding of the
relationships between internal
motivation and exemplary
leadership practices; identifying
how good leadership skills and
practices impact employee
motivation, and how each of
these relationships yield
organizational effectiveness.
(Program Outcomes 5, 6,7,
8, 9)
Define intrinsic motivation and
contrast it with extrinsic motivation.
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 10: Extrinsic and
Intrinsic Motivation.
Design or research an assessment
measure that will provide
information about an individual’s
extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in
the workplace. Provide information
on reliability, validity, and outcome
of the instrument.
Assignments: Present significant
elements of Exercise from
Chapter 8 for Class Discussion
Discussion Questions:
1. What is life like without goals?
Do you know any people who
seem to have no goals? What is
their behavior like?
2. How closely are people’s goals
matched to their abilities? Are there
people you know whose goals are
way below their abilities and others
whose goals exceed their abilities?
Do you think achievement valence
depends on a match between a
person's goal level and ability?
Develop an ethical issue and
discuss how intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation impacts the decision
making in organizations. (Program
Outcomes (3-9)
Chapter 12
Gagne, M. and
Deci, E. JSelfdetermination
theory and work
motivation, Journal
of Organizational
Behavior 26, no. 4,
, Least Effort and the Economics of
1. Can you give an example
contrary to the principle of least
effort, i.e., we do something
june 2005. 32 pages because it costs more or requires
more effort? Remember, all else
in length
must be equal and only cost or
effort varies. For example, the goal
of the desired floor is achieved with
less effort when the elevator rather
than the stairs are used. However,
the stairs may provide an added
benefit, such as exercise. Thus, the
goal floor plus exercise is a more
valuable incentive than the goal
floor alone. Furthermore, when the
cost of waiting for the elevator is
added on, then taking the elevator
may seem more effortful than
immediately climbing the stairs.
Chapter 9
Locke, e. and
Latham, G. What
should we do about
motivation theory?
for the twenty-first
century, Academy
of Management
Review, 29, no. 3,
July 2004, p. 388403
Discussion Question:
Use the definitions of selfconcept and self-esteem and
describe how each would
impact an individual's level of
motivation and success/ failure
in completing a task. Post your
response by Friday, April
10th. Any missing
assignments should also be
posted by Friday to receive
Identify effective methods for the
motivation of “problem
employees” (Nicholson, 2003).
What skills must leaders Identify
effective methods for the
motivation develop to succeed in
this responsibility? Discuss your
own effectiveness and/or need for
development in this area. If
appropriate, identify action steps
for professional development
The theory and
practice of
motivation to
real world
Ramlall, S. , A
Review of
Theories and their
Review article and discuss
how it relates to the practice
of motivation to real world
Implications for
Employee Retention
Journal of
American Academy
of Business,
Camabridge 5, no.
1/2, Sept. 2004, p.
52-63, No.
Final Project
Final Projects are Due
Grading Criteria
Grading Scale
Grading requirements
100 -93
92 – 90
89 – 88
87 – 83
82 – 80
79 – 78
77 – 73
72 – 70
69 and below
Attendance/participation and
quality of classroom
Weekly Assignments
Final paper
Course Evaluation Criteria:
Assignment 1: ___
_Brief Student Bio
5 pts
Assignment 2: ___
_Written Assignment of
Discussion Questions
5 pts
Assignment 3: ___
__Research Article
5 pts
Assignment 4:
_Literature review on
gender, culture, stress
5 pts
Assignment 5: ___
_Written Assignment on
Relationships between
motivation & good
leadership practices
5 pts
Due Date
Relationship to
Relationship to
research, critical
1, 2, 3, 4, 6
1, 2, 3, 7
Change, Global
Assignment 6:
Assignment 7: ___
Critique of Journal Article 2-3 Pages (10 points of Total Grade)
The purpose of this project is to develop/enhance critical thinking skills.
Select an article from an academic or professional journal related to the course. Articles from
trade journals, news magazines or newspapers are not acceptable. Provide a summary and a
critique of the article.
Write a critical evaluation of the article judging the credibility and reliability of the research. You
may use the following questions in your analysis:
Who is the researcher cited? (Authors should be cited using APA format)
What is the affiliation of the researcher or the research team?
What is the assumption or hypothesis on which the research is based?
How was the research conducted (methodology)?
What are the researcher’s findings?
What are the researcher’s conclusions?
Do the findings support the conclusions?
What does the researcher suggests needs to be done in the future?
What did the author not do well in the article?
Is the research applicable to organization’s today?
