Name _________________________________ Period _____ Date ________________ Physical and Ecological Processes 1. Plate Tectonics The surface of the earth is constantly changing due to ________________________ and ___________________ and ________________________ . The surface of the earth looks like one continuous piece but it is actually broken into several large pieces that fit together like a ______________________ . Each piece is called a ________________ and when two ____________ come into contact it is called a _________________________________ . 2. Plate Tectonics Plates touch each other in four basic ways: A. B. C. D. 3. Divergent Boundaries Divergent boundaries are often located at deep-sea trenches such as the Mid-Atlantic Trench. The plates pull apart and as they pull apart ___________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Convergent Subduction Convergent subduction is when two plates crash together and one plate is forced under the other one. This happens most often when _______________ plates collide with ______________________________ plates. 5. Transform A transform boundary is when two plates slide past each other causing a fault or fracture in the crust. One example of a transform boundary is the _________________________ ______________________________________________ . 6. Volcanoes Earthquakes and volcanoes can occur anywhere on the surface of the earth, including underwater, but they are more common at ____________________________________ 7. Sometimes volcanoes occur far from plate boundaries. These areas are called _____________________ . A good example of a _______________ is the formation of the ____________________ Islands in the middle of the Pacific. Magma burned through the crust under the ocean and formed a group of islands. 8. There is an area around the Pacific Ocean where many plates come together known as the ________________________________ . This area has many active and dormant volcanoes and volcanic eruptions are frequent. 9. Scientists cannot predict when volcanoes will erupt. Unfortunately, people usually live near volcanoes because ______________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 10. Earthquakes Earthquakes are more common at __________________________________________ The center of an earthquake on the surface of the earth is called the ______________ A _______________________ is a device that detects if an earthquake has occurred. The ____________________________ is a scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake. 11. ___________________ are giant waves caused by earthquakes or volcanic explosions. Usually, tsunamis come in series of waves and they can travel hundreds of miles an hour. Tsunamis can be detected with an _________________________________ but not all countries have the money to install them. 12. Humans and Earthquakes Humans can't predict earthquakes but they can __________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Humans can also build _______________________________ that will detect tsunamis and warn people farther away from the epicenter of the wave. 13. Erosion and Weathering The surface of the earth is also being formed by ________________ and ____________________________ Weathering ________________________________________________ Erosion ___________________________________________________ 14. Weathering There are two types of weathering: _________________________________________ ____________________ weathering is caused by ___________ and _______________ . When water freezes in cracks of rocks it will slowly break the rock apart. The roots of trees and plants will slowly break apart rocks also. ____________________ weathering is a chemical reaction between water and certain types of rock such as __________________ that usually makes caves. 15. Erosion After rocks have been broken into smaller pieces the debris is moved by erosion. The agents of erosion are: A. B. C. D. 16. Erosion has _________________ causes and human causes. People can take steps to prevent erosion by using _________ , covering exposed earth with ___________ , and replanting ____________________________ 17. Floods Floods happen when there is too much rain and rivers overflow their banks. Floods are natural but as human population grows there are more people that live in areas that are frequently flooded. People can try to prevent floods by building ______________________ or _____________________ . 18. Typically, areas that are low in elevation and near rivers or the mouth of rivers experience floods. A few areas that have floods are: A. B. C.