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NCEA Level 1 Agricultural and Horticultural Science (90160) 2006 — page 1 of 4
Assessment Schedule – 2006
Agricultural and Horticultural Science: Describe the environmental impact of primary
production management (90160)
Evidence Statement
Q
Evidence
1 (a)-(c)
(i)
Depicted farming practice:
A Overcrowding of pen / paddock
can cause pugging, erosion or
dung build up.
B Spraying inorganic chemicals on
weeds can leave toxins in the
soil, and may drift onto
neighbour’s organic property
C Effluent washed into streams can
cause pollution or excess plant
growth
D Topsoil can be lost when the soil
is dry and ploughed on windy
days
E Chemicals can be blown into
waterways if applied by plane or
too close to the water.
Achievement
CODE
1 (a)-(c)
(ii)
Explanation of harmful effect of
practice:
A Erosion of soil results in a loss of
nutrients / more fertiliser being
needed; pugging compacts the
soil and destroys the structure;
dung results in pollution due to
the restricted area in which the
animals can defecate
B The chemicals can remain in the
soil for a very long time and
prevent the neighbour from
selling produce as organic
C There is an increased growth of
bacteria that take up the
dissolved oxygen in the water,
preventing fish, etc from
absorbing it. The effluent can
also carry pathogenic diseases.
Eutrophication and algal bloom
occurs, killing fish.
D There will be loss of the fertile
topsoil from the ploughed
paddock and loss of soil
structure, so inorganic fertilisers
will be needed
E Spraying by plane will result in
the fertiliser being spread over a
wider area than intended and into
the river. Eutrophication and algal
bloom will occur killing fish.
CODE
Judgement
Merit
Correctly describes
the environmental
impact of the
practice.
(Award ONE A for
each correct
description, up to
THREE)
1, 2, or 3 × A
Correctly explains
how the practice
harms the
environment.
(Award ONE M for
each correct
explanation, up to
THREE)
1, 2, or 3 × M
Excellence
NCEA Level 1 Agricultural and Horticultural Science (90160) 2006 — page 2 of 4
Q
Evidence
2 (a)-(c)
(i)
Better farming practice:
A Fewer stock should be in the paddock
/ pen
B An organic herbicide or a form of
biological control should be used, or
the weeds removed by hand
C A settling pond should be used before
the water enters the river
D Minimum tillage should be used if the
crop allows OR the plough only used
when the weather permits (ie when it
is still)
E A truck should be used to spread the
chemicals OR spraying should only be
carried out by plane away from rivers
Achievement
CODE
2 (a)-(c)
(ii)
Explanation of practice:
A With fewer stock there will be more
feed and the soil will not be eroded as
quickly
B The residue period for the herbicide
will be shorter and so cause less soil
pollution. Biological control affects
only the intended plant / pest.
Chipping out the weeds does not
involve use of chemicals so there is
no build up in the soil or spray drift
C Any faecal matter will be removed and
the pathogens will be killed by sunlight
so the water will not be polluted and/or
the bacteria free remains can then be
spread over the farm as organic
fertiliser
D Using minimum tillage the soil
structure will not be damaged,
allowing for better retention of
nutrients, etc and reduced wind
erosion of the topsoil OR only
ploughing on still days should reduce
the loss of topsoil on windy days
E Using a truck rather than a plane
means that the chemicals are applied
more directly and are less likely to be
spread over rivers, OR aerial spraying
chemicals well away from waterways
means that there will be less drift into
the river and less eutrophication/ plant
growth.
CODE
Judgement
Merit
Correctly
describes the
practice.
(Award ONE A
for each correct
description, up to
THREE)
1, 2, or 3 × A
Correctly explains
how the practices
harm the
environment.
(Award ONE M
for each correct
explanation, up to
THREE)
1, 2, or 3 × M
Excellence
NCEA Level 1 Agricultural and Horticultural Science (90160) 2006 — page 3 of 4
Q
3 (a)
Evidence
Achievement
Growers / farmers would have used
inorganic insecticides (such as organophosphate) not herbicides
CODE
3 (b)
A
The residue (which is toxic to animals) from
the chemicals that had been sprayed in the
past is still in the soil today. Using the
insects’ own pheromones to attract and then
kill them will only affect the target insect, as
will using a predator to control the pests.
This is much kinder on the environment as
no chemicals will enter the soil.
Explains why
using pheromone
traps and
predator insects
is better for the
environment than
spraying with
chemicals.
M
The best method is: wind machines
During a frost, the air above the trees is
warmer than that near the ground. Wind
machines prevent frost from damaging
crops by mixing air above the trees – mixing
the air will increase the temperature around
the trees so the blossoms will not be
damaged.
A negative aspect of wind machines is that
they can be very noisy and may disturb
neighbours, especially when they are used
very early in the morning.
Describes a
method that is
positive on the
environment.
Diesel burners release smoke into the air,
causing pollution, which wind machines do
not.
Sprinklers are very effective but require a
lot of water to be sprayed onto the crop to
ensure a steady amount of water freezes
onto the plants. This means that more water
than needed to irrigate plants is being taken
from aquifers or rivers, which is wasteful.
The crop may also require additional
support for the extra weight of the frozen
water.
Soils may become waterlogged if they have
a clay texture resulting in diseases, cold soil
temperatures, lack of root respiration etc
Cloth covers take time to put in place and
are not appropriate for crops that are too
tall. Also the cloth can tear easily.
Planting on hillsides works because the
cold frosted air flows away down the slope.
This is fine if the property has hills otherwise
is obviously not appropriate. Another
problem with hill sides is that if they are too
steep it can be difficult and dangerous to
use machinery.
NOTE: Cost is
not a factor as it
is not an
environmental
impact.
CODE
Excellence
Describes the
use of artificial
sprays used to
control insect
pests.
CODE
4
Judgement
Merit
Method selected
must be ONE of:
Explains the
impact of the
method on the
environment.
Compares it to
THREE of the
other methods.
Justifies the
selection of wind
machines by
comparing and
contrasting with
ALL the other
methods.
 wind machines,
 frost cloths
 planting on
hillsides
A
Method selected
must be one of:
 wind machines,
 frost cloths
 planting on
hillsides
M
E
NCEA Level 1 Agricultural and Horticultural Science (90160) 2006 — page 4 of 4
Judgement Statement
Achievement
Achievement with Merit
Achievement with Excellence
5A
5M+5A
1E+5M+5A
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