Final Paper: Consultation on motivational issues
Identify an organization at which you work, attend, play or have some other affiliation. Assume
the role of an external consultant retained to deal with a team, department, or organization in
which the employees (or members) do not seem motivated to perform at a level consistent with
their ability. Prepare a consultation paper on the issues to be presented to management or the
Present an analysis of how the assessment was conducted on an individual and systemic basis.
Describe theoretical and research basis of findings. Present a plan of corrective intervention that
has as an objective enhancing the motivation to perform of employee’s (or team or group
The analysis should be a scholarly written paper, based on the theoretical and practical
perspectives of the readings and research on theories and development of motivation.
The paper shall be from 7-10 pages in length.
appropriate citations and references.
It shall comply with APA standards, with
Course Evaluation Criteria
Total Grade
100 points
Due Date
Relationship to
Relationship to
Question & OnLine Questions
15 points (max of
3 per week)
1, 2, 3, 4, 6
30 points (5 per
10 points
research, critical
ethics, diversity
ethics, diversity
Article Critique
10 points
Final Paper
35 points
points for the
2, 6, 5, 8
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8
1, 6, 7,
2, 4, 5, 6, 7,
All resources in Argosy University’s online collection are available through the Internet.
The campus librarian will provide students with links, user IDs, and passwords.
Library Resources: Argosy University’s core online collection features nearly 21,000
full-text journals and 23,000 electronic books and other content covering all academic
subject areas including Business & Economics, Career & General Education, Computers,
Engineering & Applied Science, Humanities, Science, Medicine & Allied Health, and
Social & Behavior Sciences. Many titles are directly accessible through the Online
Public Access Catalog at Detailed descriptions of online
resources are located at
In addition to online resources, Argosy University’s onsite collections contain a wealth of
subject-specific research materials searchable in the Online Public Access Catalog.
Catalog searching is easily limited to individual campus collections. Alternatively,
students can search combined collections of all Argosy University Libraries. Students
are encouraged to seek research and reference assistance from campus librarians.
Information Literacy: Argosy University’s Information Literacy Tutorial was developed
to teach students fundamental and transferable research skills. The tutorial consists of
five modules where students learn to select sources appropriate for academic-level
research, search periodical indexes and search engines, and evaluate and cite information.
In the tutorial, students study concepts and practice them through interactions. At the
conclusion of each module, they can test their comprehension and receive immediate
feedback. Each module takes less than 20 minutes to complete. Please view the tutorial
Academic Policies
Academic Dishonesty/Plagiarism: In an effort to foster a spirit of honesty and integrity
during the learning process, Argosy University requires that the submission of all course
assignments represent the original work produced by that student. All sources must be
documented through normal scholarly references/citations and all work must be
submitted using the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th
Edition (2001). Washington DC: American Psychological Association (APA) format.
Please refer to Appendix A in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association, 5th Edition for thesis and paper format. Students are encouraged to
purchase this manual (required in some courses) and become familiar with its content as
well as consult the Argosy University catalog for further information regarding academic
dishonesty and plagiarism.
Scholarly writing: The faculty at Argosy University is dedicated to providing a learning
environment that supports scholarly and ethical writing, free from academic dishonesty
and plagiarism. This includes the proper and appropriate referencing of all sources. You
may be asked to submit your course assignments through “Turnitin,”
(, an online resource established to help educators develop
writing/research skills and detect potential cases of academic dishonesty. Turnitin
compares submitted papers to billions of pages of content and provides a comparison
report to your instructor. This comparison detects papers that share common information
and duplicative language.
Americans with Disabilities Act Policy
It is the policy of Argosy University to make reasonable accommodations for qualified
students with disabilities, in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
If a student with disabilities needs accommodations, the student must notify the Director
of Student Services. Procedures for documenting student disability and the development
of reasonable accommodations will be provided to the student upon request.
Students will be notified by the Director of Student Services when each request for
accommodation is approved or denied in writing via a designated form. To receive
accommodation in class, it is the student’s responsibility to present the form (at his or her
discretion) to the instructor. In an effort to protect student privacy, the Department of
Student Services will not discuss the accommodation needs of any student with
instructors. Faculty may not make accommodations for individuals who have not been
approved in this manner.
The Argosy University Statement Regarding Diversity
Argosy University prepares students to serve populations with diverse social, ethnic,
economic, and educational experiences. Both the academic and training curricula are
designed to provide an environment in which students can develop the skills and attitudes
essential to working with people from a wide range of backgrounds.